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-LIBR.AFLY 

OF THE 
U N I VLR5 ITY 
Of ILLINOIS 

From the Library of 

Professor Henry F. Wickham 

University of Iowa 

Presented in 1942 



B9S.T6 
W83c 



NATURAL 
HISTORY 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://www.archive.org/details/coleopterasanctOOwoll 




G.Jannaii sc. 



COLEOPTERA 



SANCTJE-HELENtE. 



BY 



T. VERNON WOLLASTON, M.A., F.L.S. 



LONDON : 
JOHN VAN VOOKST, PATEKNOSTER KOW. 

MDCCC'LXXVII. 




PRINTED BY T/VYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



s 



3 






PREFACE. 



It is not without some hesitation that I have thought it 
desirable to publish in a separate volume the result of 
a six months^ inquiry, in situ, into the Coleopterous statistics 
of St. Helena; but the fact of our sojourn in that island 
having been exceptionally favourable, — apartments ha\dng 
been granted to us, through the kind recommendation of 
the Earl of Carnarvon to His Excellency the Governor, 
at Plantation House (the most convenient of spots for 
visiting the various portions of the great central ridge), — T 
am sanguine enough to hope that the following account, 
brief though it be, may embody an approximately complete 
summary of what still remains of one of the most charac- 
teristic and isolated little faunas in the world. That a good 
deal remains yet to be done I would not wish to deny ; for 
the remarkable segregation of the majority of the species at 
r^ St. Helena (far surpassing what I have ever witnessed else- 
^ where) renders it absolutely essential that each separate 
P^ district should be carefully overhauled before the conclusions 
pc| subsequently to be arrived at can be looked upon as final, 
W and the shortness of our stay did not permit of our reaching 
tiO some few localities which were both distant and difficult of 
CQ access. But the constantly repeated 7-aids (for I can find no 
^ term more appropriate) which we were in the habit of making 

CD 

i I 953 1 



IV PREFACE. 

on the more important and profitable regions, particularly 
those in which the aboriginal vegetation yet survives, encou- 
rages me to suspect that we have at any rate gleaned a suffi- 
ciency of the firstfruits to warrant a safe generalization on 
the peculiarities of the fauna ; and it is with this conviction 
that I offer the present catalogue, — trusting only that the 
time will assuredly arrive, and that at no distant epoch, when 
it will be both increased and Zested by the researches of 
future naturalists. 

The recent publication by Mr. Melliss of a most praise- 
worthy endeavour to bring together what had already been 
accomplished by others on the Natural History of St. Helena, 
adding to it the result of his own individual labours'^, relieves 
me from the necessity of regarding the present volume as 
more than a second step towards the ultimatum at which 
we are both of us equally anxious to arrive, — namely a tho- 
rough knowledge of the productions (in this especial instance, 
however, pertaining to the Coleoptera only) of an island 
which is unusually remote, and which therefore, geogra- 
phically considered, possesses a surpassing amount of in- 
terest; and although he had the kindness to transmit to me, 
from time to time, for description in the English periodicals, 
the several species which he himself met with, I have in 
every instance, by referring to his lately issued work, made 
it quite plain which of them were due in the first instance to 
his researches, and which have been added subsequently 
by our own. 

It merely remains for me to express my warmest thanks 
to those wdio have lent me a helping hand in arriving at the 

* St. Helena : a Physical, Historical, and Topographical Description 
of the Island. By John Charles Melliss, A.I.C.E., F.G.S., F.L.S.— 
London : L. Reeve & Co. 1875. 



PREFACE. V 

results which are embodied in this short memoir, — and first 
and foremost to my old friend and fellow-collector John 
Gray, who was the prime instigator of our St. -Helena trij), 
and whose sojourn with us at Plantation during the first 
month of our visit was the means of adding so many novelties 
to our then incipient but fast-increasing list. It was owing 
to Mr. Gray^s devotion to the cause of natural science that I 
had the opportunity of exploring, in his yachts the ' Miranda^ 
and ' Garland/ now many years ago, the numerous out- 
lying islands of the Canarian and Cape- Verde archipelagos ; 
and although on this particular occasion he had no longer 
his own vessel in which to convey us, yet a compagnon cle 
voyage so true to the cause, and so thoroughly experienced 
in the ways and means for collecting, could not fail to render 
his cooperation in the highest degree valuable. 

The uniform coiu'tesy which we received from His Excel- 
lency the Governor, H. R. Janisch, Esq., during our entire 
stay at St. Helena, must not remain unnoticed; for it was to 
his kindness that we owed, in a large measure, the success 
of our expedition ; and the genuine assistance which, as a 
keen observer himself in the higher departments of physical 
inquiry, he had it in his power to render us, was never on 
any single occasion withheld. 

Amongst our numerous friends who were ever ready to 
further the object of our trip, the Rev. H. Whitehead and 
his son claim more than a passing word of thanks ; for 
without the aid of the latter, at least nine of the species 
which are cited in the present volume w^ould have been 
omitted altogether. The accurate knowledge possessed by 
Mr. Whitehead of the botany of the island, and his general 
appreciation of all that is new and interesting in the various 
departments of zoology, marked him out from the first as a 



VI PREFACE. 

naturalist from whom we might reasonably expect to receive 
local information of no ordinary kind ; whilst to the activity 
and sharp-sightedness of his son I am indebted for the 
exploration of several remote districts which I had neither 
the time nor the physical strength to visit. Indeed the 
Scrubwood fauna (embracing the species which are attached 
to that singular and viscous arborescent Composite the fast- 
disappearing Aster glutinosus, Roxb.) may be said to have 
been almost solely in the hands, hitherto, of Mr. P. White- 
head, — whose exertions on the Barn and elsewhere have 
brought to light several novelties which would otherwise 
have escaped my notice ; and considering that he has for- 
warded to me many consignments since our departure from 
the island, I may fairly venture to hope that a few significant 
additions to the catalogue may even yet be made thi'ough 
his instrumentality. 

Having already had the privilege of placing upon record, 
so far at least as that was practicable, the Coleopterous 
insects of the Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Verde archi- 
pelagos, I can only hope that the St.-Helena list, although 
necessarily less extensive, will not be found, on the whole, 
to be less accurate than those which I was enabled to com- 
pile in connexion with the more northern groups. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



iHE extreme isolation of St. Helena — which is nearly 1200 miles 
from the nearest point of the African continent, 1800 from that of 
South AmeT'ica, and about 700 from even the small and barren 
island of Ascension — gives it a degree of importance which it would 
not otherwise possess ; for about the faunas of remote islands 
cluster, in an especial manner, a variety of problems, which, 
although they may never be absolutely solved, may yet be brought, 
by a series of carefully conducted observations, within the sphere of 
discussion, and be made to throw some addititional light, however 
faint, on the general questions of geographical zoology. From 
whatever point of view we look at them, — and there are many 
which at once suggest themselves along the distinct, but ultimately 
convei'ging, lines of thought, — the statistics of an oceanic rock, far 
removed from the ordinary effects of immigration and change, and 
bearing more or less of the impress which was stamped upon it by 
its aboriginal forms of life, have an interest about them which it is 
scarcely possible to overrate. How the organisms, as we now see 
them, came to occupy their present areas of distribution, — to what 
extent they are or seem to be " related " to those of the nearest 
mainland, — whether there is evidence for believing that they have 
changed to any considerable extent, in their outward configuration, 
from the types of which they may be presumed by some naturalists 
to be the remote descendants, — or whether there is reason to suspect 
that the Hand which originally placed them where they are adapted 



Vlll INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

each separate species to the conditions which it was destined to 
fulfil, subjecting one and all of them to a law of permanence under 
which they can never very materially alter, — are but a tithe of the 
questions which, if not capable of being answered positively, we 
may at least ventilate and probe, not altogether without profit, in 
even a small treatise like the present one ; for it cannot be too care- 
fully borne in mind that, within the limited sphere where mere 
speculation (as such) seems likely to have any permanent value, it 
is to facts, and not to theories, that we must ultimately appeal. 

The deep-sea soundings around St. Helena — no bottom having 
apparently been reached, a mile and a half from the present coast, at a 
depth of 250 fathoms, whilst only about 60 or 70 fathoms seems to 
be the average depth within that sublittoral zone — may be considered 
perhaps to discourage at the outset, when taken in conjunction with 
the fact of its manifestly volcanic origin, any « priori idea that the 
island as we now view it is but the small remaining fragment of a 
once widely-extended land. Rather should we be inclined to sus- 
pect, from the evidence to which we have access, that the abrupt 
encircling ledge to which I have just called attention marked, in all 
probability, the outer limits of the original basaltic mass, as finally 
built up by successive eruptions, and which has been gradually worn 
away by the disintegrating action of the elements to its present 
slightly reduced dimensions. But, whatever be its force we will not 
he hampered by any such consideration even as this ; for my object 
in these introductory remarks is not to enter into geological pro- 
blems, with which I am not immediately concerned, but simply to 
draw such deductions from the Coleopterous data per se as appear to 
me to be most in accordance with the phenomena as absolutely 
ascertained ; and, keeping this steadily therefore in view, I shall 
proceed by successive approximations so far to analyze the material 
which has hitherto been brought to light as to make it tell, whenever 
that is possible, and without any undue colouring of mine, its own 
tale. 

If we cast an eye down the catalogue as given at the close of the 
present volume, we shall find that the 203* species which are there 
recorded distribute themselves in the following proportions, under 

* Only 202, it will be seen, are indicated by the numbers as given in the cata- 
logue. But this is merely due to the fact that one of the species (the Cossyphodes 
Wollasfonii) -was sent to me too late for insertion in its proper place in the 
text ; and, as I did not wish to make the numbers of the latter disagree with 
those of the general list. I thought it better to enter it as " 39*." 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. IX 

the great primary sections into which the Coleoptera are usually 
supposed to be subdivided : — 

Ehynchophora 102 

Necropliaga 24 

Brachelytra 17 

Geodephaga 15 

Heteromera ■ 12 

Priocerata 10 

Lamellicomia 7 

Pseudotrimera 7 

Phytophaga 4 

Philhydrida 2 

Longicornia 2 

Trichopterygia 1 

Hydradephaga 

'203 

From which we gather the remarkable fact, not only that the 
water-beetles are absolutely unrepresented, and that too in an island 
which affords every condition necessary for their subsistence, and in 
which the streams and pools must have been far more abundant 
formerly than now, but that the Rlujnchophora (which contains the 
weevils) so far out-balances every other department that it numbers 
a httle more than half of the entire Coleopterous fauna. However, 
since the organisms of every country are made up largely of ones 
which have been accidentally naturalized, and which have no real 
connexion with the autochthones of the soil, it follows that, in order 
to obtain a true estimate of the latter, we must endeavour to elimi- 
nate, so far as is possible, those which were manifestly introduced ; 
and, fortunately, to almost any experienced naturalist, who is 
acquainted with the modus vivendi and the respective ranges of the 
more or less cosmopolitan forms, this Jirst clearing-out is seldom 
difficult. Thus, in the instance before us, out of the 203 species 
which have been brought to light at St. Helena, there are certainly 
57 which we can have no doaht whatsoever must originally have been 
conveyed into the island through various external media, and have 
since established themselves. These 57 are as follows : — 

Dactylosternum abdominale, Fab. Philoiithus discoideus, Fab. 

Aleochara puberula, Klug. nigritulus, Grav. 

Homalota coriaria, Kraatz. Creophilus niaxillosus, Linu. 

Philonthus longicornis, Stepb. Lithocharis ochracea, Grav. 



X INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Lithocharis debilicornis, Woll. Corynetes rufipes, Fab, 

Oxytelus sciilptus, Grav. Gibbium scotias, Fab. 

Trogophla3US corticiniis, Grav. Anobium velatum, Woll. 

Carpopliilus diraidiatus, Fab. paiiiceum, Linn. 

hemipterus, Liun. domesticum, Fourc. 

Monotonia spinicoUis, Aub^. Rhizopertha bifoveolata, Well. 

picipes, Hbst. pusilla, Fab. 

Trogosita mauritanica, Linn. Ilylurgus ligniperda, Fab. 

Lsemophlreus carinulatus, Woll. Phlosophagus leneopiceus, Bohm. 

pusillus, Schon. Oalandra oryzse, Liun. 

Silvanus surinamensis, Linn. Otiorhynclius sulcatiis, Fab. 

Cryptophagus badius, St. Sitona lineatus, Linn. 

affinis, St. Arfeocerus fasciculatus, De G. 

Anomraatus 12-striatus, Miill. Bruchus rufobrunneus, Woll. 

Cortioaria elougata, Gyll. — — advena, Well. 

Latridius nodifer, Westw. Curtonierus pilicornis, Fab. 

approximatus, Woll. Coptus bidens, Fab. 

Mycetsea hirta, Gyll. Sericoderus lateralis, Gyll. 

Typhasa fumata, Linn. Ortlioperus atomarius, Heer, 

Dermestes cadav'erinus, Fab. Alphitobius diaperinus, Kugel, 

vulpinus, Fab. piceus, Oliv. 

Attagenus gloriosse, Fab. Gnathocerus cornutns, Fab. 
Saprinus bicolor, Fab. Tribolium ferrugineum, Fab. 
Aphodius granarius, Linn. Tenebrio obscurus, Fab. 
lividus, Oliv. 

Now I would wish this list to be very carefully scrutinized, 
because I am satisfied that there is not a single species amongst the 
whole 57 which has the slightest claim to be regarded as primevally 
St.-Helenian ; indeed the majority of them are well-nigh cosmopo- 
litan, following in the track of man, and snch as figure in the fauna 
of nearly every civilized country, and we may therefore safely 
remove them from the general catalogue. Let us consequently do 
this, and then see whether the relative proportions of the various 
departments (as represented by the 146 species which remain) are 
affected to any considerable extent. 

Ilhynchophora 94 

Geodephaga 15 

Brachelytra 7 

Heteromera 7 

Lamellicornia 5 

Pseudotrimera 5 

133 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XI 

133 

Necrophagii , 4 

Phytopliaga 4 

Priocerata 3 

Trichopterygia 1 

Philhydrida 1 

Longicornia 

Hydradepliaga 

146 

Here, then, in this second approximation to what we are com- 
pelled to regard as representing (at the present time) the aboriginal 
fauna, the results are even still more pronounced ; for whilst the 
Longicorus have, like the water-beetles, been reduced to zero, the 
weevils, on the other hand, head the catalogue to an extent even 
greate?' (relatively) than before, — numbering about two- thirds of the 
whole Coleopterous population. 

There are however 17 species (three of them Rhyncliophora) which 
we may be almost certain were, in the first instance, brought acci- 
dentally into the island, — four indeed {Cyclonotum, dytiscoides. Fab., 
Aspidomorpha miliaris, Fab., Epilachna chrysomeUna, Fab., and 
Cydonia vicinia, Muls.) possessing but slender claims for having 
ever been found at St. Helena at all ; and, although I have given 
them in the above enumeration the advantage of the doubt, I cannot 
but feel that their true right to represent any portion of the quon- 
dam fauna is infinitesimally small. They are as follows : — 

Pristonychus complanatus, Dej. Tomicus semulus, WoU. 

Cyclonotum dytiscoides, Fab. Stenoscelis hylastoides, WoD, 

Philonthus turbidus, Erich. Sciobius subnodosus, Woll. 

Cossyphodes Wollastonii, West. Aspidomorpha miliaris, Fab. 

Cryptamorpha musse, Woll. CliUomenes vicina, Muls. 

Tribalus 4-striatus, Woll. Thea variegata, Fab. 

Trox Whiteheadii, Woll. Epilachna chrysomelina. Fab. 

Adoretus versutus, Har. Zophobas coiieolor, Woll. 
Heteronychus arator, Fab. 

I think, therefore, that we may safely remove these 17 members 
also of lihe present fauna, ae having no connexion with the aboriginal 
one ; and the 129 which are then left, and which there is every 
reason to suspect are the veritable descendants of the " autochthones 
of the soil," distribute themselves thus : — 



XU INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Rliynchophora 91 

Geodephaga 14 

Heteromera 6 

Brachelytra 6 

Priocerata 3 

Pliytophaga 3 

Lamellicornia 2 

Pseiidotrimera 2 

Triclioptervgia 1 

Necrophaga 1 

Philhydrida 

Longicomia 

Hydradephaga 

I29 

Now, although it is undeniable that these 129 species are but a 
small assortment as compared with the 203 which have been enume- 
rated in the present volume, and which presumably exist (or have 
lately existed) in the island, yet, if our speculations concerning the 
cJiaracter of the ahoriginal fauna are to be worth the paper on 
"which they are written, it is evident that we must remove, first of 
all, those more or less cosmopolitan organisms which (whether by 
indirect human agencies or not) have manifesthj been introduced. 
For even if any degree of doubt should still attach to a few of these 
129 which ultimately remain (and I think that the evidence for each 
of them is too decisive to admit of much uncertainty), it is.nevertheless 
so small as to be practically inappreciable ; and our conclusions 
from a reduced number which has been well sifted and carefully 
ascertained are more likely to be reliable than those which we might 
attempt to deduce from a much greater medley of unsorted, equi- 
vocal, and recently naturalized forms. Indeed it has often seemed 
to me that the arguments of many naturalists on so-called " geogra- 
phical distribution " have been much invalidated by the fact of these 
promiscuous (and utterly tinmeaning) species not having been suffi- 
ciently eliminated before their ultimate comments have been given 
to the world ; for organisms, the presence of which in any country 
is clearly due to fortuitous circumstances of a comparatively recent 
date, can possess no kind of significance, nor have any claim to be 
looked upon as " aboriginal ;" and I may further add that they can 
seldom he confounded by any experienced naturalist with the "auto- 
chthones of the soil." 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XIU 

The faunas of remote oceanic islands are never very extensive, — 
being characterized to a greater or less degree by gaps, or omissions, 
occasioned by the absence of certain well-known types with which 
we are elsewhere familiar. St. Helena, as might indeed be antici- 
pated from the remoteness of its position, offers' no exception to this 
rule, but quite the reverse,— whole families and departments, which 
we are accustomed to regard as- well-nigh cosmopolitan, having not 
so much as a solitary witness ; and if we accept the 129 species to 
which I have just called attention, as shadowing forth (by what is 
still left) the original beetle population, we shall observe that all 
the water-loving tribes (whether Hi/dradep7iaga or Philhj/drida) and 
the vast group of Longicorns have not an exponent, whilst even the 
Lamellicorns and Necrophaga, so universally distributed over the 
world, are all hut absent. Indeed the section of the weevils is the 
only one which is well represented ; and that, considering the 
smallness of the area to which it pertains, is unduhj expressed, — 
numbering nearly three-fourths of the entire Coleopterous fauna ! 

However, we must approach the subject a little nearer even yet, 
and see if the numerous members of the Hhi/nchophora, which are 
stricthj indigenous (amounting to no less than 91), divulge any- 
thing that is remarkable, and supply evidence for legitimate conclu- 
sions. Again referring to the catalogue, we shall find that they 
distribute themselves, under four distinct families, thus : — 

Cossonidse 54 

Tanyrhyiichidfe 10 

Trachyphloeidee 1 

Anthribidaj 26 

Thus, with the exception of a single insignificant little Trachy- 
pliloeid and ten members of the TangrhyncJiidce (which in their mere 
habits are scarcely separable from the Cossonidce), the whole of these 
91 exponents of the Rhynchophora are either Cossonids or An- 
thribids, — the latter numbering 26 species, and the former 54 ! 
Here, then, is a point on which it may be worth while, for a few 
moments, to dweU. A minute island, which has been almost cleared 
of its native timber (said to have been once luxuriant), and which 
presents, except in a few favoured districts in the interior and on 
the summits (and inaccessible slopes) of the high central ridge, 
scarcely more than a blackened mass of basaltic rock and hardened 



XIV INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

volcanic mud, is nevertheless more richly stocked, even now, with 
ivood-horin<j weei'lls and foJiage-hvinc/ Anthrihids than ])robably any 
other spot of equal area (whether insular or continental) in the 
world ! In England, for example, out of a Coleopterous fauna 
numbering more than 3000 members, nine only belong to the 
Cossonidce ; whilst at 8t. Helena (where we will, for the moment, 
take the modern list as more truly representing the present English 
one), out of 203 exponents of the Coleoptera, 54 (or considerably 
more tJuin a quarter) are included in that particular family ! 

There have been some writers on the island who have not thought 
it beneath them to scoff at the old records which tell us, as plainly 
as words can be made to tell, of forests and rank herbage covering 
whole tracts of mountain-slopes, and upland plains, which have sub- 
sequently been reduced to comparative desolation, — converted gra- 
dually by troops of hungry goats and the still more vicious practice 
of the inhabitants of permitting the indigenous trees to be chopped 
down ruthlessly for fuel, into a chaos of scoriae ; but to my mind 
no more damaging paraphrase could be suggested on the dicta of 
these amiable critics than the ascertained fact that a mere " cinder- 
heap " happens nevertheless to be more copiously supplied with 
lignivorous and vegetation -loving types than perhaps any similar- 
sized area in the world. One author indeed, after throwing dis- 
credit on the positive assertions of the late Governor Beatson, thus 
sarcastically delivers himself : — " It may also occur to an impartial 
observer that the site once so proJific is now little more than bare 
rock ; that there is scarcely sufficient soil on any part of it to 
nourish or support anything less satisfied on such points than a 
prickly pear ; and the question arises most naturallj^ — What has 
become of the soil that such a forest must have had for its roots'? * " 
I wonder it should never have occurred to him that when once the 
trees had been destroyed, and the long-continued nibbling of the 
goats liad succeeded in annihilating every fresh sapling as it made 
its appearance, even the roots would at last perish ; under which 
circumstances the soil (being no longer held together as before) 
would be gTadually washed away by the violence of the tropical 
rains, — leaving the faces of the rock to a great extent, and in places 
sufficiently steep, bare and exposed. Indeed this hinding power of 
roots is illustrated to a demonstration, even at the present day, on 

* Saint Hf.lena ; by a Bird of Passage, [p. ^:>?\\ Londony: Houlston & 
Wright, 18(55. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XV 

the high central ridge, where almost perpendicular precipices in 
the most tempestuous and weather-beaten spots are able to retain 
upon them sutHcient soil to nourish a most profuse herbage and 
perfectly gigantic examples of the various arborescent Oompositce. 
But once cut down the trees (were it possible to get at them, which 
happily it is not), and turn in the goats for a few generations to 
nibble every thing to the ground which had the power of germinating, 
and what would be the result ? Simply that even the roots would 
slowly decay and the soil be gradually washed down, leaving abrupt 
declivities and the denuded faces of basaltic dykes, where only a 
century before there was (as now) a dense and well-nigh unbroken 
forest of cabbage-trees and asters. I do not see, therefore, that it 
evinces any wonderful amount of acumen to disbelieve records, 
plainly stated and given to us in all good faith, simply because the 
present aspect of the country has so altered that we cannot under- 
stand how they should be true : but, on the contrary, I will further 
declare that, even had no such records ever existed at all, the 
redundancy at St. Helena of the wood-infesting and herbage-loving 
forms of life, added to the extreme scarcity of the Heteromerous 
ones, would of itself have suggested to my mind an island of u'ood 
and verdure in terms so unequivocal that it is quite impossible to 
mistake them. 

It may, however, be urged that the exponents of the RhyncJiophora 
are everywhere phytophagous in their modes of life, and point to the 
presence of herbage (in some shape or other), but not more so at 
St. Helena than in other countries ; to which I would reply that a 
perfectly overwhelming majority of the St.-Helenian Rhjncliophora 
are over and above what may be called mere attendants on vegeta- 
tion ; they are essentially wood-borers. Comparativel}'^ few of the 
Cossonidcp. ever attach themselves to herbaceous plants ; and although 
a certain number occur within the rotten stems of the larger ferns 
and the pithy branches of low-growing shrubs, by far the greater 
mass reside beneath the bark of trees, requiring solid timber for their 
subsistence ; and we may safely assert that no country which is so 
anomalously crowded as St. Helena is with Cossonids could be (or 
could have been) otherwise, in the main, than a land of -wood. But, 
apart from this consideration, even the ordinary herbage-loving 
weevils (which the St.-Helenian Rhynchopliora are not), when 
developed to an excess, would imply at any rate a corresponding 
redundancy of vegetation to nourish them ; and as this cannot be 



XVI INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

said to have any existence now in the island, a totally different 
state of things from what we at present recognize is, even from this 
lower (and less accurate) point of vieiv, imperatively demanded. 
But the complete overplus of the Rhynchophora, in conjunction with 
the fact that an absolutely astounding proportion of them are wood- 
borers, form, when taken together, the basis for an argument which 
is, to my mind at least, irresistible *. 

Perhaps a word or two may be said, in this particular place, about 
the Anthribids, which are so characteristic of St. Helena, and 
which constitute so important an item (in fact the most important 
next to the Cossoniclce) in the Coleopterous fauna. Although pro- 
bably lignivorous in their earlier stages, the Anthrihidce cannot be 
defined as, in any sense, wood-borers. They occur essentiallj' upon 
foliage, or adhering to dead trunks and sticks, to which their rather 
broadly expanded feet give them a considerable power of clinging. 
But it so happens that nearly the whole of them at St. Helena (and 
they number no less than 2G species, indeed almost certainly more) 
are attached either to the numerous arborescent Compositoe ox e[sQ to 
the tree ferns ; for if a few, which are more plastic in their nature, 
have been able, like some of the Cossoniclce, to adapt themselves, 
since the complete destruction in certain districts of the indigenous 
timber, to other trees, it is quite manifest that they are normally 
attendant on the strictly endemic vegetation. So that while the 
Cossonids tell distinctly of a more or less wooded land (their per- 
fectly prodigious development implying, in all probability, a very 
wooded one), the Anthribids take up the story, and show by their 
extraordinary numbers and variety of structure how that they occu- 
pied the place of the Pliytopliaga (a section which is itself but feebly 
expressed) amongst the native foliage — whether of trees or Crypto- 
gams. And we might therefore picture St. Helena, in th^ remote 
past, as a densely-wooded island, in which the Cossonids and 
Anthribids did the work of destruction amongst the tree ferns and 
Goynpositce, on a gigantic scale, unaided by the Longicorn tribes — but 
where the streams and pools, far more copious than now, had no 
water-loving forms to tenant them, and where nearly every other 

* I would wish it to be observed that in tlie above remarks I have even 
undersititQA the case rather than otherwise ; for the ten members of the Tany- 
rhynchidcs have precisely the same lignivorous habits as the Cossonids ; so that 
every truly aboriginal exponent of the St.-Helenian Ehynchopkora, with the 
exception of the little Traehyphlceosoma setosuin, tells the same tale, — that of a 
once wooded land. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XVll 

primary division of the Coleoptera, except perhaps the Geodephaga 
(which had the great Haplotliorax as its most gigantic exponent, 
and a group of very anomalous Bembidia on the damp and reeking 
summits of the central ridge), was but faintly shadowed forth. A 
few Heteromera indeed inhabited the drier and more barren districts ; 
but we have no evidence of the multitude of familiar types which 
are more or less present in nearly every continental land. 

Considering how greatly the island has deteriorated since the well- 
nigh complete destruction of its native trees, there can be little doubt 
that many an aboriginal link of the Coleopterous chain, which was 
not able to adapt itself to the altered circumstances of the coimtry, 
must have perished ; and it will probably therefore be said that the 
above analysis does not convey a true idea of the primeval organisms. 
But, as regards the question of extinction or non-extinction, I would 
wish to observe that all the departments would have an equal chance 
of suffering alike, and that we have no right therefore to argue from 
the fact of one of them being still largely represented that it did not 
take its share in the general catastrophe which overwhelmed the rest. 
Indeed in this particular instance the presumption is altogether the 
other way ; for seeing that it was by the wholesale rooting-out of 
the indigenous vegetation that the local influences were altered for 
the worse, it would certainly seem to follow that the phytophagous 
forms are the ones which would feel the consequences most severely ; 
whereas they are the very types which are now present to an abso- 
lute excess. My own belief is that they did suffer, and, beyond all 
doubt, most of all, and that their exaggerated numbers even now 
would simply imply that there was a still greater redundancy of them 
aboriginally, and that the further we go back into the past the 
stronger would be our case as regards the unusual dominance of 
those particular aspects of Coleopterous life. Indeed, when we bear 
in mind that the whole of them would seem to have been attached, 
in the first instance, to the endemic trees and shrubs, it is impossible 
to resist the conviction that the total disappearance of the native 
ebony (Melhania melanodendron, Ait.) and the all but annihilation 
of the redwood (Melhania erythroxylon, Ait.), the Psiadia rotundi- 
folia, Hk. f., and the island boxwood {Mellissia begonicefolia, Hk. f.) 
must have resulted in the wiping-out of many a lignivorous organism 
which was once abundant ; whilst the fast-disapj)earing asters and 
gumwoods, around which a whole troup of Cossonids may be said to 
cluster, tell a tale of what a few more generations may accomplish, — 

b 



XVlll INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

unless the inhabitants should become sufficiently alive, even yet, to 
their own interests (v^^hich, however, I can scarcely venture to 
anticipate) to put a stop to the pernicious practice of destruction 
which has already reduced a considerable portion of the island to a 
well-nigh hopeless state of arid and chaotic sterility *. 

If now we turn from the general character of the aboriginal fauna 
of St. Helena to the consideration of its (so-called) " origin " and the 
questions attendant on geographical distribution, much greater diffi- 
culties present themselves, and the whole subject seems to be shrouded 
in mystery. Were I content to take the 203 members of the cata- 
logue, as given at the close of this volume, and simply to calculate 
what proportion of them have been cited from Southern Africa, and 
what from the more northern archi{)elagos of the Atlantic, nothing 
would be easier than to tabulate the results, and, indeed, to make 
them support any theory on the subject that I might wish to 
favour. But then they would be absolutely worthless ; added to 
which, I have no theory, a priori^ to uphold. Mj' convictions have 
already been urged that the well-nigh cosmopolitan forms which are 

* There is just one point on which I may here add a few words. I have more 
than once been told, by residents in the island, that the aboriginal trees with 
which St. Helena was more or less clothed at the period of its discovery were of 
so "useless a kind" that there was no reason why they should be preseryed. 
But, whilst demurring to this wholesale argument (for the native ebony and red- 
wood supplied timber of no ordinary character, and even the gumwood was found 
to be of service in other ways), I would simply answer that it is not so much 
for the sake of the trees themselves that I am pleading as for the conditions of 
the country which their presence in large masses could not fail to imply ; for 
where forests exist (and no forests, in any region, are equal to those of nature's 
own planting), there aUo exists, inevitably, moisture ; and without moisture, and 
well-filled streams, what are the chances of successful cultivation ? Nor can it 
be urged that the tracts were required for the purposes of agriculture ; for 
I have already shown how a perfect jungle may flourish on an inaccessible 
mountain-slope and the well-nigh perpendicular edges of ravines which never 
could be utilized by human industry, but where a copious supply of trees and 
under-verdure, well protected from the goats and other nuisances, would ensure 
that humidity which is so essential to the well-being of any country, more par- 
ticularly a tropical one. The light and friable soil which a mass of herbage will 
slowly but steadily accumulate in the course of a few centuries, and which be- 
comes thicker and more persistent as time goes on, would be held together, in 
situ, as above mentioned, so long as the vegetation is leit untouched ; but when 
the latter has been so far tampered with that the roots and fibres perish, and 
there is no foliage left to break the violence of the tropical rains when falling 
upon the ground, the soil will be gradually washed down into the river-beds 
below and be carried bodily away. And as for the mere imported trees sup- 
plying, in any sense whatever, the place of the aboriginal ones, I will leave it to 
the admirers of " Port-Jackson willows " and diseased stunted pinasters (both 
of which act as a rank poison to whatever might attempt to germinate beneath 
them) to judge for themselves. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XIX 

liable to constant introduction almost everywhere through indirect 
human agencies, aud which have become dispersed (in consequence) 
over a large area of the civilized world, have no claim to constitute 
even an element in the great problems of geographical distribution, 
for they are simply mean inr/I ess ; and until these, therefore, have 
been carefully expunged, I cannot but think that it would be a mere 
waste of labour to work out conclusions which would not only lack 
value but be even misleading. Such species as those to which I now 
allude figure in the faunas of nearly every civilized country which 
has been properly investigated ; and therefore to build up high- 
wrought theories of " geographical distribution " on account of their 
presence, seems to me to border closely on the ridiculous. They are 
transmitted, aud retransmitted, across the ocean, along with variovis 
articles of commerce and merchandise, over and over again, following 
in the track of man ; and where consignments of plants and trees 
have, as at St. Helena, to be taken likewise into account, the most 
significant perhaps of all the methods of accidental dissemination 
must be conscientiously allowed for. 1 feel satisfied, therefore, 
that such organisms should be removed boldly and without com- 
promise, if we are to arrive at an accurate judgment concerning 
the character of a primeval fauna, and to attempt after-deductions 
on the still more doubtful question of its " origin." But, unfor- 
tunately, in the case of St. Helena, if we do this, it appears to me 
that we cannot stop short of the two eliminations to which I have 
already subjected the list, and which reduce the latter to the 1:^9 
species to which attention has been called at p. xii of the present 
" Introductory Eemarks." 

Here, then, if the above observations be assented to, is our first 
difficulty ; for the whole of the 129 species to which I have just 
alluded are, ■with a single exception (the Chilomenes lunata, Fab.), 
hhsolately pecidiar to St. Helena, so that the question of geographical 
distribution would seem to be well-nigh " nipped in the bud." 
Moreover, from all that I know of the South- African Coleoptera 
(and I have inspected a considerable amoimt of material which has 
been sent from the Cape Colony, to say nothing of a most interesting 
collection of nearly 400 species which was amassed there by Mr. Gray 
since his departure from us in St. Helena, and a fair sample, which 
has lately been placed in my hands by B. Gregory, Esq., of H.M.S. 
* Spiteful,' even from the Congo country and Angola), it has almost 
nothing in common with these 129 aboriginal St.-Helenians, which 



XX IXTRODUCTOHY REMARKS. 

stand out singly, as it were, and alone, related more or less inter se, 
but unrelated, for the most part, to any recognized continental forms. 
It is true that two of the most significant of the Ehynchophorous 
types — namel)' Nesiotes (of the Tanyrhynchidce), and Acarodes (of 
the Anthribidce) — are allied conspicuously to Echinosoma and Xenor- 
chestes of the Madeiran archipelago ; but if any more successful 
generalizer than myself can develop much from these points of 
^Hrtsi-contact, he is quite welcome to the result. So far as I can 
understand the evidence before me, any unprejudiced inquiry into 
the " origin " (as usually undei-stood by that term) of these St.- 
Helenian Coleoptera, does not elicit, in reply, so much as even an 
echo ; for not only are they eyidemic (in the strictest sense of the 
word), but an overwhelming majority of them are attached (or were 
so originally) to trees and shrubs which would seem to exist nowhere 
in the world except on this remote rock, 1200 miles from the nearest 
point of the African coast, surrounded by an all but unfathomable 
ocean, and which has every appearance of having been piled-up by 
successive eruptions into a basaltic mass at no period vert/ consider- 
ably larger than that which we now see. " Wheuce, then, came its 
fauna and flora " are enigmas which I cannot presume to answer on 
any known principles of derivation and descent. To a mind which, 
like my own, can accept the doctrine of creative acts as not neces- 
sarily " unphilosophical," the mysteries, however great, become at 
least conceivable ; but those which are not able to do this may 
perhaps succeed in elaborating some special theory of their own 
which, even if it does not satisfy all the requirements of the problem, 
may at least prove convincing to themselves. The St. -Helena fauna 
cannot, I think, be said to have had much light yet thrown upon it 
as regards its actual " origin " (except perhaps in so far as my indi- 
vidual opinions on the subject may be accepted by others who 
are predisposed to receive them) ; but its primitive (or at all events 
remote) state is another matter, and appears to be capable of some 
real elucidation from the facts to which we have access. 

As regards the earliest diagnoses of the St.-Helena Coleoptera, the 
first indication of any thing from the island was in 1775, when six 
species, from the collection of the late Sir Joseph Banks and supposed 
to be St.-Helenian, were described in the ' Systema Entomologiae ' by 
Fabricius. I may here repeat, however, what I have already urged 
under each of these species separately, that I have the gravest doubts 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXI 

as to whether they ever were received from St. Helena at all. In- 
deed one of them, the South-European Cryptocephalus (or Macrolenes) 
rujicollis, was so glaringly confused as regards its habitat even by 
Fabricius himself, that I have rejected it altogether from the text of 
this catalogue as having been cited on evidence which was untrust- 
worthy and insufficient ; and perhaps it would have been more con- 
sistent had I omitted, in like manner, the Sphceridium (i. e. Cyclo- 
notum) di/tiscoides (which was probably taken at the Cape of Good 
Hope), the (East-Indian) Cassida (i. e. Aspidomorpha) miUaris, and 
the (Mediterranean) Coccinella (i. e. Epilaclina)clirysomelina. Still, 
as there was at any rate something to be said for each of these species, I 
have given them the advantage of the doubt. The two other members 
of this equivocal little lot from the Banksian cabinet are the cosmo- 
politan Dermestes cadaverinus (which I have admitted, on the prin- 
ciple that it is one of those forms which might be found almost any- 
where), and the Chilomenes Itcnata, which is the universal ladybird 
of the island. Still, with respect to even these, I would wish to 
observe that, since the latter possesses a wide geographical range, 
occurring inte7' alia from Senegal to the most southern point of 
Afi'ica, it is far from unlikelj' that they also may in reality have been 
obtained elsewhere, and that so the whole six of this Fabrician batch 
were incorrectly quoted as to the country from whence they had 
come. It is more natural, however, to believe that at any rate some 
of them were truly taken at St. Helena ; and certainly the most 
probable ones to have been found there are the common Chilomenes 
lunata, and the Dermestes cadaverinus, liable as it is to importation 
throughout the civilized world, and which has established itself in 
vast numbers at Ascension. 

The next publication, so far as I am aware, of any thing St.- 
Helenian was in 1836, when Chevrolat enunciated the locally- 
important genus Microxylobius, in the first volume of the ' Transac- 
tions of the Entomological Society of London ' (p. 98), from the then 
(and still) unique little Cossonid, well figured by Westwood, to 
which he gave the name of M. Westwoodii. 

In 1838 the Kev. F. W. Hope, in the second volume of the 
Entomological Society's ' Transactions,' described a Calosoma, which 
had been captured in the island by Mr. Darwin, under the title of 
G. helenoe. This is the universal Calosoma of St. Helena, — an seneous 
state of which (taken by the late Mr. Bewicke) I inadvertently enun- 
ciated in 1861, under the name of C. haligena, as a separate species. 



3tXU INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

In 1841 that large and singular Carabid the Haj^hthorax Bur- 
cheJUi, which had been discovered by the African traveller Dr. 
BurcheU, was published by Mr. "Waterhouse in the third volume 
(p. 207) of the ' Transactions of the Entomological Society.' 

In 1853 the previously-enunciated Scarabceus (i. e. Heteronychus) 
arator, of Fabrieius, which abounds at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
which probably had been introduced into the island from thence, 
perhaps along with cattle, was redeseribed by Blanchard as the H. 
Sandiv-Behna' (and therefore first placed on record as St.-Helenian), 
in the entomological portion of Dumont d'Urville's ' Voyage au Pole 
Sud sur les Corvettes I'Astrolabe et la Zelee' (iv. 105, pi. 7. f. 6). 

In 1859 Candeze, in the second volume of his ' Mon. Elat.' 
(p. 409), published one of the two St.-Helenian Elaterids, as a 
member of Leconte's genus Anchastus, under the title of A. atlantkus; 
and in the same year (1859) Boheman defined (Res. Eugen. 141) 
one of the largest, but most abundant, of the indigenous Cossonida, 
under the name of AcantJwmerus annatus — a species which was 
redeseribed by myself, three years afterwards, as the Microxyhbius 
Chevrolatii. 

In 1861 nine new species, which had been detected in the island 
during the previous year by the late Mr. Bewicke of Madeira, were 
characterized (and others, already known, enumerated) by myself, 
in the first volume (pp. 186 et seq.) of the ' Journal of Entomology.' 
These nine additions to the then meagre catalogue were as follows: — 
Microxyhbius hicifugus and lacertosus, Acanthomerus conicolUs and 
terebrans, Kesiotes squamosus, Notioxenus BevncTcii and rtffopictus, 
Longitarsus helence, and Opatrum hadroides. And, apart from these, 
Mr. Bewicke met with the widely-spread Pristonychns compJanatus, 
Dej., which was consequently first introduced by him into the 
St.-Helena fauna. 

In 1869 and 1871 thirty-four novelties were described by myself 
in the ' Annals of N'atural History,' from material which had been 
collected by Mr. Melliss, and which he had kindly intrusted to me 
for publication. The consignments which contained these numerous 
additions to the list (besides some of the species which had already 
been placed upon record, and thirty-nine others which were known 
elsewhere but had not before been observed in the island) were, as I 
need scarcely remark, the largest and most important batches which 
had ever been transmitted from St, Helena; and, when taken in 
conjunction with the assurance of Mr. G. R. Crotch in 1872 that he 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



XXlll 



possessed examples of the African Chilomenes vicina, Muls., which 
were unquestionably St.-Helenian, it enabled me to compile a cata- 
logue of 96 species, as the first instalment of what I had every 
reason to hope would prove eventually to be a tolerably correct 
Coleopterous fauna of the island. The 34 novelties with which 
Mr. Melliss was thus enabled to enrich the list are as follows — 



Bembidium Mellissii, 
Xantholinus morio, 
Oxytelus alutaceifrons, 

nitidifrous, 

Crypt ophagus gracilipes, 
Tribalus 4-striatus, 
Mellissius eudoxus, 

adumbratus, 

Anobiuni coufertum, 
Tomicus femulus, 
Microxylobius dimidiatus, 

vestitus, 

Acanthoraevus monilicornis, 

debilis, 

angustus, 

obliteratus, 

Lamprocbrus cossonoides, 



Pseudomesoxenus subcsecus, 
Nesiotes horrid us, 

asperatus, 

Trachyphloeosoma setosum, 
Sciobius subnodosus, 
Notioxenus alutaceus, 

• dimidiatus, 

ferrugineus, 

Homoeodera pygma;a, 

rotundipennis, 

alutaceicollis, 

coiiacea, 

Bruchus rufobrunneus, 

advena, 

Longitarsus Mellissii, 
Zophobas concolor, 
Mordella Mellissiana ; 



whilst the 39 due to his researches, which were well known, but 
which had not before been registered as St.-Helenian, are these — 



Dactylostei'num abdominale, Fab. 
Homalota coriaria, Kraatz. 
Creophilus maxillosus, Linn. 
Anobium velatum, Woll. 

paniceum, Linn. 

domesticum, Fourcr. 

Philonthus lougicornis, Steph. 
Carpopbilus hemipterus, Linn. 

dimidiatus, Fab. 

Trogosita mauritanica, Linn. 
Lsemophloeus pusillus, Schon. 
Silvanus surinamensis, Linn. 
Cryptamorpha niusje, Woll. 
Cryptophagus badius, St. 

affinis, St. 

Mycetaea hirta, Gyll. 



Typhnea fumata, Linn. 
Dermestes vulpinus, Fab. 
Attageuus gloriosje, Fab. 
Saprinus bicolor, Fab. 
Aphodius lividus, Oliv. 
Adoretus versutus, Har. 
Corynetes rufipes, F'ab. 
Gibbium scotias, Fab. 
Rbizopertba bifoveolata, Woll. 
— — pusilla, Fab. 
Hylurgus ligniperda, Fab. 
Stenoscelis hylastoides, Woll. 
Calandra oryzse, Linn. 
Otiorhynchus sulcatus, Fab. 
Araeocerus fasciculatus, De G. 
Curtomerus pilicornis, Steph. 



XXIV INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Coptops bidens, Fab. Gnatbocerus cornutus, Fab. 
Thea variegata, Fab. Tribolium ferrugiueiim, Fab. 
Alphitobius diaperinus, Kugel. Tenebrio obscurus, Fab. 
piceus, Oliv. 

The above statistics of the Coleopterous fauna of St. Helena I 
believe to embodj^ what was exactly true up to the date of our 
arrival, on the 4th of September 1875. Having had some experience 
in the extreme poverty of oceanic islands, particularly those which 
are small and unusually remote, I did not anticipate even at first 
that we should more than perhaps double the number of the species 
which were already placed on record ; vet, considering how large a 
proportion of the 96 which had then been ascertained to occur were 
more or less cosmopolitan ones, introduced either through the medium 
of commerce or else along with consignments of plants, I undoubtedly 
felt that so isolated and curious a flora as that of St. Helena, although 
rapidly becoming extinct, ought certainly to have, even yet, a suffi- 
' cient train of Coleopterous attendants to enable us to extend the 
catalogue to at least 200 members. And, moreover, I had published 
my conviction, over and over again, that the principal groups which 
were destined to figure in the fauna, and that too (in all probability) 
to an anomalous extent, were the Cossonideous ones around Micro- 
xylohius and the Anthribideous ones which are embraced in my two 
genera Notioxenus and Homoeodera. How far these predictions have 
been verified a single glance at the list as it now stands wiU show ; 
for whilst the entire species have been increased from 96 to 203, 
the Cossonids have risen from 15 to 56, and the Anthribids from 10 
to 27. And yet, in spite of this, I do not believe that we have even 
now by any means exhausted those particular types of Coleopterous 
life, but that future explorations wiU tend still to augment them — 
if not considerably, at any rate to an appreciable extent ; for the 
extravagance of the external contour of some of them speaks (at all 
events to my mind) of links, either present or past, which are to a 
certain extent intermediate, — some few of which can scarcely fail to 
linger on, in various distant spots, more or less difficult of access, 
which our six months' sojourn in the island did not suffice for us to 
investigate. Indeed, although by far the most extensively represented, 
the arborescent Composites are not the only trees which have a fauna 
of their own ; there is that of the tree ferns and of the Dijjlazium, 
which (although restricted) seems to be of surpassing interest, and 
even that of the Solanaceous Mellissia hegonicefolia (or native " box- 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXV 

wood "), which, however small, is by no means to be despised. 
Then, the Franlcenia portulaccefolia — a peculiar and wiry little shrub 
which bears the local appellation of " the St.-Helena tea," and which 
still exists, I believe, on Sandy-Bay Barn — has not been so much as 
glanced at ; whilst there is every reason to suspect that the island 
" ebony " and " redwood " must have nourished many a lignivorous 
and foliage-loving parasite which, since the unfortunate annihilation 
of those interesting members of the vegetable kingdom, has been 
wholly exterminated, — numbered now amongst the organisms of the 
past. Whether the unique but insignificant Microxylohius West- 
woodii, which eluded our researches altogether, belongs in reality to 
the list of recently extinguished forms, is a problem which has yet 
to be solved. 

I may just add, that in the catalogue which I have given at the 
end of this volume the names of those species which I have every 
reason to suspect may have belonged to the aboriginal fauna of the 
island are printed in italics. 



COLEOPTEEA SANCM-HELENJl. 



Sectio 1. GEODEPHAGA. 

Fam. 1. CARABID^. 

Genus 1. HAPLOTHORAX. 
Waterhouse, Tram. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii. 207 [script. Aplothorax] (1841). 

1. Haplothorax Burchellii. 

H. S ovato-elongatus, ater, nitidus ; capite prothoraceque elongatis 
et subtilissime ina;qualiter punctulatis, hoc ante medium facile 
rotundato, postice paulum angustiore, angulis posticis obtusis ; 
elytris valde elongato-ovatis (antice gradatim consjjicue angusti- 
oribus), depressiusculis, pone scutellum transversim impressis, 
sutura (prsesertim pone medium) subcarinulato-elevata, dense 
punctate- (aut subcrenato-) striatis, interstitiis parum elevatis et 
leyiter transversim imbricatis ; antennis pedibusque valde elon- 
gatis, iUarum articulis ulterioribus fuscescentioribus ac magis pu- 
bescentibus ; tibiis posterioribus obsolete subflexuosis, intermediis 
versus apicem extus et intus, sed posticis per partem longiorem 
intus, fulvo-pilosis ; tarsis longissimis, auticis subtus fulvo-setosis. 

5 subopaca ; prothorace sensim breviore et magis cordate, so. 
antice subito latioro et postice magis angustato, ad latera subar- 
gutius filo-marginato, angulis posticis vix minus rotundatis; elytris 
minutius punctato-striatis sed interstitiis grossius distinctiusque 
transversim imbricato-rugatis, imbrieationibus — e. g. in interstitiis 
gtio g^ "j-mo (angustioribus) et praescrtim in ll""" (latiore) — in tuber- 
cula saepe transientibus ; tibiis posterioribus rectis et solum in 
parte brevi externa (ante angulum externum) intermediarum 
breviter fulvo-pubescentibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 14—15. 

Aplotborax Burchellii, Wuterh., I. c. pi. 12. f. 1 a841). 
Haplothorax Burchellii, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 303 (1869), 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 137, pi. 23. f. 1 (1875). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in aridis subeditioribus, versus borealem in- 
sulae ; rarissimus. 

B 



2 



CARABIDtE. 



This noble Carabideous insect is the largest of the St.-Helena 
Coleoptera which has hitherto been detected ; and there cannot be 
the slightest question that it is one of the most strictly aboriginal 
members of the fauna. At some remote period it may very possibly 
have been abundant ; but at the present time it is, without doubt, of 
extreme rarity, — appearing, moreover, to be confined to the northern 
division of the island, about the plains of Longwood and Deadwood 
(once a dense forest of the fast-disappearing Commidendron rohiistum, 
DC), as well as on the arid and weather-beaten slopes of Flagstaff 
Hill. It is highly probable that our researches for the Haj^hthorax 
were not pursued at the proper season of the year ; but we were totally 
unable to meet with more than its dead and mutilated remains, — 
which, however, were far from uncommon beneath large stones, on 
(and near) the extreme summit of Flagstaff, where the broken frag- 
ments have likewise been found by Mr. N. Janisch and Mr. P. 
Whitehead. Indeed, so numerous occasionally are the portions of 
this fine Carabid at some distance below the surface of the parched 
and dusty soil, beneath the detached masses of tlie scoriaceous 
basalt, that it has been suggested by Mr. P. Whitehead that they 
may perhaps have been carried thither by the field-mice, within 
what certainly appeared to be the holes of which they seemed to 
have mysteriously accumulated ; and I cannot but think that this 
explanation of a problem which might otherwise have been difficult 
is by no means an unlikely one. 

In his original diagnosis of the insect, Mr. Waterhouse did not 
appear to be aware of the superficial characters which render the 
sexes of the H. Burclielln so dissimilar from each other that at first 
sight they might well-nigh be mistaken for separate species. 
Although I possess the mere remains only of what I conclude to be 
the female, yet I think there can be so little doubt that it is (truly) 
the female sex of the H. Burchellii, and not an additional closely- 
allied member of the same group, that I have had no hesitation in 
treating it as such ; so that, assuming my conjecture to he a correct 
one, I may just mention that that sex differs from the male in being 
opaque (instead of shining), in having its prothorax a little shorter 
and more cordate (it being more suddenly widened in front, and 
therefore more narrowed behind), in its elytra being more minutely 
punctate- striate (both the punctures and the strise being very much 
finer), but with their interstices, on the other hand, more coarsely 
and roughly imbricated, and in its four posterior tibia? being straighter 



CARABIDvE. O 

and (if we except a comparatively short space on the outer edge of 
the intermediate pair at some distance from the angle) apparently- 
free from the fringes of fulvescent setiB which are so conspicuous in 
the male, — not only on the inside and outside of the middle ones, 
but on the inside of the hinder pair also. These tibial fringes are 
curiously suggestive of what is so marked a feature in certain of the 
Canarian and Madeiran Calathi. 



Genus 2. CALOSOMA. 
Weber, Obs. Ent. 20 (1801> 

2. Calosoma helense. 

C. nigrum, subopacum ; capite prothoraceque irregulariter punctatis, 
hoc parvo, transverse subquadrato, antice ad latera valde rotun- 
dato, augulis posticis productis sed obtusis, utrinque intra angulos 
posticos late sed prof undo impresso ; elytris profuude subcrenato- 
striatis, interstitiis a^qualiter subcostato-elevatis ac transversim 
imbricate -rugatis, punctis maguis plus minus seuescentibus vel 
cuprescentibus in triplici serie notatis ; autennis pedibusque nigris, 
illarum articulis 7 ulterioribus picescentioribus ac magis pubes- 
centibus. 

Mas plerumque vix minor, pedibus subcrassioribus, tibiis posterio- 
ribus (priEsertim intennediis) conspicue curvatis, tarsis anticis late 
dilatatis. 

Fcem. plerumque vix major, pedibus subgracilioribus, tibiis inter- 
mediis leviter *curvatis, posticis fere (sed baud omnino) rectis, 
tarsis anticis simplicibus. 

Var. (i. Jialir/eiut, "Woll. Supra j)lus minus obscure asneum. 

Long. corp. lin. 8-11. 

Calosoma Heleufe, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ii. 130 (1838). 

lialigena, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 208 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 303 (1869). 

et Helenas, Id., ibid. viii. 412 (1871). 

et , Melliss, St. Ilel. 137, 138, pi. 23 i. 2 (1375). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque insula;, a circa 1600' s. m, 
usque ad summos monies ascendens. Sub lapidibiis in grami- 
nosis apertis prsecipue abundat. 

In a paper on St.-Helena Coleoptera, published in 1861, 1 described 
this Calosoma as new, under the name of " C. Jialigena," seeing that 
Mr. Hope's diagnosis of his C. Helena; certainly did not altogether 
qiiadrate with the example (obtained by the late Mr. Bewicte) 
which was then before me. And even now the same difficulty 
exists ; for Mr. Hope speaks of the intermediate tibiae alone a.s in- 

B 2 



4 CAHABlU.i:. 

curved, and ot the elytra as being simply subrtujose, instead of trans- 
versely imbricated in a most coarse and conspicuous manner. Never- 
theless, from a careful observation in situ, I am so persuaded that 
there is only a single Calosoma in St. Helena — which varies in colour 
from deep black (the asserted hue of the C. helence) to a distinctly 
brassy tinge (which principally obtains in the normal individuals of 
m-^ C. haligena) — that I feel no hesitation whatever in attributing 
the few points of discrepancy in Mr. Hope's description to a mere 
want of precision, or inaccuracy ; and I have therefore adopted his 
title for the species, and made my own expressive of the (equally 
common) senescent state, — cited as the " var. fi. haligena." 

The present Calosoma is very widely spread over the intermediate 
and lofty elevations of St. Helena, ascending from about 1600 feet 
above the sea to nearly the highest part of the central ridge, — in 
"which latter district it is more particularly common. Mr. P. White- 
head, however, meets with the brassy form (or "var. ft. haligena ") 
in great profusion at Woodcot ; and we also (in conjunction wdth 
Mr. Gray) obtained it around Plantation and elsewhere ; but I 
think the darker state is perhaps the more general of the two 
in the loftier altitudes, — where we used constantly to meet with it 
crawling rapidly across the road, particularly during the season of 
haymaking, when the grassy slopes immediately adjoining had been 
disturbed. In such situations towards Casons, High Peak, and 
West Lodge it was often quite abundant — far more so than on 
Stitch's Eidge and in the direction of Diana's Peak. 

The C. helencn seems to belong to the same type as the African 
species senegalense and rugosum, from the former of which it is 
nevertheless conspicuously different. From the latter (to which it 
is far more closely allied) it recedes in being more depressed, and in 
having its metallic punctures smaller, in its prothorax being more 
deeply rugose before and behind, and in its legs being less robust. 
The pile, also, on the underside of its feet is very much softer, — 
being, in fact, fine hairs instead of stiff bristles. As above implied, 
it appears to be either black or else of a dull brassy tinge, — the one 
shading off inperceptibly into the other ; and its males have their 
four posterior tibiae rather powerfully curved, whilst in the opposite 
sex the hinder ones are very nearly straight, and even the middle 
pair but slightly bent inwards. 



CARABlDiE. 5 

Genus 3. PEISTONYCHUS. 

Dejean, Spec, des Col. iii. 43 (1828). 

3. Pristonychus complanatus. 

P. subovato-elongatus, valde alatns, uiger sed (saltern in elytris) 
obsolete subcyanescens, fere impunctatus ; cajiite prothoraceque 
nitidis, illo antice longitiidinaliter bifoveolato, hoc subquadrato- 
cordato (postice angustiore) angulis posticis subrectis prominulis 
utrinque ad basin late subpunctato-foveolato ; elytris depressis, 
minus nitidis (sc. subtilissime alutaceis), striatis (striis minute et 
plus minus obsolete crenulatis) ; antennis pedibusque paulo pices- 
ceutioribus, illarum articulis 8 ulterioribus dilutioribus ac magis 
pubescentibus. 

Mas tarsis anticis leviter dilatatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6-7. 

Pristonychus complanatus, Dej.., I. c. 58 (1828). 

alatus, Wall., Ins. 3Iad. 27. 

complanatus, Id., Col. All. 27 (1865). 

Laemosthenes complanatus, Harold, Cat. Col. 356 (18G8). 
Pristonychus complanatus, Woll.,Ann. Nat, Hist. iv. 305 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 138 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis, inter 1500' et 2000' s. m. prsecipue abundans. 
Sub lapidibus degit, neenon in fissuris terroe ad latera viarum. 

The widely-spread P. complanatus, which is particularly charac- 
teristic of Mediterranean latitudes (having been recorded from Por- 
tugal, Spain, the south of France, Sardinia, Italy, Sicily, Egypt, 
Barbary, &c., and which is common in the Azorean, Madeiran, and 
Canarian archipelagos), is extremely abundant in the intermediate 
districts of St. Helena, — ranging principally from about 1500 to 2000 
feet above the sea. Indeed it has all the appearance of being truly 
indigenous, though there is far more probability in the idea that it 
was originally introduced and has since become thoroughly natura- 
lized. On the barren slopes below High Knoll (where it was taken 
in profusion by Mr. Gray under stones) it is very plentiful during 
the spring and early summer ; and we found it equally general 
around Plantation, particularly' in the crevices of the soil, and loose 
friable rock, left exposed by the cuttings of the roads ; and it has 
been met with in considerable numbers by Mr. P. Whitehead at 
Woodcot. 

Genus 4. BEMBIDIUM. 
Latreille, Hist. Nnt. viii. 221 (1804). 

The Bembidia of St. Helena are all of them most charactei'istic 
and manifestly aboriginal, forming a little geographical assemblage 



b CARABID^. 

of the utmost interest. In point of importance, indeed, they are 
scarcely inferior to the members of even the Cossonideous and An- 
thribideous groups ; and the modus vivendi of at least half of them, 
within the damp and rotting stems of the dead tree-ferns on the most 
elevated ridges of the island, invests them with a significance which 
it is hardly possible to overrate. We may be pretty sure that there 
are many still to be discovered ; yet the detection already of no less 
than twelve (in every instance most wonderfully distinct inter se) 
will be admitted to be a large number for an area so small, isolated, 
and remote *. 

The St.-Helena Bemhidia may be said to range themselves under 
at least three types (if not indeed four), — only one of which (and that 
represented by a single member) is, as regards its habits and structure 
(immediately apparent in its largely developed wings and eyes), in 
any respect European. That one is the B. Mellissii, the only species 
out of the twelve which has not remained until now absolutely 
unnamed, — it having been described by myself in 1869. Yet even 
the B. Mellissii I believe to be peculiar to St. Helena ; though in its 
mode of life it is strictly a mwc^-loving species (falling into Dejean's 
well-known section Notaphus), and one which occurs at an inter- 
mediate rather than at a lofty elevation, — having nothing about it of 
the fern-infesting tendencies and apterous condition which impart 
so anomalous a feature to most of the other forms. 

The second type (which, together with the third, is wingless) is 
embodied in Avhat at present is a unique example, which was cap- 
tured by myself from within a putrid tree fern on the highest central 
ridge, and which has much the primd facie aspect of a minute Platif- 
derus, — the strongly defined angles of the prothoracic base and of the 
humeral region of its elytra, in conjunction with its large prothorax, 
its pale castaneous hue, and the comparative robustness of its limbs, 
calling to mind at first sight some of the smaller members of that 
grcmp. 

* lu the Azorean archipelago (composed of nine widely scattered islands) 
only 4 members uf the Bembidia have liitherto been brought to light. Eut iu 
the five islands of the much better-explored Madeiran Group, 10 are recorded ; 
and at the Canaries (made up oi' seven large islands, the higliest of which 
attains an elevation of no less than 12,000 feet) there are 14 (only 7 of which, 
however, are peculiar) ; whilst in the Cape Verdes (where the number of the 
islands is ten) merely 5 have yet been found. From which it would appear 
that the one little rock of St. Helena is (in pi'oportion to its size) far better 
stocked with Bemhidia than any of the more n(jrtliern clusters, — even the Canaries 
(vvitii their vast superficial area, and great \aricty of districts) exceeding it only 
by two exponents ! 



CARABID^. 7 

The third department into which the Bemhidia of St. Helena 
separate themselves is not only the most significant geographically, 
but, as regards the number of its exponents, by far the most exten- 
sive ; and there can be little doubt that a continued research in the 
higher regions of the island would yet bring to light others (though 
perhaps only a few) which we failed to secure. They are all of 
them apterous, and found on the lofty central ridge characterized by 
the presence of the tree ferns and of the various arborescent Coni- 
positce ; and although four (namely the B. nubigena, Graycmuiu, 
suhlimbatum, and treclioides) occur generally under pieces of wood and 
sodden leaves, the greater number are more evidently at home within 
the old and decomposed stems of the former, — existing not merely 
beneath the outer fibre, but far in the interior, so that they can 
only be obtained by breaking open the trunks and shaking out their 
loose friable contents. The emphatically fern- infesting ones of 
these species (which might almost be looked upon as representing 
a. fourth type, Endosomatium, Woll.) have their structure more con- 
spicuously in accordance with their darkling mode of life, — the enor- 
mous eyes, largely developed wings, and thin cursorial legs of the 
genuine Bemhidia being replaced by eyes of a reduced pattern (fre- 
quently very minute), a body totally apterous, and limbs shorter and 
more fossorial or robust, — the antennae moreover being moniliform, 
rather than filiform ; and in the last four of this group {which I 
wovM regard as especiaUg typical) the elytra are provided with a 
deep sutural stria. But, taTceti as a whole, the essential feature of 
this third division consists chiefly in the respective bases of the pro- 
thorax and elytra {particidarly, however, the former) being much 
rounded off, so that any thing like angles, properly so called, is barely 
traceable. 

The following Table will be of service in grouping the twelve 
species, and in rendering their determination practically easy : — 

A. Corptis alatiim ; octiNs maxiinis, prominenttbus. 

Mellissii Notaphus, BeJ. 

AA. Corpus apteruni ; ociilis minoribus, interdum miniitissimis. 
a. prothorax postice,et (inimis) elytra antice, anyulata. 

platyderoides Apteko jiimus, WoU. 

aa. prothorax postice, et (inimis) elytra antice, rotundata. 

/3. antemm Jiliformes Pseudophilocthus, WoU. 

nubigena, 
Grayanum, 
subliuibatuiii, 
trecluiides. 



CARABID^. 

/3/3. antenna moniliformes Endosomatium, Woll. 

y. elytra (cqiialiter striata. 

8. caput magnum, grosse hmdcatum. 
megalops. 
8S. caput minus. 

dicksonise. 
yy. elytra stria suturali profundiore impressa. 
corpus pai-vum, phis minus jyictum aut suffusutn ; oailis parvis. 
rufosuffusum, 
gemmulipenne, 
fossor. 
corpus 7ninutissimum, pal/ichim ; oculis minutissimis. 
evanescens. 



A, Corpus alatum ; oculis maximis, prominentihus. 
(Subgenus Notaphus, Dej.) 

4. Bembidium Mellissii. 

B. oblongum, subopacum, alutaceum ; capite prothoraceque viridi- 
nigris et subaeneo tinctis, hoc parvo,brevi, subcordato, utrinque mox 
intra anguloa posticos (acutiusculos, prominulos) profunde impresso 
(impressione extus costiila brevi terminata) ; elytris depressius- 
culis, profunde striato-punctulatis, lurido-testaceis sed fasciis ma- 
culisve plurimis longitudinalibus disjunctis nigrescentibus ornatis ; 
antennis pedibusque gracilibus, testaceo-piceis, illis versus apicem 
femoribusque obscurioribus. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilar! valde dilatato, ovali, atque otiam 
longiusculo. 

Long, Corp. lin. circa 2. 

Bembidium INIellissii, Woll, An7i. Nat. Hist. iv. 305 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 138 (1875j. 

Habitat in humidis lutosis intermediis ; ad Woodcot (circa 1500' 
8. m.) a Dom. P. Whitehead copiose repertum. 

As already stated, the present Bembidium is the only one out of 
the twelve which have hitherto been detected at St. Helena which is 
strictly on an ordinary European type, — the largeness of its wings 
and eyes, and its thin cursorial legs, marking it out as a normal 
member of the group, whilst its manifest affinity with such species 
as the varium and flammulatum will assign it at once to that par- 
ticular section for which Dejean proposed the generic name of 
Notaplms. There is no fear of confounding it with any of the 
remainder : for, in addition to its structural differences just pointed 
out, it may immediately be known by its dull brassy-green head and 



CARABID^. 9 

prothorax, and its lurid testaceous elytra ; the last of which, how- 
ever, are ornamented with a number of darker patches and subcon- 
fluent longitudinal spots. Its striae are closely and conspicuously 
punctulated, and there are two very large punctiform impressions on 
the third interval from the suture. In the angles of the respective 
bases of its prothorax and elytra being sharply defined it recedes 
from all the other St.-Helena Bembidia except the B. platyderoides ; 
nevertheless its enormous eyes and wings, and wiry cursorial legs, 
in conjunction with its small short prothorax and almost every other 
detail, will remove it directly from the latter. 

When I enunciated this Bembidium in 1869, the only two 
examples of it which I had seen were taken by Mr. Melliss — though 
as he had unfortunately preserved no note concerning their exact 
habitat, I think perhaps that some little qualification may be 
necessary as to his after-remark {I. c. p. 138), that it was " taken 
from the high land " (that is to say, if that term be restricted, as I 
imagine it ought to be, to the lofty central ridge). Although it is 
one of the few species obtained by Mr. MeUiss which I failed myself 
to meet with personally, yet its frequent capture by Mr. P. White- 
head in the vicinity of Woodcot, at an elevation of some 1.500 feet 
above the sea, added to its total want of affinity with the remark- 
able forms which exist amongst the tree ferns and cabbage trees on 
the high backbone of the island, are more than sufficient to satisfy 
me that it is an insect of a strictly intermediate range, and such as 
might properly be sought for about the Plantation district and else- 
where in that neighbourhood. 

AA. Corpus apterum ; ocidis minoribiis, interdum minutissimis. 
(Subgenus Apteromimus, Woll.) 

5. Bembidium platyderoides, n, sp, 

B. parallelo-oblongum, subnitidum, laete inifo-castaneum ; capite 
prothoraceque longiusculis, illo semi-ovato oeulis minutissimis, 
hoc magno convexo cordato-quadrato, utrinque intra angulos 
posticos(subrectos) profunde et late impress© : elytris subparallelis, 
basi recte truncatis, ad latera grosse margiuatis, profunde sub- 
crenulato-striatis, postice gradatim vix clarioribus ; antennis, 
palpis, pedibusque robustis, infuscate testaceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilari valde dilatato, obtriangulari- 
quadrato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2. 



10 CARABIDiE, 

Habitat ad montes humidos excelsos, intra truncum Diclcsonioe 
arhorescentis putresceiitem a meipso semel lectum. 

The unique example of the very singular Bembidium which I 
have above enunciated was taken by myself from the interior 
of the fibrous stem of a rotten tree fern obtained near Diana's Peak 
on the lofty central ridge ; and there can be no doubt that the 
species which it represents is of the utmost rarity. It is totally 
distinct from the whole of the ten following members of the genus, 
— more particularly in its parallel and somewhat elongated outline, 
and in the respective bases of its prothorax and elytra having their 
angles (instead of being rounded-oiF) sharply defined ; and it is 
further remarkable for the largeness of its cordato-quadrate, ante- 
riorly convex prothorax, for the extreme minuteness of its eyes, for 
the comparative robustness of its limbs, and for its well-nigh con- 
colorous reddish-castaneous hue, — the antennae and legs, however, 
being testaceous. Like all the St.-Helena Bembidia excej)t the B. 
MeUlssii, it is apterous. 



(Subgenus Pseudophilocthus, Woll.) 

6. Bambidium nubigeni, n. sp. 

B. oblongum, nigrum sed obsoletissime subpiceo tinctum ; capite 
prothoraceque subopacis, illo leviter et late bifoveolato, hoc sub- 
rotundato, postice obsolete bifoveolato ; elytris ovalibus, profunde 
et grosse striatis, interstitio tertio punctis binis magnis notato, 
ante apicem fascia dentata obscura lurido-testaceji ornatis ; an- 
tennis pedibusque elongatis, illis palpisque rufo-testaceis sed al 
apicem obscurioribus, his rufo-piceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art° basilari dilatato. 

Long. corp. lin. 2|-vix 3. 

Habitat in excelsioribus centralibus insulse, sub foliis marcidis trun- 
cisque Dichsonice emortuis humi jacentibus ; rarissimum. 

This is the largest of the St.-Helena Bembidia, and one which 
there can be little doubt is extremely rare, — the only two examples 
which I have seen having been taken on the lofty central ridge, on 
the ascent of the peak known as Actaeon. They were found beneath 
the damp and rotten stems of tree ferns, though whether they were 
in any way connected with those particular plants (like so many of 
the other species) 1 have no means of ascertaining. 



CARABIDJt. 11 

Apart from its rather large size and oblong outline, the B. nubi- 
gena may be recognized by its black surface (which has, however, an 
obsolete pice^ent tinge), — the ante-apical region of the elytra, alone, 
being ornamented with an obscure brownish-testaceous dentate, or 
zigzag, fascia. Its prothorax is much rounded, and has a very 
indistinct fovea on either side behind ; and its elytra (which are 
rather convex) are very deeply and coarsely striated (the striae being 
broad, but simple) ; and there are two large and conspicuous punc- 
tures on the third interval from the suture. 



7. Bembidium Grayanum, n. sp. 

B. oblongo-ellipticum, nitidum, nigrum ; capite profuude bifoveo- 
lato ; prothorace subrotundato, postice gradatim rotundate an- 
gustulo et obsolete bifoveolato ; elytris obovatis (sc. antice rotun- 
date latiusculis, postice subattenuatis), profuude striatis, interstitio 
tertio punctis binis parvis indistinctis notato, maculis parvis 
angustis longitudinalibus (extus ante apicem confluente majoribus, 
necnon apicem ipsum omuino tegentibus) lurido-testaceis ornatis ; 
antennis pedibusque elongatis, gracilibus, illis palpisque rufo- 
testaceis sed ad apicem obscurioribus, his rufo-piceis, tarsis (gra- 
cillimis) dilutioribus. ^ 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilar! dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2|. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens, regiones Dicksonice et Com- 
jpositarum arbol'cscentium humidas excelsas colons. 

Ohs. — Species in honorem amici John Gray, qui in ins. Sancta?- 
Helenae una cum meipso Coleoptera diligentissime collegit, ob 
gratias mihi oblatas dicata. 

Although by no means common, this is perhaps the most general 
of the St.-Heleua Bemhidia, — occurring on the high central ridge 
(about Diana's Peak and Actseon), beneath damp pieces of wood and 
sodden leaves ; and I have much pleasure in naming it after my 
worthy friend and fellow-worker, John Gray, by whom indeed it 
was originally detected, and whoso careful researches amongst the 
Coleoptera during tho first month of our sojourn in the island added 
so many species to our then incipient, but rapidly increasing list. 

Although the largest of the St.-Helena Bemhidia with the excep- 
tion of the B. nuhigena, the B. Grayanum is nevertheless very much 
smaller than that species ; and, although equally black as regards 
its ground-colour, its elytra are more or less ornamented Avith a 



12 CARABID.E. 

number of longitudinal lurid-testaceous spots, — which are generally 
subconfluent towards the outer edge, particularly (so as to shape out 
two larger patches) at a little distance behind the a\)ex (the apex 
itself being wholly testaceous). Its forehead is more distinctly bi- 
foveolated than in either the preceding species or the following one ; 
its prothorax is very much rounded off behind ; its elytra, which are 
obovate (or somewhat widened in front and subattenuated pos- 
teriorly), are deeply striate, neither the stria), however, nor the two 
impressions on the third interval being quite so coarse as in the B. 
nuhiijena ; its limbs, especially the antennae and feet, are long and 
slender ; and its whole surface is glossy and shining, 

8. Bembidium sublimbatum, n, sp. 

B. ovali-oblongum, subnitidum, nigrum sed saepius obsoletissime 
subvirescenti tinctum ; capite fere integro (aut obsoletissime bi- 
foveolato) ; prothorace regulariter rotundato-ovali, convexo, postice 
fere integro ; elytris ovalibus, leviter striatis (striis versus latera 
ctiam subevanescentibus), interstitio tertio punctis binis magnis 
notato, in limbo (praesertim ad humeros) subnxfes^centi-dilutioribus 
uecnon utrinque ante apicem macula obscura subrotundata lateral! 
lurido-testacea ornatis ; antennis pedibusque gracilibus, illis (art° 

^ basilari rufo-testaceo excepto) palpisque piceo-fuscis, his rufo-piceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilari dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 2. 

Habitat locos editiores versus occidentalem insulae ; ad rupes prae- 
ruptas excelsas mox supra " West Lodge," sub foliis lignoque 
antique, inter arbusculas Asteris gummiferi, Februario ineunte, 
a meipso captum. 

The only spot in which I have met with this extremely rare 
Bembidium is towards the western extremity of the great central 
ridge, immediately above the hoxise known as West Lodge, — where, 
early in February, I took it, on two or three occasions, at the very 
edge of the tremendous precipice which overlooks the Sandy- Bay 
crater. It was found beneath damp wood, leaves, and sticks, 
amongst shrubs of the Aster gummiferus and common gorse ; and, 
although it may perhaps be more plentiful on the perfectly inacces- 
sible Aster-clothed slopes below (extending from thence to High 
Peak), my utmost endeavours enabled me to secure only eight or 
nine specimens ; though as both sexes are well represented, this is 
more than sufficient for all practical purposes. 

In its general outline and dark hue the B. si(blimhaiu7n has 



CARABIU.E. 13 

somewhat ih.6 prima facie appearance of what we might suppose to 
be a very dwarfed state of the B. nuhigeaa ; nevertheless, apart 
from its being very considerably smaller and more shining, its Hmbs 
are relatively shorter and thinner ; its head and prothorax (which 
are still less bifoveolated, being in fact almost quite simple or entire, 
and the latter of which is appreciably more oval) have frequently a 
faint greenish tinge ; and its elytra are less deeply striate, — the outer 
striae indeed being even subevanescent. Moreover the obscure 
ornamentation of its elytra is totally different ; for (in lieu of the 
single, dentate, subapical fascia of that species) their external edge, 
or limbus, is, particularhj at the shoulders, suffused with a reddish, 
or reddish-testaceous, hue ; and there is also an obscure, somewhat 
rounded, dixsky-yellow, isolated, sublateral patch on either side 
immediately behind the apex. 

9. Bembidium trechoides, n. sp. 

B. ovali-oblongum, nitidissimum, aut nigrum aut picescens ; capite 
parvulo, distincte bifoveolato, oculis parvis ; prothorace subrotun- 
dato, postice breviter bifoveolato necnon in medio subemarginato- 
truncato ; elytris ovalibus, striatis (striis versus latera levioribus 
ac interdum obsolete subpunctulatis), interstitio tertio punctis 
binis parvis notato, ad humeros macula indistincta (saepe omnino 
obsoleta) necnon ante apicem altera majore laterali, lurido-testaceis, 
ornatis ; antennis pedibusque gracilibus, illis (art" basilar! rufo- 
testaceo excepto) palpisque piceo-fuscis, his piceo-testaceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art° basilari leviter dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Habitat humidos, inter Compositas arborescentes ac Dicksoniam, in 
editioribus insulae, baud infrequens. 

This Bemhiditim is somewhat on the same type as the B. siiblimbatnm ; 
but it is very much smaller and a little more shining, and has its 
limbs relatively slenderer, its eyes are proportionately more minute, 
its frontal and prothoracic foveae (the latter of which are greatly ab- 
breviated) are more distinct, its prothorax is more truncated (and 
even subemarginate) in the centre behind, and its elytra (the two 
punctures of which, on the third interval, are much less conspicuous) 
are not quite so convex, and (while possessing the same kind of 
sublateral ante- apical blotch on either side posteriorly) are free from 
a decidedly rufescent limbus, but have often a very obscure patch 
(in many specimens completely obsolete) at the shoulders. 

It is only on the lofty central ridge that I have observed the B. 



14 CAllABlDyE. 

trechoides, — where, however, in damp places generally, amongst the 
cabbage trees and tree ferns, it is not particularly uncommon, on the 
densely-covered slopes about Acta^on and Diana's Peak ; but I did 
not meet with it in the more western and rather less elevated parts 
towards High Peak and West Lodge, where the B. mbUmhatum 
would seem to occur. 

(Subgenus Endosomatium, ^Yoll.) 

10. Bemhidiuin megalops, n. sp. 

B. ovali-ellipticum, subnitidum, aut nigrum aut piceo-nigrum necnon 
obsoletissime subsenescens ; capite (in utroque sexu) magno, valde 
profunde et latissime longitudinaliter bisulcato (regione centrali, 
inter sulcos, ovali elevata) ; prothorace subtriangulari (sc. postice 
gradatim angustato et subattenuato), postice distincte bifoveolato ; 
elytris obovatis, convexis, profunde grosse ot aequaliter striatis, 
interstitio tertio punctis binis notato, maculis parvis plurimis longi- 
tudinalibus lurido-testaceis ornatis ; antennis pedibusque subro- 
bustis, illis (art" basilari rufo-testaeeo excepto) palpisque piceis, 
his piceo-testaceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art° basilari leviter dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa Ig. 

Habitat truncos DicJcsonice arborescentis, humidos, emortuos, putridos ; 
in editioribus parcissime degens. 

The enlarged, deeply bisulcated head (in both sexes) of this sin- 
gular Bembidium, added to its obtriangular prothorax and obovate, 
convex, and very coarsely and regularly striated elytra, which are 
ornamented with a number of small longitudinal lurid-testaceous 
spots, will sufficiently distinguish it. Like the five following 
species (though less decidedly so than the last four of them), its 
antennae are somewhat short, robust, and moniliform, rather than 
long and filiform ; and its legs are also less slender than in the 
normal members of the genus ; but its eyes, though smaU, are not 
actually minute. In the few specimens which I have seen, there is 
a faint senescent tinge. 

It is only within the damp and rotten stems of the old tree ferns 
that I have observed the B. megalops ; and as I merely obtained three 
examples, it may be presumed to be of the greatest rarity. They 
were aU found on the lofty, densely -wooded central ridge, in the 
neighbourhood of Actseon and Diana's Peak. 



CARABID^. 15 

11. Bembidium dicksoniae, n. sp. 

B. ovale, subnitidum, aut piceum aut nigrum ; capite fere iiitegro ; 
prothorace angustiilo, obtriangulari, fere integro, postice in medio 
truncate ; elytris ovalibus, convexis, striatis (striis versus latera 
punctulatis), interstitio tertio punctis binis notato, maeulis pluri- 
mis plus minus confluentibus aut suflFusis ocbreo-testaceis ornatis ; 
antennis (art° basilari piceo-testaceo excepto) palpisque faeco- 
piceis, pedibus rufo-piceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilari teviter dilatato'. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1. 

Habitat editiores insula;, in truncis emortuis DicJcsonice arborescentis 
degens. 

The modus vivendi of this Bembidium is precisely similar to that 
of the preceding and four following ones, — it having been obtained 
from the interior of the damp fibrous stems of the dead tree ferns on 
the high central ridge in -the vicinity of Diana's Peak. It is without 
doubt extremely rare; nevertheless I met with 17 examples of it, 
from first to last, by bringing away portions of the old Dicksonias 
and breaking them up carefuUy, at home, into small fragments, over 
a white cloth, — which embodies a far more successful method for 
securing these Filicophilous Coleoptera than by examining the trunks 
hastily in situ. 

In its general coloration the present Bembidium has a good deal 
in common with the B. megalops ; nevertheless it is considerably 
smaller, and its head is not only not enlarged but also very nearly 
simple (there being no traces of the two deep longitudinal furrows, 
and somewhat raised central space, which are so conspicuous in that 
species). Its prothorax (although on the wbole obtriangular) is, in 
proportion, appreciably narrower, and weU-nigh free from hinder 
fovese ; and its elytra are less coarsely striated (the outer striae, more- 
over, being perceptibly punctate), and have their numerous patches 
relatively larger and of a more ochreous yellow, as well as (often) 
more confluent and suffused. Its head and prothorax are but seldom 
completely black (being more frequently piceous-black, or even 
piceous) ; and I cannot detect any senescent tinge on their surface. 

12. Bembidium rufosuffusum, n. sp. 

B. oblongum, angustulum, nitidum, nigrum (rarius piceo-nigrum) ; 
capite broviter bifoveolato ; prothorace sub-obtriangulari, convexo, 
postice brevissime bifoveolato (fovcolis fere punctiformibus) ; ely- 



16 CARABID.t:. 

tris suboblongis, fortiter striato-punctafcis (striis postice et versus 
latera evanescentibus, seel stria suturali profunda integra), inter- 
stitio tertio punctis biuis (anteriore indistincto) notato, antice 
plus minus late et laete rufo-testaceo-suffusis, postice inaequaliter 
piceo-nigris ; antennis pedibusque (praecipue tarsis) brevibus, ro- 
bustis, illis valde moniliformibus piceo-brunneis, ad basin palpisque 
clarioribus, bis testaceis. 

Jf(fiP tarsorum anticorum art" basilari vix (i.e. levissime) dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa g. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens, sub truncis Dicksonice arbo- 
rescentis humidis putridis praecipue occurrens. 

Like its immediate allies, tbis little Bemhidium is of great rarity, 
and confined (so far as I bave observed) to tbe bigh central ridge, — 
where it occurs generally (thougb not always) beneath the moist 
stems of the rotten tree ferns about Diana's Peak and Actseon. I 
obtained, however, but 8 examples of it in all ; though a ninth, 
taken in the same district, has since been communicated by Mr. P. 
"Whitehead. 

The B. rufosuffusum is one of the smallest of the St.-Helena 
Bembidia ; and it may be known from the cognate species by its 
narrower and more oblong (or less rounded) outline ; by its elytra 
being brightly (though gradually) rufescent in fi'ont, but darker 
(though not quite uniformly so) behind, and with their striae strongly 
punctui'ed anteriorly, but vanishing posteriorly and at the sides, — 
excepting, however, the sutural one, which is deep and continuous*; 
and by its limbs being short and robust, the antennae especially having 
their joints abbreviated and moniliform. 

13. Bembidium genmmlipeiine, n. sp. 

B. subovatum, nitidissimum, nigrum ; capite beviter bifoveolato ; pro- 
thorace subcordato, convexo, postice brevissime bifoveolato (foveo- 
lis fere punctiformibus) ; elj-tris rotundatis, valde convexis, grosse 
marginatis, esculpturatis, solum stria suturali profunda integra im- 
pressis, in loco interstitii tertii punctis binis obscuris indistincte 
notatis, maculis maximis duabus (una sc. basali et altera subapicali) 
plus minus distincte ornatis ; antennis pedibusque breviusculis, 
robustis, illis valde moniliformibus piceo-brunneis, ad basin 
palpisque clarioribus, his testaceis, tarsis subobscurioribus. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art° basilari vix dilatato. 

Var. /3, elji^ris fere nigris, sc. macula basali omnino obsoleta, atque 
etiam subapicali obscura. 

* This character of a deep sutural stria is absent from the preceding mem- 
bers of the genus, but distinguishes the present one and the remaining three. 



CARABID.E. 17 

Var. y, prothorace ruio-testaceo. 
Long. Corp. lin. ^-vix 1. 

Habitat humidos excelsos ; subligno marcido Comjiositarum et Dich- 
sonice parce deprehensum. 

A most extraordinary little Beinbidium, at once recognizable by 
the extreme roundness and convexity of its elytra and its highly 
polished snrface. The former, which have no appearance of sculp- 
ture except a deeply-impressed sutural line, are very broadly and 
coarsely margined ; and they are somewhat variable in colouring, 
— having either a large basal and ante-apical paler patch (occa- 
sionally so much developed as to be separated from each other by 
merely a suffused darker median band or space), or else (yar. /3) with 
the anterior blotch obsolete and even the hinder one not very con- 
spicuous, under which circumstances the elytra appear at first sight 
to be well-nigh black. Its prothorax also is liable to become paler, 
being now and then {yar. y) rufo-testaceous. Its limbs (the antenn;© 
of which are moniliform) are rather thick and robust ; and its pro- 
thorax, like the elytra, is very convex. 

Like most of its congeners the H. gemmidipenne is extremely rare, 
and confined to the densely-wooded ridges of a high elevation, — where 
we met with (from first to last) 16 examples of it, in the vicinity of 
Diana's Peak and Actaeon. Although taken occasionally within the 
rotten stems of the tree ferns, I think we found it quite as frequently 
beneath sticks and the fallen trunks of the cabbage trees, particularly 
in the dampest and most shady spots. 

14. Bembidium fossor, n. sp. 

B. breve, convexum, nitidissimum, castaneum, immacjilatum ; capite 
distincte bifoveolato ; prothorace ovali, convexo, postice brevissime 
bifoveolato (foveolis distinetis punctiformibus) ; elytris obovatis 
basi subrecte truncatis, valde convexis, esculpturatis, solum stria 
suturali profunda postice subevanescente impressis, in loco inter- 
stitii tertii punctis binis parvis notatis ; antennis moniliformibus, 
piceo-brunneis, ad basin palpisque testaceis ; pedibus (praecipue 
posticis) brevibus et (praecipue anticis) robustis, clare rufo-piceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilari vix dilatato. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 1. 

Habitat editiores sylvaticos, in trunco quodam antiquo Dicksonice 
arborescentis semel tantum repertum. 

With the exception of the B. evanescens, this is the smallest of 
the St.-Helena Bemhidia ; and it is perhaps the rarest of the whole of 

c 



18 



CARABIDiE. 



them, being hitherto unique. My example was taken by myself from 
the interior of the decayed stem of a tree fern, which I had brought 
away for after-examination from the vicinity of Diana's Peak. 

The B. fossor is one of the most peculiar of the species which have 
yet been brought to light, — its abbreviated form, extremely convex 
and highly polished surface, and its rich castaneous hue, added to its 
oboVate, almost uusculptured elytra (which are more straightly trun- 
cated at the base than in the allied species, and have merely a deeply 
impressed though posteriorly-evanescent sutural line), and (for a 
Bemidium) the shortness of its legs, particularly of the hinder pair, 
giving it a character which it is impossible to mistake. Its antennae 
(which are monihform) are not particularly robust, but its anterior 
legs are rather more so than usual, — being somewhat in accordance 
with its subfossorial, darkling mode of life. 

15. Beinbidium evanescens, n. sp. 

B. oblongum, rufo-testaceum aut pallida ferrugineum, immaculatum ; 
capite prothoraceque nitidissimis, illo majusculo breviter bifoveo- 
lato oculis minutissimis, hoe cordato, postice fere integro ; elytris 
oblongis, paulo minus nitidis (sc. subalutaceis), grosse marginatis, 
stria suturali leviter impressis, in loco interstitii tertii pimctis 
binis parvis notatis, interdum in disco obscuratis sutura sensim 
pallidiore ; antennis pedibusque robustis, crassiusculis, illis 
moniliformibus palpisque infuscate testaceis, illis (priecipue tarsis) 
brevibus, testaceis. 

Mas tarsorum anticorum art" basilari leviter dilatato. 

Lon;. corp. lin. circa |. 

Habitat in excelsioribus insulce, in truncis emortuis marcidis 
DicTcsonice arborescentis praecipue latens. 

This is the most diminutive of the St.-Helena Bembidia, and one 
which may be known from its allies by its oblong outline, less con- 
vex body, and pale rufo-testaceous hue, — its elytra being merely at 
times a little infuscated on their disk, leaving the suture just per- 
ceptibly less darkened. In proportion to the smallness of its stature, 
its head is rather largely developed, though the eyes are extremely 
minute ; its prothorax is cordate, and almost free from hinder foveae ; 
and its elytra, which are a little less shining than the rest of the 
surface, are coarsely margined and provided only with a not very 
deep sutural line. Its limbs (for a Bembidium) are robust, the 
antennae being moniliform, and the legs (pai'ticularly the feet) 
somewhat shortened. 



SPH^RIDIID^,. 19 

The B. evanescens is one of the most decidedly fern-infesting 
species of the whole, its very minute eyes and rather shortened 
powerful legs (in proportion to its bulk) being eminently in keeping 
with its modus vivendi—iax within the damp fibrous trunks of the 
dead tree ferns ; for although I have occasionally taken it on the 
under-surface of fallen stems, it is far more often to be found quite 
in the interior, where there caii be no doubt that it normally resides. 
Like the other members of the genus, it is rare ; nevertheless, I met 
with about two dozen examples of it, from first to last, — aU of which 
were obtained from the high central ridge, in the direction of 
Diana's Peak and Actaeon. 



Sectio 2. PHYLHYDRIDA. 

Fam. 2. SPHiERIDIID^. 

Genus 5. CYCLONOTUM. 

(Dejean) Erichs., Kiif. dcr. Mark Brand, i. 212 (1837). 
16. Cyclonotum dytiscoides. 

C. " ferrugineum, elytris atris. Statura et magnitude Sphceridii 
scarahcBoides ; totum glabrum, nitidum. Antennae rufse, perfo- 
liatae. Caput, thorax, pectus, abdomen rufa ; elytra atra, 
glabra." [Ex Fahricio.] 

Sphaeridium dytiscoides, Fab., Si/st. Ent. 67 (1775). 

, Oliv., Ent. 2. 15, t. 2. f. 10 (1790). 

, Fah., Syst. Eleu. i. 94 (1801). 

, Wull, Ann. Nat. Hid. iv. 306 (1869). 

Cyclonotum dytiscoides, Id., ibid. ix. 114, note (1872). 
Sphseridium dytiscoides, Melliss, St. Hel. 139 (1875). 

Habitat " in ins. St. Helena?. Mas. Dom. Banks."^ [sec. Fabricius, 
A.D. 1775.] 

It is with some hesitation that I assign a place to this insect in 
our present volume ; for although it was originally described by 
Fabricius from a professedly St.-Helena example in the collection 
of the late Sir Joseph Banks, we have but too good evidence con- 
cerning the extreme inaccuracy of many of the habitats which were 
cited about that period ; whilst the fact that the species in question 
occurs at the Cape of Good Hope would perhaps (in the absence of 
all traces of it now in the island) favour the idea that material from 
the latter locality may have been inadvertently mixed up with that 

c 2 



20 SPHi*:RIDIID/E. 

from St. Helena. Still, this is but conjecture ; and it is far from 
impossible that it may have been accidentally imported from the 
Cape (along, perhaps, with consignments of plants), and have since 
died out ; or, on the other hand, that it may still exist by the edges 
of some of -the streams or watercourses, and have escaped our 
notice. At any rate, I do not see that we have any right to refuse 
it admission, though I may entertain my private doubts as to its 
real St.-Helena claims. Perhaps some future collector may yet 
bring the species to light, in which case the desirability of having 
acknowledged it now will at once become apparent. 

The C. dytiscoides was quoted by Fabricius as a Splioiridimn ; 
and in an article on St.-Helena Coleoptera in 1869 I accordingly 
entered it as such, being totally ignorant of what the species really 
was. Nevertheless I expressed my belief (judging from the short 
published diagnosis, and from the rough figure of it given by Olivier) 
that it would probably prove to be " a Cyclonotum, with the head 
and prothorax rufo-ferruginous and the elytra black ; " and so, 
indeed, it appears to be, — for in a subsequent paper, in 1872, 1 stated 
that I had received a no^-e from the late Mr. G. E. Crotch to the 
effect that the Sjphceridium dytiscoides of Fabricius is stUl preserved 
in the Banksian cabinet, and that a friend of his who had recently 
examined it reported it to be totally distinct from the Dactylosternum 
ahdominale, being, in point of fact (as, indeed, I had ventured to 
think probable), a true Cyclonofmn, and one which occurs also at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

I can only trust, therefore, that some more fortunate explorer 
wiU yet enable us to verify the truth of the originally asserted 
habitat, and to add the C. dytiscoides without doubt to the modern 
fauna of the island. 

Genus 6. DACTYLOSTERNUM. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 99 (1854). 

17. Dactylosternum abdominale. 

D. oblongum, convexum (subtus plauatum), nitidum. ubique 
densissime minutissimeque punctulatum ; capite sub-semicir- 
culari ; prothorace brevi, transverse, postice inter angulum et 
medium foveola punctiformi utrinque leviter impresso ; elytris 
minute punctulato-striatis ; antennis palpisque testaceis, illarum 
clavii obscuriore ; pedibus brevibus, compressis, rufo-piceis. 

Long, corp. lin. 2-2|. 



SPHvERIDIIDjE. 21 

Sphaeridium abdominale, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 79 (1792). 
Dactylosternum Roussetii, Woll, I. c. 99, t. 3, f. 1 (1854). 

' abdominale, Id, Col. Atl. 80 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Kesp. 48 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 30G (1869). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 65 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 1-39 (1875). 

Habitat sub marcidis quisqiiiliisque in hortis cultisque insulae, 
humidos intermedios subaquosos prnecipue colens. 

This widely-spread Mediterranean insect, which occurs in the 
Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape- Verde archipelagos (and 
which is reported also from Madagascar, Bourbon, and the East 
Indies), has become established in the intermediate districts of St. 
Helena, where there can be no doubt that it must originally have 
been naturalized. It is found usually beueath decaying garden 
refuse, particularly in the dampest spots ; and, along with the 
Cychnotum dytiscoidts (which was recorded by Fabricius from St. 
Helena in 1775, but which, as lately mentioned, I look upon, at all 
events 7iow, as a very doubtful native of the island), it makes the 
nearest approach to anything like an aquatic form which has 
hitherto been discovered. Nevertheless it is needless for me to add 
that it is not aquatic, and only questionably, indeed, even 
Philhydridoiis (as technically understood by that term), though 
delighting often in watery localities. 

The D. ahdominale does not appear to be anywhere very abundant 
in St. Helena. I have, however, taken it sparingly under putrid 
garden-rubbish at Plantation, and it has been found by Mr. P. 
Whitehead at Woodcot. The St. -Helena examples have their 
antennal club a little more dai'kened, or infuscated, than is the case 
in Madeiran ones which are now before me. 



Sectio 3. TRICHOPTERYGIA. 
Fam. 3. TRICHOPTERYGID^. 

Genus 7. PTINELLA. 
(Motschoulsky) Matth-., Zool. xvi. 6106 (1858). 

18. Ptinella Matth ewsiana, n. sp. 

P. ovalis, sat convexa, ferruginea, pilis aureo-fulvescentibus vestita ; 
capite magno, lato, in frontc rotundato, oculis minutissimis, 



22 TRICHOPTERYGID^. 

pallidis ; prothorace magno, quadrato, ad latera rotundato, tuber- 

culis parvis remotis ordinibus sinuatis dispositis interstitiisque 
nitidis alutaceis ornato, angulis posticis fore rectis ; elytris 
ovatis (capite prothoraceque brevioribus), ordinibus remotis 
irregularibus sat profunda asperatis, apicibus rectis ; abdomine 
ovato, obtuso, segmentis 5 apertis ; antennis pedibusque albido- 
testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. y^. 

Habitat in editioribus insulag ; inter detritus fungosque putridos, in 
trunco quodam autiquo emortuo, sat copiose reperta. 

Tbis exceedingly diminutive beetle, at once known (amongst the 
other species with which we are here concerned) by its almost 
microscopic size and its pale ferruginous hue, is the only member of 
the TricJiopterygidce which has hitherto been discovered at St. 
Helena ; and I have much pleasure in naming it after the Rev. A. 
Matthews (the indefatigable monographer of that assemblage of 
minute insects), who has not only examined it for me with con- 
siderable care, but has kindly furnished me with a diagnosis in 
which the main characters which separate it from the other known 
Ptimllce (with which he is so intipiately acquainted) have been kept 
in view, — its most salient feature consisting, so far as I can gather, 
in the comparative largeness and breadth of its subquadrate 
prothorax. It is only in a single locality, and that one at a high 
elevation on the central ridge,that we observed the P. Ilattheivsiana, — 
namely amongst minute fungi and damp ti'iturated refuse, within 
the hollow trunk of an old Buddleia madagascariensis, Yahl, below 
Actseon and close to a spot called jS^ewfoundland. It was first 
detected by Mrs. WoUaston, who immediately recognized it as a 
member of the Tricliopterygido' ; and I subsequently obtained a 
tolerable number of examples by bringing away at intervals small 
portions of the decomposing refuse and examining it closely on a 
white cloth. 

Out of the ten species of Pthiella which are included in Mr. 
Matthews' elaborate Monograph, seven are European and three are 
American,^ — two however, out of the seven European ones, occurring 
also in the Canaries, and one at Madeira ; so that this exponent 
from 8t. Helena possesses a considerable interest geographically. 



STAPHYLINID^. 23 

Sectio 4. BRACHELYTRA. 

Fam. 4. STAPHYLINID^. 
(Subfam. 1. ALEOCHARIDES.) 

Genus 8. ALEOCHARA. 

Gravenhorst, Col. Micro2it. 67 (1802). 

19. Aleochark puberula. 

A. angustulo-fusiformis, subnitida, minute et densissime punctulata 
pubeque fulvescenti deraissa dense sericata, nigra ; capite subro- 
tundato ; prothorace lato, transverso, cunvexo, in limbo saepius 
anguste dilutiore ; elytris brevibus, rubescentibus sed versus 
angulos externos et scutellum (in spatiis maximis subtriangulari- 
bus) plus minus evidenter sed suffuse obscuratis ; abdomine ad 
apicem subdilutiore ; antennis crassiusculis, nigro-piceis, basi et 
ad apicem ipsissimum, palpis ad basin, pedibusque plus minus 
testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 2|. 

Aleochara puberula, King, Col. Madagase. 51 (1833). 

decorata, Atibe, Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 311 (1850). 

Armitagei, Wall., Lis. Mad. 559 (1854). 

puberula, Id., Cvl. Atl. 473 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 229 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 87 (1870). 

Habitat inter quisquilias in cultis intermediis ; a meipso in borto ad 
Plantation semel capta. 

I took a single example of this widely spread European Aleochara 
amongst garden-refuse at Plantation ; and there can be little doubt 
that the species has been introduced into the island, along, perhaps, 
with consignments of plants. It has become established, in like 
manner, in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Yerde 
groups ; and there are records of it, also, from many distant parts 
of the civilized world. 

The fusiform outline and very densely and minutely punctulated 
surface of the A. puberula, which is sericated all over with a decum- 
bent fulvescent pile, added to the slightly diluted margins of its 
wide prothorax, the ill-defined or suffused oblique reddish dash with 
which each of its elytra is ornamented, and the fact of its rather 
thickened antennae having(not only their base, but) their extreme apex 
testaceous, will sufficiently distinguish it. 



2i STAPHYLINIDJE. 

Genus 9. HOMALOTA. 
Mannerheim, BmcMl. 73 (1831). 

20. Homalota coriaria. 

H. angusto-linearis, subnitida, minutissimo et densissime (in capite 
abdomineque parcius) punctulata pubeque grisea demissa subtili 
sat dense sericata, nigra, elytris (brevibus) plus minus evidenter 
dilutioribus sed versus angulos externos et scuteDum plus minus 
suffuse triangulariter obscuratis ; capite subtransverso-rotundato, 
oculis magnis ; prothorace brevi, transverse, postice rotundato, 
angulis posticis rotundate obtusis sed sensim determinatis, in 
disco postico (interdum ad basin solum) leviter impresso ; antennis 
breviusculis, crassis (art'' subapicalibus conspicue transversis), 
nigro-piceis, ad basin paulum dilutioribus ; pedibus saturate tes- 
taceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. l^-l-g-. 

Homalota coriaria, Kraatz, Nat. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 282 (1856). 

, Wall, Col Atl. 409 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 223 (1867). 

■-, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 88 (1870). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 409 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 1G2 (1875). 

Habitat inter quisquiKas, in intermediis editioribusque (prsesertim 
illis) ; vulgaris. 

The European H. coriaria, which is one of the most widely 
diffused of the Homalotas throughout tlie various Atlantic islands 
(it having been established in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and 
Cape-Verde archipelagos), is universal amongst refuse in the inter- 
mediate districts of St. Helena, — where it must almost certainly have 
been naturalized -(along perhaps with consignments of plants) from 
more northern latitudes. Although commoner in cultivated places, 
and amongst garden rejectamenta, than elsewhere, it ascends likewise 
to the central ridge, — where I have met with it sparingly about 
Diana's Peak and Aetaeon ; but in spots of a lower altitude — such as 
Plantation, West Lodge, and Thompson's Wood — it is far more 
general and abundant. 

Its posteriorly rounded head and prothorax (the latter of which 
is wide, abbreviated, and basally impressed), in conjunction with its 
short, dilated, and very densely and finely punctulated elytra, and 
its considerably thickened antennae, will suffice to separate the 
H. coriaria from the only other Homalota with which we have here 
to do. 



STAPHYLINIDjE. ^o 

21. Homalota helenensis, n. sp. 

H. prsecedenti prima facie similis, sed sensim rugosius punctulata, 
capite pone oculos paululum minus rotundato, prothorace sensim 
minus abbreviato et postice minutius impresso, elytris sublongio- 
ribus (sc. quadratis) ac vix depressioribus, magis regulariter fus- 
cescentibus (aut minus subtestaceo-dilutis), antennisque longiori- 
bus ac multo gracilioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. lg-l|. 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis ; sub cortice Compositarum arborcs- 
centium laxo marcido, necnon inter quisquilias, degens. 

So far as I am able to judge, the present Homalota seems to be 
truly indigenous at St. Helena, — and, indeed, the only member 
hitherto observed of that very extensive genus which has any claim 
to belong to the aboriginal fauna of the island. At any rate, it is on 
the high central ridge alone that I met with it, — where it abounds 
beneath the damp and loosened bark of the various cabbage-trees, 
as well as amongst decaying vegetable refuse, in the neighbourhood 
of Diana's Peak and Actceon ; and I have no recollection of having 
ever captured it within the strictly cultivated districts. 

Although with every appearance of being a real native of the 
island, the Jielenensis is nevertheless a most ordinary-looking and in- 
conspicuous Homalota, and one which has much the prima facie 
contour of the coriaria (with which, indeed, in the loftier regions, it 
is frequently found associated). There can be no question, however, 
that it is trulj' and altogether distinct from that species, — its more 
coarsely punctulated surface, and its longer and thinner antennae, 
being sufficient, even of themselves, to separate it. But, apart from 
these characters, its head is not quite so much rounded-oif behind 
the eyes, its prothorax is appreciably less abbreviated and more 
minutely impressed in the centre of the base, and its elytra are a 
trifle longer or more quadrate, as well as for the most j)art of a 
more uniformly dark piceous brown, — the slightly diluted portions 
being seldom, if ever, subtestaceous. 

(Subfam. 2. STAPH YLIN IDES.) 

Genus 10. CREOPHILUS. 
(Kirby) Steph., ///. JJrit. Eut. v. 202 (1832). 

22. Creophilus maxillosus. 
C. magnus, elongatus, parallelus, ater ; capite prothoraceque nitidis- 



26 STAPHYLINID^. 

simis, illo subquadrato, in disco minute et leviter sed ad latera et 
postice grossissime parce et profiinde punctate, cello aperto crasso 
convexo, ad latera et postice grosse punctato ; hoc subquadrato 
sed postice paulum angustiore et rotundato, angulis posticis rotun- 
datis, ad latera sinuate, (limbo angiiste punctato excepto) fere im- 
punctato, versus angulos anticos longe nigro-piloso ; scutello ely- 
trisque distinctius punctatis, his punctis perpaucis maximis in 
disco exteriori lougitudinaliter notatis, longe nigro-pilosis fascia- 
que magna transversa cinerefx ornatis ; abdomiue dense asperato- 
punctulato, longe nigro-piloso pilisque cinereis (pra?sertim in 
segmentis intermediis) fasciato-marmorato ; antennis pedibusque 
nigris, tibiis dense pilosis ac spinulosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 9-11. 

Stapliylinus maxUlosus, Linn., Syst. Nat. 421 (1758). 
CreopliHus maxillosus, Woll, Coll. Atl. 487 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hid. v. 35 (1870). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 90 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 163 (1875). 

Habitat in cadaveribus, putridis, et etiam (rarius) stercore bovino, 
per regiones intermedias et editiores, passim ; ex alienis certe 
introductus. 

The common European C. maxillosus (so well distinguished by its 
large size and deep-black, darkly-pilose surface, which, however, is 
ornamented across the elytra with a broad whitish band, and which 
has the abdominal segments more or less mottled with smaller 
fasciae of the same hue) has become naturalized at St. Helena, as it 
has in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Cape-Yerde archipelagos. In 
all probability it is well-nigh universal, though it was only at inter- 
mediate and lofty altitudes (from Plantation to the central ridge) 
that I happened to meet with it. As elsewhere, it occurs usually 
beneath dead animals and amongst putrid substances generally, and 
occasionally also (though rarely) in the droppings of cattle. Mr. 
Melliss states that he has found it in the vicinity of churchyards. 

Genus 11. PHILONTHUS. 
(Leach) Curt., Brit. JSnt. xiii. t. 610 (1825). 

§ I. Prothoracis seriebus dorsalibus e punctis 4 {'prceter hasalcm) 

compositis. 

23. Philonthus flavoterminatus, n. sp. 

P. angustulo -linearis ; capite prothoraceque atris, nitidissimis, illo 
subquadrato-ovali punctisque perpaucis magnis utrinque irrorato, 



STAPHYLINID^. 27 

hoc elongato-quadrato, ad latera (extus seriem punctorum 4) 
punctis magnis circa 4 notato ; scutello elytrisque senescentibus, 
sat dense subasperato-punctatis, his stria subsuturali obtusa 
impressis, griseo-pilosis ; abdomine nigro, griseo-piloso, parce 
asperato-punctato, segm'"' 2 basalibus postice transversim convexis 
necnon ad basim ipsam in medio grossius puuctatis ; antennis 
(art" 1™° valde elongate, 3"° elongate, 2''" huic breviore) pedibusque 
elongatis, gracilibus, illis nigrescentibus art'° 2 idterioribus subito 
et laete flavo-testaceis, femoribus testaceis, tibiis tarsisque testaceo- 
piceis. 

Mas antennis longioribus, capite majore et magis quadrato, tarsis 
anticis paulum dilatatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 3-3i. 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque insulse ; in humidis rarissimus. 

This extremely distinct Philonthus may perhaps be a true native 
of the island, though the few examples of it which I have yet seen 
(only three in number) are perhaps scarcely sufficient to warrant a 
conjecture on that point. It was first met with by Mr. Gray on the 
high central ridge ; and subsequently by myself in the same locality, 
as well as in a muddy spot at Plantation. 

Apart from its prothoracic line of dorsal punctures being com- 
posed of only four on either side (though I should mention that in 
one of my examples, a male, there is o. fifth one, in each series, at the 
base, — which, however, I imagine belongs in reality to the few which 
are scattered along the hinder margin, rather than to the central 
longitudinal rows), the P. fiavoterminatus may instantly be recog- 
nized by its br'ussy elytra and the two bright yellowish articulations 
which terminate its otherwise nearly black antennae. Its head, in 
the male sex, is large and squarish ; its first and third antennal 
joints (especially the former) are conspicuously elongated ; and its 
femora are testaceous, with the tibiae and tarsi a good deal (though 
by no means altogether) picescent. 

§ II. Prothoracis seriehus dorsalihus e punctis 5 compositis. 

24. Philonthus longicornis. 

P. angustulus, fusiformi-linearis, ater ; capite prothoraceque niti- 
dissimis, illo ovali punctisque perpaucis magnis utrinque irrorato, 
hoc subconico (antice angustiore), ad latera (extra seriem puncto- 
rum 5) punctis magnis perpaucis notato ; scutello elytrisque sat 
dense asperato-punctulatis ac longe griseo-pilosis, concoloribus, 
his integris (nee stria subsuturali impressis) ; abdomine minutius 



28 staphyliniDjE. 

parciusque punctulato et obsoletissime submetallico-tincto, griseo- 
piloso ; antennis brunneo-nigris ; pedibus nigro-piceis, coxis 
anticis saturate testaceis et etiam femoribus interdum paululum 
subtestaceo-dilutioribus, tarsis posterioribus elongatis. 

Mas antennis sublongioribus, tarsis anticis dilatatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 3-4. 

Plailontbus longicornis (Kby.), Steph., III. Brit. Ent. v. 237 (1832). 

scybalarius et fuscicornis, Nonhn., Symb. 94, 96 (1838). 

, IVolL, Col. Atl. 492 (18(i5). 

, Id., Col. Heqy. 237 (1867). 

lougicornis, Id., Ann. Nat. Hid. viii. 409 (1871). 

, 3IelUss, St. IM. 162 (1870). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque, passim ; sub quisquiliis ster- 
coreque bovino degens. Certe introductus. 

The common European P. longicornis (at once distinguished 
amongst the few Philonthi here enumerated by its large size and 
uniformly black hue, — the anterior coxae, and sometimes even the 
femora, being alone a little diluted, or subtestaceous ) is pretty gene- 
rally distributed over the intermediate and lofty districts of St. 
Helena, — from about the altitude of Plantation (where it is tolerably 
abundant amongst decaying garden-refuse) to the central ridge ; and 
there can be no doubt that it has been naturalized from more 
northern latitudes. Owing to its constant liability to accidental 
transmission amongst civilized countries, it is a species which has 
acquired for itself a wide geographical range ; and in the Azorean, 
Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Verde groups, as well as at Ascension 
(where it was taken, on the Green Mountain, by the late Mr. 
Bewicke), it has become completely established. 

25. PMlonthus discoideus. 

P. angustulo-linearis, niger (ssepe piceo-niger) ; capite prothoraceque 
nitidissimis, illo subquadrato convexo punctisque perpaucis magnis 
utrinque irrorato, hoc elongate subconico-quadrato, ad latera 
(extra seriem punotorum 5) punctis magnis perpaucis notato ; 
scutello elytrisque sat dense subasperato-punctiilatis et longe ful- 
vescenti-pilosis, his per suturam rufo-ferrugineis lineaque subsu- 
turali obsoleta leviter impressis ; abdomine piceo-nigro, minute 
subasperato-punctulato, fulvo-piloso ; antennis breviusculis, sub- 
moniliformibus, Isete ferrugiueis ; pedibus piceo-testaceis. 

Mas antennis sublongioribus, tarsis anticis dilatatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2\. 

Staphylinus discoideus, Grav., Col. Micropt. 38 (1802V 
Philonthus discoideus, Woll., Col. Atl. 493 (1865). 
, Id., Col. Heiip. 238 (1867). 



STAPHYLINID/E. 29 

Habitat in intermediis insulae ; a meipso, sub quisquiliis ad Planta- 
tion, semel deprehensus. 

Like the P. longiconiis and nigritidus, this common European 
Philonthus is of course a merely introduced insect at St. Helena, — 
where in all probability it must have been imported originally 
along with consignments of plants. The only example of it which 
I have seen was captured by myself, amongst garden-refuse, at 
Plantation ; but the species would most likely be found to be suffi- 
ciently abundant if searched for in similar localities. It has, in like 
manner, become established in the Madeirau, Canarian, and Cape- 
Verde archipelagos. 

Apart from the Jive punctures of which either row of its dorsal 
prothoracic series is composed, the P. discoideus (which is the 
smallest of the St.-Helena PliRonthi except the nigritidus) may be 
recognized by it« subquadrate head and its rather short, submonili- 
form, brightly ferruginous antennae, as well as by its suture being 
broadly and conspicuously diluted in hue. Its elytra and abdomen 
are clothed with a slightly golden, or fulvescent, pile ; and its subsu- 
tural line is shallow and very lightly impressed. 

§ III. Prothoracis seriebus dorsalibus e punctis 6 compositis. 

26. Philonthus nigrituliis. 

P. angustulo-sublinearis, niger ; capite prothoraceque nitidissimis, 
illo subquadrato sed postice in 5 paululum angustiore. punctis 
perpaucis maguis utrinque irrorato, hoc elongate subconico-qua- 
drato, ad latera (extra seriem punctorum 6, interdum solum 
5 certe conspicuorum) punctis magnis perpaucis notato ; scutello 
elytrisque sat dense punctatis, griseo-pilosis, concoloribus (aut in- 
terdum obsoletissime subfuscescentioribus), stria subsuturali leviter 
impressis ; abdomine minutissime subasperato-punctulato, griseo- 
piloso ; anteunis nigrescentibus, ad basin paulxilum dilutioribus ; 
pedibus picescenti-testaceis. 

Mas capite paululum oblongiore, tarsis anticis (ut in § ) simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 2. 

Staphvlinus nigritulus et aterrimus, Grav., Col. Mtcrojit. 41 (1802). 
Philonthus aterrimus, WulL, Ins. Mad. 584 (1854). 

nigritulus, Id, Col. Atl. 494 (1865). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 91 (1870). 

Habitat in cultis intermediis ; rarissimus. 

I have seen but two St.-Helena examples of this insignificant 



30 STAPHYLINIDiE. 

little European Philonihus, one of which was captured by Mr. Gray 
at Plantation, and the other by myself at West Lodge ; and there 
cannot be much doubt that the species (as in the case of the 
P. lotigicornis and discoideus) must have been introduced originally 
into the island from more northern latitudes. It has become esta- 
blished, in like manner, in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian 
archipelagos ; but we did not happen to meet with it at the Cape 
Verdes. 

Its small size and dark concolorous hue (the legs alone being 
piceo-testaceous), added to its rather distinctly punctured elytra 
(which, together with the abdomen, are clothed with a coarse 
griseous pubescence), will suffice to separate the P. nigritulns from 
the few other Philonthi with which we are here concerned. Judging 
from the two noiv hefore me., the St. -Helena examples would seem to 
have their elytra a trifle more coarsely punctured than is the case in 
the ordinary European ones, and the front puncture of their protho- 
racic series appears to be (as is not unusual elsewhere) obsolete. 



§ IV. Prothoracis seriebus dorsalibus e pimctis 6 vel 7 compositis. 

27. Philonthus turbidus. 

P. angustulo-linearis, subpiceo-niger ; capite prothoraceque nitidis- 
simis, illo subquadrato-ovali punctisque perpaucis magnis utrinque 
irrorato, hoc subconico (antice angustiore), ad latera (extra seriem 
punctorum 6 vel 7) punctis perpaucis notato ; scutello elytrisque 
sensim picescentioribus, dense et argute subasperato-punctatis, 
longe griseo-pilosis. his stria subsuturali leviter impressis ; abdo- 
mine minutius sed dense subasperato-punctulato, subiridescenti, 
longe griseo-piloso ; antennis brunneis, ad basin vix dilutioribus ; 
palpis pedibusque piceo-testaceis. 

Mas antennis sublongioribus, tarsis anticis dilatatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3^-4i. 

Philonthus turbidus, Brich., Gen. et. Spec. Staph. 484 (1839). 

punctipennis, Woll., Col. Ail. 494 (1865). 

turbidus, Id., Col. Hesp. 240 (1867). 

Habitat (rarior) in intermediis editioribusque insulse ; sub quisqui- 
liis marcidis putridis latens. 

The only three St.-Helena examples which I have seen of this 
somewhat large and very distinct Philonthus are one which was 
found by Mr. Gray on the central ridge, and two which I met with 
myself (beneath damp and decaying garden-refuse) at Plantation. 



STAPHYLINID^. 31 

It is a species of a very extensively acquired range, though one 
which does not appear anywhere (so far, at least, as my own expe- 
rience is concerned ) to be even locaUy abundant ; nevertheless it has 
established itself sparingly in the Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape- 
Verde groups, and it has been recorded from many countries widely 
separated from each other, — such as Madagascar, the Mauritius, 
Egypt, and Assam. 

Apart from its rather large size and slightly piceous-hlsick hue 
(particularly as regards the elytra), the F. turbidus may be recog- 
nized by its prothorax being somewhat narrowed (or compressed) 
anteriorly (as in the P. longiconiis), by its elytral punctures being 
rather deep and sharply defined, and by its abdomen (which is more 
finely but closely punctulated) being usually a little iridescent. 



(Subfam. 3. XANTHOLINIDES.) 

Genus 12. XANTHOLINUS. 

Dahl, in Encycl. Meth. x. 475 (1825). 

28. Xantholinus morio. 

X. angusto-linearis, elongatus, nitidus, niger ; capite prothoraceque 
nitidissimis, illo elougato-subquadrato, postice subrecte truncato, 
punctis paucis magnis utrinque irrorato, in fronte breviter bicani- 
culato, hoc elongato, subparallelo, ad latera (extra sei'iem puncto- 
rum 6-7) punctis perpaucis notato; elytris concoloribus, parcissime 
griseo-pubescentibus necnon confuse et laxe subseriatim punctatis, 
costa suturali arcuata (postice subevanesceute) instructis ; abdo- 
mine in dorso fere impunctato, ad latera punctulis minutis subas- 
peratis parce irrorato, parcissime griseo-piloso ; autennis ferrugi- 
neis, art'* 1""° et 3*'° picescentibus ; pedibus dilute piceis, tarsis 
fere testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 3-3|. 

Xantholinus morio, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 410 (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 163 (1875). 

Habitat in editioribus ; sub cortice emortuo laxo putrido Composita- 
rwn arborescentium praecipue latitans. 

In all probability the present Xantholinus belongs to the aboriginal 
fauna of the island. At any rate it seems peculiar to the higher 
elevations, never descending (so far as I am aware) into the strictly 
cultivated districts ; indeed the lowest altitude at which I observed 



.'52 STAPH YLINIDit. 

it was Vine-Tree Gut (nearly 2000 feet above the sea), — a small 
ravine .between Oakbank and Hutt's Gate, issiiin<i: out of Stitch's 
Ridge. In the direction, however, of Diana's Peak and Actseon 
(where it was found likewise by Mr. Gray) it is far more abundant, 
occurring especially beneath the damp and putrid bark of the 
decayed cabbage trees ; and I have captured it commonly (particu- 
larly on the wing) amongst the cabbage trees at Cason's, as well as 
at West Lodge and (more sparingly) on the summit of High Peak. 

The uniformly deep black hue of the X niorio — the antennoe of 
which, however, are ferruginous, with their first and third joints 
darkish, whilst the legs are diluted piceous and the feet nearly, 
testaceous, — added to its rather elongate-subquadrate head (the 
hinder angles of which are obtusely rounded) and concolorous 
elytra, will sufficiently distinguish it from the following species. 

29. Xantholinus armatus, n. sp. 

X. praecedenti similis, sed paulum minor, capite etiam submagis 
elongato-quadrato, angulis posticis minus rotundatis aut multo 
magis determinatis (sc. minutissime etiam exstantibus), utrinque 
densius punctato, prothoracis seriebus dorsalibus e punctis 
minoribus ac paulum magis numerosis (sc. 8-9) compositis, 
aliisque versus latera magis curvatim dispositis, elytris sensim 
dilutioribus, postice etiam subtestaceo-translucentibus, antennis 
pedibusque pallidioribus (sc. rufo-testaceis). 

Long. corp. Hn. 2i. 

Habitat in intermediis insulse, rarissimus. Dua specimina ad Plan- 
tation cepi. 

The present Staphylinid has much the appearance at first sight of 
the common European Leptacinus parumpunctatus ; but the less 
reduced terminal joint of its palpi show it to be a true Xantholinus ; 
whilst its tivo (instead of four) frontal grooves, and the smaller and 
more numerous punctures of its prothoracic series, will stiU further 
distinguish it from that insect. From the X. morio it differs in 
being smaller, and in having its head (which is more densely 
punctured on either side) not only more strictly elongate-quadrate 
but with the posterior angles less rounded ofi^, — the latter being, in 
fact, minutely prominent, or thickened into what might almost be 
defined as a small anguliform spinule. Its elytra, also, instead of 
being black, are (as in the European X. hesperius and the Leptacinus 
parumpunctatus) slightly diluted in hue, and even testaceous (and 



STAPHYLINID.E. 33 

somewhat translucent) bchii\d ; its prothorax has the dorsal series 
composed of punctules which are both smaller and a little more 
numerous, the sublateral ones also having a tendency to be arranged 
in a longitudinal curve ; its elytral punctures are likewise less 
coarse, and more longitudinally disposed ; and its limbs are altoge- 
ther paler, being rufo-testaceous. 

The only examples of the X. armatus which I have yet seen are 
two which were captured by myself at Plantation. 



(Subfam. 4. P.EDEEIDES.) 

Genus 13. LITHOCHARIS. 
(Dejean) Boisd., Faun. Ent. de Paris, i. 431 (1835). 

30. Lithocharis ochracea. 

L. linearis, fusco-ferruginea, subopaca, confertissime subtilissimeque 
punctulata pubeque grisea demissa vestita ; capite magno, con- 
vexo, triangulari-quadrato, magis nigrescente, octdis magnis ; pro- 
thorace subquadrato ; elj-tris sutura vix dilutiore ; abdomine fus- 
cesccntiore, versus apicem paulum dilutiore ; antennis, palpis, 
pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1|. 

Psederus ocliraceus, Grav., Col. Micropt. 59 (1802). 
Lithocharis ochracea, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 623 (1839). 

, WolL, Col. All. 506 (1865). 

, M, Col. Hesp. 244 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 92 (1870). 

Habitat inter quisquilias in intermediis ; in horto ad Plantation 
capta. 

Several individuals of a Lithocharis which I took amongst garden- 
refuse at Plantation are manifestly referable to the common European 
L. ochracea, Grav., a species which has become naturalized in the 
Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Verde archipelagos ; and 
there can be no question that at St. Helena also it must have been 
introduced originally from higher latitudes. The proportions of 
their rather large and subtri angularly quadrate head, added to their 
somewhat opake griseo-pubescent surface, and their extremely fine 
and close punctation, are in exact accordance with the more northern 
examples. 

s 



34 STAPHYL1NI1)/K. 

'M. Lithocharis debilicomis. 

L. linearis, elaie rufo-ferruginea elytris testaceis, suhopaca, patce 
griseo-pilosa ; capite prothoraceque minute alutaceis punctulisque 
levibus (in illo parce) irroratis, illo maguo, convexo, quadrate, 
basi rectissime truncate, oculis parvis sed prominulis ; prothorace 
subquadrato, postico paululum angustiore, antice in medio sub- 
prodocto ; elytris dense et confuse punctatis ; antennis (brevissi- 
mis, moniliformibus), palpis, pedibusque (brevibus) testaceis, tarsis 
gracilibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-vix 1|. 

Lithocharis debilicornis, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 194 (July 1857). 

brevicornis, AUard, Ann. Sor. Ent. de France, 747 (1857). 

a?gvptiaca, Mots., Bull, de Mosc. 664 (1858). 

debilicornis, Woll, Col. Atl. 508 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 245 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 93 (1870). 

Habitat inter quisquilias et sub gramine desiccate, in intermediis ; 
minus frequena. 

This very singular little Lithocharis, which seems to have a rather 
wide African and South-European range (occurring in Egypt and in 
Mediterranean latitudes generally, as well as in the Azorean, 
Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Yerde archipelagos), I met with 
amongst garden-refuse and cut grass at Plantation, but in no great 
abimdance. It is a species which may be readily recognized by its 
small size and clear rufo-ferruginous hue, the elytra, however, 
being more diluted and almost testaceous ; by its relatively large, 
square, and convex head (which, together with the prothorax, is 
minutely alutaceous, but sprinkled also with light but evident 
punctules) ; by its eyes being smaU but prominent ; by its prothorax 
being a trifle narrowed posteriorly and rather mesially produced in 
front ; and by its antennae (which are exceedingly short and monili- 
form) being, together with the legs, testaceous. 

(Subfam. 5. OXYTELIDES.) 

Genus 14. OXYTELUS. 

Gravenhorst, Col. Micropt. 101 (1802). 

§ I. Antennis art" 8 ulterioribus gradatim incrassatis. 

32. Oxytelus sculptus. 
0. linearis, nitidus, niger elytris plus minus piceo-testaceis ; capite 



STAPHYLINID^. 35 

subtriangulari, confuse punctato, postice in medio distincte cana- 
liculate, clypeo impunctato sed grosse alutaceo opaco at antice 
fere immarginato, oculis maximis, prominentibus ; prothorace 
transverso-subquadrato postice paulum angustiore, substriguloso- 
punctato, in disco profunde trisulcato (sulcis externis sub- 
curvatis) ; elytris dense punctato-strigulosis ; abdomine fere im- 
punctato ; antennis longiusculis, fusco-nigris, art" 3 basalibus 
rufo-fernigineis ; pedibus testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. l|-2. 

Oxytelus sculptus, Grav., Mon. 191 (1806). 

, Wall, Ins. Mad. 607 (1854). 

, Id., Col. Atl. 516 (1865). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azov. 93 (1870). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque (praesertim illis), inter quisqui- 
lias in humidis parce occurrens. 

The common European 0. sculptus has become naturalized at St. 
Helena, in like manner as it has in the Azorean, Madeiran, and 
Canarian archipelagos. Nevertheless the only two spots in which I 
happened to observe it are Plantation and Cason's, at the former of 
which I met with a tolerable number of examples amongst garden- 
refuse. At first sight it very closely resembles the 0. alutaceifrons, 
which is so universal throughout the inland ; nevertheless it is, on 
the average, a little larger, its head (which is wider behind) is less 
coarsely and less densely punctured, and has the short central 
channel more distinct, its eyes are very much larger, its clypeus is 
unmargined in front, and its antennae are not only longer but have 
their three basal joints more brightly rufo-ferruginous. 



33. Oxytelus alutaceifrons. 

0. prsecedenti similis, sed subminor, oculis multo minoribus, anten- 
nisque conspicue brevioribus ; capite postice sensim angustiore, 
rugosius densiusque punctato, et canalicula obscuriore impresso, 
clypeo antice evidenter marginato, antennis ad basin minus con- 
spicue dilutis. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-vix 2. 

Obs. — Species 0. pkeo, Grav., affinis; sed oculis minoribus, 
clypeo omnino impunctato depressiore et magis opaco, prothorace 
postice sensim magis angustato, angulis posticis subexstanter 
rectioribus necnon sulcis externis profundioribus, elytrisque sub- 
minoribus, praecipue differt. 

Oxytelus alutaceifrons, WolL, Ami. Nat. Hist. viii. 410 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 163 (1875). 

D 2 



36 STAPH YLINID/E. 

Habitat sub stercore bovino et equino, necnon inter quisquilias, in 
interrnediis editioribusque insulsc ; vulgaris. 

This may be regarded as the universal Oxytelus of St. Helena, 
though, as "we did not collect to any great extent in the more arid 
districts adjoining the coast, I am unable to say whether it descends 
much below the intermediate altitudes. From about the level, 
however, of Plantation (some 1800 feet above the sea) to the 
extreme summit of the central ridge it occurs, amongst decaying 
vegetable refuse and the droppings of cattle, almost everywhere — my 
own specimens being chiefly from Plantation, West Lodge, Cason's, 
and the vicinity of Diana's Peak ; and it was captured likewise by 
Mr. Gray. 

In size and general aspect the 0. alutaceifrons very closely 
resembles the European 0. piceus, Grav., which has been naturalized 
in the Madeiran and Canarian groups ; nevertheless its eyes are 
conspicuously smaller, its clypeus is more decidedly unpunctured, 
as well as flatter and more opake, its prothorax is a little narrower 
behind and has the posterior angles (though not exactly prominent) 
more strictly right angles, and the outer grooves perhaps a trifle 
deeper, and its elytra are appreciably shorter or less developed. 



§ II. Antennarum art'" 3 (vix distincte 5 vel 6) ulterioribus 
incrassatis. 

34. Oxytelus nitidifrons. 

0. linearis, nitidus ; capite nigro, prothorace elytrisque rufo-ferru- 
gineis, his postice obscurioribus ; capite prothoraceque transversis, 
confuse et dense rugoso-punctatis, iUo transverso-subquadrato, 
postice convexo et in medio canalicula brevissima obscura impresso, 
clypeo nitidissimo fere impunctato convexo transverse antice 
truncate et immarginato, oculis parvis, mandibulis elongatis por- 
rectis ruib-piceis ; prothorace brevissimo, postice vix angustiore, 
in disco confuse trisulcato (sulcis postice subevanescentibus) ; ely- 
tris brevibus, dense punctato-strigulosis ; abdomine fere impun- 
ctato, piceo sed antice subtestaceo-dilutiore ; antennis pedibusque 
gracilibus, illis fusco-nigris sed basin versus clare rufo-ferrugineis, 
his testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Oxytelus nitidifrons, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 411 (1871). 
, Melliss, 1st. Hel. 163 (1875). 

Habitat inter quisquilias in intermediis, necnon parcius sub cortice 



STAPHYLINID/E. 37 

Compositarum arboreseeutium laxo putrido in cditioribus ; 
IJassim. 

I believe this very remarkable little O.vytdm to be a true native 
of the island — its claim for being regarded as aboriginal seeming to 
rae to be greater than those of even the still more universal 0. 
alutaceifrons. It is only at intermediate and lofty altitudes that I 
observed it, and nowhere in any great abundance. At Plantation, 
however, it is sufficiently common (where it occurs under garden- 
refuse and cut grass) ; and on the high central ridge I met with it 
sparingly beneath the damp and rotting bark of the old cabbage- 
trees. 

Apart from its much smaller size and more variegated surface — 
the head being black, and the prothorax and elytra bright rufo- 
ferruginous (though the latter are gradually more and more obscured 
posteriorly), whilst the abdomen ispiceousbut more diluted towards 
the base — the 0. nitidifrons may be recognized by its head, pro- 
thorax, and elytra being each of them rather unusually short and 
transverse, the prothorax especially being much abbreviated and 
hardly (if at all) narrowed behind, by its ch'peus being highly 
polished, nearly unsculptured, transverse, and considerably truncated 
(as well as unmargined) in front, by its eyes being small, and con- 
sequently very anterior in position, and bj- its limbs being slender. 
Its antennae indeed (which are dark, but brightly rufo-ferruginous 
at the base) are not only less incrassated towards their apex, but 
have a smaller number of joints distinctly thickened — the terminal 
three being alone conspicuously widened (for the preceding two are 
scarcely broader than the basal ones). Its mandibles also are 
somewhat longer and more porrect than in the majority of the 
OxyteU, though less produced than those of the South-American 
0. imignitus, Erich., which has become naturalized in the island of 
St. Thomas and at Madeira. 

Genus 15. TROGOPHL(EUS. 

Mannerheim, Brachel. 49 (1831). 

35. Trogophlceus corticinus. 

T. minutus, angustulo-linearis,niger, ubique densissime et subtilissime 
punctulatus pubeque cinerea vestitus ; capite magno, rotundato- 
subquadrato, in fronte breviter longitudinaliter bifoveolato, oculis 
sat parvis sed prominulis, a basi parum remotis ; prothorace sub- 



38 NITIDULlDiE. 

cordato(po8tice sensim angustato), in disco posticopauluminaequali, 
sc. obsolete bicanaliculato (canaliculis extus curvatis sed vix sub- 
interruptis) ; elytris stria suturali obtusa (postice subevanescente) 
leviter notatis ; antennis palpisque fusco-nigrescentibus, ad basin 
vix dilutioribus ; pedibus piceo-testaceis, femoribus obscurioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. circa 1. 

Oxytelus corticinus, Grav., Mon. 192 (1806). 

Trogophloeus corticinus, Erich., Gen. et Spec. Staph. 809 (1839). 

nanus, Wall, Ins. 3Iad. 611 (1854). 

corticinus, Id., Col. Atl. 519 (1865). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 94 (1870). 

Habitat in intermediis humidis lutosis, rarissimus ; a meipso ad 
Plantation bis captus. 

Two examples of this very minute and insignificant European 
Trogophlceus, which occurs likewise in the Azorean, JIadeiran, and 
Canarian archipelagos, embody all that I have seen of the species in 
St. Helena. They were both of them captured by myself at Plan- 
tation, — one beneath garden-refuse, and the other by treading out 
the mud in a marshy spot. It is the smallest of the Staphylinids 
which have been met with in the island ; and, in addition to this, 
its uniformly black surface, which is most minutely and densely 
punctulated all over, as well as clothed with a cinereous or whitish 
pubescence, in conjunction with its somewhat small but prominent 
eyes and the slight inequalities on the hinder disk of its prothorax 
(^ which may be said to be a generic feature of the Trogophloei), will 
serve to distinguish it from every thing else with which we have 
here to do. Its antennse are almost wholly black (the base being 
but very faintly diluted in hue) ; and its legs are piceo-testaceous, — 
the femora, however, being weU-nigh entirely piceous. 



Sectio 5. NECROPHAGA. 

Fam. 5. NITIDULID^. 

Genus 16. CARPOPHILUS. 

Stephens, ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 50 (1830). 

36. Carpophilus hemipterus. 

C. ovalis, latiusculus, dense sed hand profunde punctatus, niger 
elytris Isete flavo-maculatis, subopacus, pube parva subcineren 



NITIDULIDiE. 39 

dense vestitus ; prothorace magno, convexo, subquadrato, iitrinque 
versus angulos posticos late sed obsolete impresso ; coleopteris 
valde abbreviatis, postice triangulariter truncatis, ad latera sub- 
rotundatis, utrinque maciilis duabus subrotuiidatis flavo-testaceis 
(unci sc. ad bumeros et altera majore ad angulos apicales internes 
positis) laete decoratis ; antennis pedibusque rufo-testaceis, capitulo 
magno, picescentiore. 
Long, corp, lin. 1^, 

Dermestes bemipterus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 667 (1767). 
Carpophilus hemipterus, Murray, Man. Niticl. 362 (1864). 

, Woll., Col. Atl. 108 (I860). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 58 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 399 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 139 (187o). 

Habitat in mercatorum repositoriis ; certe ex alienis introductus. 

I did not happen to meet with this introduced and well-nigh 
cosmopolitan insect at St. Helena, having had but little leisure for 
the examination of the mere houses and stores ; but a few examples 
of it were among the collectanea of Mr. Melliss, who doubtless must 
have obtained them either at Jamestown or else amongst culinary 
substances which had been brought thence. Although apparently 
established in the island (as it has become in the Madeiran, Canarian, 
and Cai^e-Yerde archipelagos), I need scarcely add that it has 
no connexion whatever with the real fauna of St. Helena. 

The rather broad and shortly-oval outline of the C. hemipterus, 
added to the two bright yellowish- testaceous spots (one of which is 
placed at the shoulder, and the other, which is larger, at the inner 
apical angle) with which each of its greatly-abbreviated elytra is 
adorned, in conjunction with its otherwise dark but densely pubes- 
cent, subopake, closely piTnctured surface, and its rufo-testaceous 
limbs (the rounded and much developed antennal club being alone 
piceseent), will sufficiently distinguish it from every thing else which 
concerns us in this volume. 



37. Carpophilus dimidiatus. 

C. oblonguS; angustior, parcius ac multo profundius punctatus, niger 
elytris subdilutioribus et obsolete subrufulo oblique nebulosis, 
subuitidus, pube grossii fulvo-cinerea parce vestitus ; prothorace 
magno, convexo, transverso-subquadrato, ad latera subdistinctius 
marginato et paululum minus rotundato ; coleopteris abbreviatis, 
postice sub triangulariter truncatis, ad latera subparallelis (angulis 
humeralibus fere rectis), sensira picco-subdilutioribus et plaga 



40 NlTlDULIDiE. 

magna obsoleta sufFusa valde obliqua paulum rufescentiore 
utrinque plus minus evidenter nebulosis ; antennis pedibusque 
piceo-testaceis, capitulo picescentiore, tibiis sensim miuus dilatatis, 
tarsis brevioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-1 3. 

Nitidula dimidiata. Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 261 (1792). 
Carpophihis auropilosus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 117 (1854) 

dimidiatus, Murray, Mon. Nitid. 379 (1864). 

, Woll., Col. Atl. 107 (1865). 

— , Id., Col. Hesp. 59 (1867). 

, /(/., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 399 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 139 (1875). 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens ; necnon (rarius) etiam sub 
cortice arborum arido laxo in cultis. Certe introductus. 

The present CarpopMlus is almost equally cosmopolitan with the 
G. hemijyterus, — it being quite as subject to accidental introduction, 
along with dried fruits and various other stores, throughout the 
civilized world. Although rare at St. Heleua, it would appear (so 
far at least as my own observations are concerned) to have established 
itself more completely than the hemipterus, — inasmuch as it is to be 
met with occasionally even beneath the dead and loosened bark of 
trees in cultivated spots. Under such circumstances I captured it 
sparingly near West Lodge, within the former garden of a ruined 
cottage. On account of its constant liability to accidental trans- 
mission, it is a species of a widely acquired range, and one which 
has become naturalized in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and 
Cape-Yerde archipelagos, — in all of which it is extremely partial, 
along with the C. mutilatus, Erich., to decaying figs and oranges. 

The 0. dimidiatus is rather narrower, straighter, and more oblong 
than the liemipterus, as well as more shining, more remotely and 
much more deeply punctured, and sparingly clothed with a coarser 
and more golden pubescence ; moreover its elytra (instead of being 
adorned with the foiir brightly testaceous spots of that species) are 
nearly black, though more or less suffused with a large and often 
very indistinct subrufescent dash, extending obliquely from either 
shoulder towards the middle of the suture, — so as to leave a trian- 
gular space about the scutelhim which, like the region towards the 
outer apical angle (and like the head and prothorax), is compara- 
tively dark. Its prothorax also, which is more evidently margined 
at the sides, appears to have no indication (or scarcely any) of the 
wide but very shallow impression which is usually traceable towards 



MONOTOMID^. 41 

the hinder angles in the G. lumijiUrus; its elytra are more rectan- 
gular at the shoulders ; its limbs are not quite so pale ; its tibiae are 
just perceptibly slenderer ; and its feet are less elongate *. 



Fam. 6. MONOTOMID^. 

Genus 17. MONOTOMA. 

Herbst, Natursyst. v. (1793). 

38. Monotonia spinicoUis. 

M. nigro-picea {hnmatura ferruginea), fere opaca, rugosa, parce 
cinereo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque profunde punetatis, illo 
longiusculo oculis ante basin sitis, hoc subconico sed ad latera 
subrotundato angulis anticis in spinam magnam exstantem pro- 
ductis, postice in medio bifoveolato ; elytris ad humeros saepius (in- 
terdum etiam laete) subpicescentioribus, profunde seriatim pune- 
tatis ; antennis pedibusque robustis, clare rufo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. liu. circa 1|. 

Monotoma spinicollis, Aube^ Ann, Soc. Ent. de France, 463 (1837). 

spinifera, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 67 (1857) . 

spinicollis, Id., Col. All. 118 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 60 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azov. 68 (1870). 

Habitat inter quisquilias in cultis intermediis, ad Plantation 
abundans. 

The widely-spread European M. spinicollis, which has established 
itself in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape- Verde archipe- 
lagos, and which was found by Mr. Gray at the Cape of Good Hope, 
has in like manner become naturalized at St. Helena, — where it 
is common beneath decaying garden-refuse, and cut grass, at interme- 
diate altitudes. Under such circumstances I met with it abundantly 
at Plantation. 

The powerful, outwardly-directed (or spiniform) anterior protho- 
raeic angles, and extremely coarse roughened sculpture, of this 

* The C. dimidiatus is very closely allied to the C. mutdafus, Ei-ich., a species 
equally liable to importation, and which has become established in the Azorean, 
Madeiran, and Cape- Verde groups; but it is, on the average, a little smaller, 
narrower, more shining, and more deeply punctured ; its colour is very mucli 
darker (that species being almost wholly ferruginous) ; its elytra are relatively 
a trifle shorter, and just perceptibly more convex ; and its prothorax has the 
posterior angles somewhat more sharply defined, and is ajjparently free from 
the shallow, rounded impression which (although indistinct) is more or less 
traceable, in that species and in the C. hemipterus, on either side behind. 



42 MONOTOMID^. 

species, added to its nearly opake and dark-piceous surface, and the 
fact of its eyes being situated at an appreciable (though short) dis- 
tance from the extreme base of its head, will sufficiently distinguish 
it as a Monotonia (a genus in which the antennal club is composed 
of apparently but a single joint, aad the elytra are shortened poste- 
riorly). 

39. Monotonia picipes. 

M. nigro-picea (immatura ferruginea), opaca, dense rugulosa, parce 
et brevissime cinereo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque minus pro- 
funde punctatis (punctis multo minoribus), illo triangulari oculis 
fere ad basin ipsissimam sitis, hoc ad latera subrecto angulis anticis 
in spinam minorem ac minus exstantem productis, postice in medio 
leviter bifoveolato ; elytris paulo fuscescentioribus, minus pro- 
funde sed densius seriatim punctatis ; antennis pedibusque vix 
minus robustis, clare rufo-piceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1-g-. 

Monotoma picipes, Kbst., Kdf. v. 24 (1793). 

, Aube, Ann. Sue. Ent. de France, vi. 458 (1837). 

congener, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 6<S (1857). 

picipes, Id., Col. Atl. 118 (1865). 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens, una cum ilia saepius com- 
mixta. 

Likewise a widely distributed European insect, and one which has 
been naturalized in the Madeiran and Canarian groups ; but, although 
the most abundant in England of all the Monotomas, it appears to 
be less common at St. Helena (as indeed it is both in the Madeiras 
and Canaries) than the preceding species. The two, however, are 
usually taken in company, beneath decaying garden-refuse at inter- 
mediate altitudes, — the examples now before me having been 
captured by myself at Plantation. 

The M. picipes is a trifle more opake and finely sculptured than 
the spinicollis ; and its elji;ra are for the most part just appreciably 
browner (and uniformly so, being less evidently subrufescent about 
the shoulders); its head is more triangular (or truncated at the 
base), having the eyes more strictly posterior in position and abutting 
on the hinder rim ; its prothorax is somewhat straighter, or less 
sinuated, at the sides, with the punctures very much smaller and 
lighter, and with the anterior angles more porrect, or less outwardly 
prominent ; its elytra are more thickly and less coarsely angulose ; 
and its legs are. if any thing, not quite so robust. 



TROGOSITIDiE. CUCUJID.«. 43 

Fam. 7. TROGOSITID^. 

Genus 18. TROGOSITA. 
Olivier, Ent. ii. 19 [script. Troffossita] (1790). 

40. Trigosita mauritanica. 

T. angustula, elongata, depressa,. subnitida, picea ; capite prothora- 
ceque parce sed argute punctatis, iUo antice depresso, hoc brevi, 
lunato-quadrato, angulis anticis grosse porrectis, posticis acute 
prominulis ; eljtris subparaUelo-oblongis basi recte truncatis, 
punctulato- aut crenulato-striatis, interstitiis minutissime seriatim 
punctulatis ac transversim. rugulosis ; anteunis pedibusque com- 
pressis, robustis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3^-4. 

Tenebrio mauritanicus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 674 (1767). 
Trogosita mauritanica, Woll, Col. All. 116 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. m (1867). 

, Melliss, St. mi. 140 (1875). 

Hahitat in domibus, mercatorumque repositoriis, ex alienis certe 
introducta. 

The cosmopolitan T. mauritanica has become established in the 
houses and stores of St. Helena, as it has in the islands of the more 
northern archipelagos and indeed throughout a great part of the 
civilized world. It is common occasionally at Jamestown ; and 
I have also met with it amongst farinaceous substances at Plan- 
tation. 

Fam. 8. CUCUJID^. 

Genus 19. L.a:MOPHL(EUS. 
(Dejean) Casteln., Hist. Kat. ii. 385 (1840). 

§ I. Antennce JlUfornies ; in maribus longissimo'. 

41, Lsemophlceus pusillus. 

L. breviter linearis, depressus, rufo-ferrugineus, nitidus sed minute 
fulvo-cinereo-sericeus ; capite prothoraceque (linea laterali iu- 
structis) minute punctulatis, hoc subquadrato, angulis ipsissimis 
posticis rectiusculis, ad basin (inter lineolas) cannula subtuberculi- 
formi transversa instructo ; elytris vix pallidioribus, minutissime 
seriatim punctulatis, interstitiis (praecipue alternis) subelevatis, 
sublaterali distinctius costiformi. 

Mas capite paulum majore, antennis longissimis. 

Long. corp. lin. vix 1 . 



44 CUCUJlDiE. 

Cucujus minutus, Oliv. \_nec Kuxjel. 1794], Ent. iv. bis, 8, 9 (1795). 

pusillus, Schdn., Sj/n. Ins. iii. 55 (1817). 

Lsemophlceus pusillus, Erich., Ins. Deutsch. iii. 321 (1846). 

, JVolL, Col. Atl. 131 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 307 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel 140 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus repositoriisque insulse ; certe introductus. 

A single examiilc of this minute and almost cosmopolitan Lcenio- 
pMoeus was taken by Mr. llelliss ; and a second (a male) was met 
with subsequently by myself. The species is of course a mere 
importation into the island, along with articles of commerce and 
merchandise, and has no connexion whatever with the true fauna ; 
nevertheless, as is the case with it in the Madeiran and Canarian 
archipelagos, it may perhaps have established itself in the ware- 
houses and stores. It may be known from the following species by 
being relatively a trifle broader and shorter, by its prothorax being 
a little more quadrate, and by the antenna3 of its male sex being not 
only very much more lengthened but with their joints (instead of 
short and globose) gradually elongated and obconical. 

§ II. Antennce moniliformes ; in utroque sexu inagis cequales, nee 
in marihus longissimce. 

42. Laemophloeus carinulatns, n. sp. 

L. liuearis, angustulus, depressus, rufo-ferrugineus, nitidus sed 
minute fulvo-cinereo-sericeus ; capite prothoraceque (linea lateral! 
instructis) minute punctulatis, hoc subquadrato postice paulo an- 
gustiore, aiigulis ipsissimis posticis exstanti-acutiusculis, in disco 
depresso, ad basin (inter lineolas) carinula arguta acuta transversa 
instructo ; elytris depressis, subpallidioribus, minutissime seriatim 
punctulatis, interstitiis (prsecipue alternis) subelevatis, sublaterali 
distinctius costiformi. 

Mas capite majore et prothorace antice sublatiore. 

Long. Corp. lin. |— 1. 

Habitat in inferioribus intermediisquc, a meipso ad Jamestown, 
Plantation, et Thompson's Wood parce repertus. 

The present species (although equally linear) is relatively a little 
narrower and longer than the last one ; both its prothorax and 
elytra are a trifle more depressed on their respective disks, the 
former having the hinder angles rather more outwardly-prominent 
and acute, and the short transverse keel (in the centre of the base) 
somewhat thinner and less tuberculiform ; and its antennae are not 



cucujiDiK. 45 

only moniliform (their joints being rounded instead of obconic) but 
likewise shorter, — those of the male sex being merely a little more 
elongated than in the female. It has a good deal the appearance at 
first sight of the L. cJavicollis, which is so general throughout the 
more northern archipelagos ; but it is proportionally a little larger, 
broader, and more shining, its prothorax is less narrowed posteriorly, 
with the hinder angles acutely prominent instead of being rounded- 
off, and its antennae are thicker. 

The L. carinidatus is probably an introduced insect at St. Helena, — 
my few examples (seven in number) having been captured by myself 
in Jamestown, at Plantation, and in Thompson's Wood. 

Genus 20. CRYPTAMORPHA. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 1-j6 (1854). 

43. Cryptamorpha musae. 

C. elongato-linearis, angusta, subdepressa, subopaca, grosse fulvo- 
cinerco-pubeseens ; capite prothoraceque rufo-ferrugineis, illo 
subtriangulari utrinque foveolato et in fronte convexo, hoc 
elongato-subquadrato (postice subangustiore), ad utrumque latus 
minute crenulato et in disco subinaequali ; elytris rufo-testaceis 
sed pone scuteUum macula et pone medium fascia transversa 
dentata abbreviate (interdum linea suturali connexis) nigro- 
pictis, grosse et dense striato-punctatis ; antennis pedibusque 
crassis, iUis rufo-ferrugineis, articulis subapicaUbus nigris, his 
testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. l|-2. 

Cryptamoi-pha musae, Woll., I. c. 157, t. 4. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Col. Atl. 133 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 307 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. mi. 140 (1875). 

Habitat inter quisquilias, et sub ligno antique marcido, praecipue in 
intermediis, passim. 

The elegantly-marked C. musce (which has the head and prothorax 
rufo-ferruginous, and the elytra rufo-testaceous but ornamented 
with a black subscuteUary blotch and a dentate postmesial abbreviated 
transverse fascia, which are sometimes distinct but more often 
united by a suffused sutural band) is a most abundant insect in the 
intermediate and rather elevated districts of St. Helena, occurring 
beneath decayed vegetable refuse and imder pieces of damp wood 
almost everywhere, — though more particularly in the gardens and 
other cultivated grounds. It has all the appearance of being 



4(> CUCUJID.B. 

indigenous ; nevertheless I have little doubt that it must have been 
originally introduced into the island, and that it has since completely 
established itself. In Madeira, which is the only other country in 
which I have ever observed the species, it residea almost exclusively 
beneath the outer fibre of the stems of bananas, though I have like- 
met with it sparingly beneath that of a large Strelitzia ; but at 
St. Helena I did not notice this peculiarity in its mode of life, 
though Mr. MeUiss mentions his having found it amongst old 
banana-trees at the Hermitage. Dr. Sharp informs me that it has 
been taken by Mr. Blackburn even at the Sandwich Islands. 

The C. musce (which is elongated, narrow, pubescent, and sub- 
depressed, and the limbs of which are thick and pale, but with the 
subapieal joints of the antennae curiously darkened) is extremely 
common about Plantation ; and I have also taken it at West Lodge, 
in Thompson's Wood, &c. ; and it has frequently been captured by 
Mr. P. Whitehead at Woodcot. 

Genus 21. SILVANUS. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. iii. 19 (1807). 

44. Silvanus Surinam ensis. 

S. elongato-linearis, angustus, aut nigro- aut fusco-piceus, subopacus, 
grosse fulvo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque rugose granulatis, illo 
magno triangulari-quadrato, hoc in disco longitudinaliter 3-cari- 
nato necnon ad utrumque latus deutibus 6 (primo et ultimo magis 
exstantibus) instructo ; elytris densissime punctato- striatis, inter- 
stitiis alternis leviter elevatis ; antennis pedibusque crassis, his 
rufo-pieeis, femoribus posticis denticulo minutissimo subtus 
armatis. 

Long. Corp. lin circa 1. 

Dermestes siu-inamensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 565 (1767). 
Silvanus simnamensis, Woll. Col. Atl. 135 (1865). 

, Id., Coll. Hesp. 69 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 399 (1871). 

-^ , Melliss, St. Hel. 140 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus granariisque insulae, certe ex alienis introductus. 

As in the more northern archipelagos, the cosmopolitan ^. suri- 
namensis has become established in the houses and granaries of 
St. Helena. It is often abundant at Jamestown ; and I have also 
met with it at Plantation. 



CRYPTOPHAGID^:. 47 



Fam. 9. CRYPTOPHAGIDiE. 

Genus 22. CRYPTOPHAGUS. 

Herbst, AV//". iv. 172(1792). 

45, Cryptophagus badius. 

C. oblongus, convexus, brumieo-fernigineus, ubique dense punctatus 
pubeque subdemissa subcinerea vestitus ; capita prothoraceque vix 
obscurioribus, boc convexo, transverso-subquadrato, angulis anticis 
elongate et oblique iacrassatis, ad latera paululum subaequaliter 
rotundato, in medio denticulo minuto acutissimo ai'mato necnon 
inde ad basin sequaliter serrate ; antennis pedibusque crassis, 
longiusculis, illis obscure ferrugineis, his obscure testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1|. 

Cryptophagus badius, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 96, t. 317. f. A (1845). 

, Hedt., Fna Austr. 191 (1849). 

, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 400 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 141 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus (?), introductus : semel deprehensus a Dom. 

Melliss. 

A single specimen of the common European 0. badius was taken 
by Mr. Melliss at St. Helena ; but 1 did not myself observe the species 
during our six months' sojourn in the island. It is doubtless, how- 
ever, a mere importation from more northern latitudes, if indeed it 
be truly established at all, and must clearly have been met with in 
or about, the houses or stores. 

The C. badius is the largest of the three Cryptophagi which have 
hitherto been foimd at St. Helena ; and it may be further recognized 
from the C. affinis (with which alone it could be confounded) by 
being of a slightly darker hue and altogether more robust, by the 
pubescence of its elytra being less erect, by its limbs being relatively 
a little longer, and by the sides of its prothorax having both the 
central denticle and anterior ridge-like prominence, as well as the 
posterior crenulations, a trifle more developed. 

46. Cryptophagus affinis. 

C. oblongus, convexus, ferrugineus, subnitidus, ubique dense punc- 
tatus pubeque suberecta subcinerea (praesertim in elytris) vestitus ; 
capite prothoraceque paulum obscurioribus, hoc transverso-sub- 
quadrato, angulis anticis elongate et oblique incrassatis, ad latera 
paululum subsequaliter rotundato, in medio denticulo minutissimo 



48 CRYPTOPHAGID.T.. 

acutissimo armato necnon inde ad. basin minute sequaliter serrato ; 
antennis crassis, obscure ferrugineis ; pedibus obscure testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-vix 1|. 

Cryptophagiis affinis, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 79, t. 314. f. C (1845). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 137 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 307 (1869). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 69 (1870). 

, jMelliss, St. mi. 141 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus repositoriisque insulse ; ex Europa certe in- 
vectus. 

A few examples of the European C. affinis were captured by 
myself at Plantation, in and about the house ; and a single other 
one had been previously met with by Mr. Melliss, — though in what 
exact locality I have no means of knowing. There cannot, of course, 
be the slightest doubt that the species is a mere accidental importa- 
tion into the island from more northern latitudes, and that it has no 
connexion whatever Avith the original fauna of St, Helena. It has, 
in like manner, established itself in the Azorean, Madeiran, and 
Canarian Groups. 

As compared with the C. (jracilipes, it may be sufficient to state 
that the C. affinis may be recognized by the central position of the 
small and very acute denticle with which the sides of its prothorax 
are armed, — the space between the denticle and the base being 
minutely but evenly crenulated. The edges of its prothorax, although 
very slightly so, are about equally rounded before and behind ; and 
its elytra (which are somewhat straightened in outline) are rather 
densely clothed with a subcinereous pubescence, — a portion of which 
is decumbent, and a portion longer and more 3rect. 

47. Cryptophagus gracilipes. 

C. oblongo-ovalis, convexus, ferrugineus, subnitidus, ubique dense 
et profunde punctatus pubeque elongata suberecta cinerea (prae- 
sertim in elytris) vestitus ; capite prothoraceque paulum obscuri- 
oribus, hoc brevi, transverso-subquadrato, angulis anticis elongate 
et oblique incrassatis, ad latera subsinuato, fere omnino simplici 
(sed sub lente minutissime et obsoletissime subserrato) ; antennis 
pedibusque longiusculis, gracilibus, obscure testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-|. 

Cryptophagus gracilipes, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 400 (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 141 rl875). 

Habitat in herbidis et sub quisquiliis, in intermediis editioribusque 
insulae : hinc inde vulgatissimus. 



latridiidjE. 49 

This little species is the universal Cryptophagus of St. Helena, at 
intermediate and lofty altitudes ; and, though a form which is 
scarcely distinct from it was taken by Mr. Gray at the Cape of Good 
Hope, I think that it is not unlikely to have been an aboriginal 
member of the fauna, — representing the C. hesperius of the Canarian 
archipelago and the common 0. vini of Europe. Although ascending 
to the central ridge (for I have met with it at Cason's, and even 
in the vicinity of Diana's Peak), it is more particularly in the inter- 
mediate districts that it abounds, — swarming beneath garden-refuse 
and cut grass at Plantation, West Lodge, Thompson's Wood, Peak 
Gat, and elsewhere. 

In addition to its small size, as compared with the two preceding 
species, the C. gracilipes may readily be distinguished by its extremely 
coarsely pimctured surface (for a Cryptophagus), and for the very 
long, soft, and suberect whitish hairs with which it is, particularly 
on the elytra, though not very densely, clothed. Its elytra are 
rather more oval, or less straightened in outline, than those of the 
affinis ; its prothorax (which is short and transverse) has the anterior 
angles quite as much incrassated into an oblique ridge-like process, 
but the lateral edges thence to the base, although more sinuate 
(or less evenly rounded), are destitute of the central denticle which is 
there so conspicuous, — being in fact ivell-nigh simple ; and its limbs, 
which are dusky-testaceous, are remarkably slender. 

Fam. 10. LATRIDIID^. 

Genus 23. ANOMMATUS. 
Wesmael, Bull. Acad. Bruxell. ii. 339 (1836). 

48. Anommatus 12-striatus. 

A. angustulus, subcylindricus, nitidus, calvus, infuscate testaceus ; 
capite sat grosse sed leviter et confuse punctate, oculis nuUis ; 
prothorace elongato-quadrato postice vix angustiore, valde pro- 
funde, grossissime, et parce punctato (punctis subseriatim dis- 
positis) ; elytris subparallelis, profunde striato-punctatis, striis 
postice subevanescentibus ; antennis (abrupte clavatis) pedibusque 
(compressis) brevibus, testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. |-X. 

Lyctus 12-striatus, Mull, Germ. Mag. iv. 190(1821). 
Anommatus terricola, Wesm., I. c. 339 (1836). 
12-striatus, Woll, Col. Atl. 146(1865). 

Habitat in cultis intermediis inaulae ; sub truncis arborum vetustis 



50 LATRIDIIU^. 

emortuis humi jaceiitibus, ad Plantation et West Lodge, a 
meipso parce deprehensiis. 

The minute European A. l2-stnatiis, which occurs sparingly in 
the Madeiran archipelago, is found (though quite as sparingly) in 
the intermediate, cultivated districts of St. Helena, — where we may 
be pretty sure that it must have been originally introduced, perhaps 
along with consignments of plants. I have taken it beneath the 
fallen trunks of old Spanish-chestnut trees at Plantation, and under 
precisely similar circumstances at West Lodge. 

Apart from its diminutive bulk and its total want of eyes, the 
A. 12-striatus may be known from every thing else with which we 
are here concerned by its narrow and subcylindrical form, its glossy, 
bald, testaceous surface, its shortened limbs (the antennae of which 
are powerfully clavate, and the legs compressed), and by the anoma- 
lously large and coarse punctures of its prothorax. 

Genus 24. CORTICARIA. 
xMarsham, Ent. Brit. i. 106 ( 1802). 

49. Corticaria elongata. 

C. minutissima, oblonga, rufo-ferruginea, subnitida, breviter fulvo- 
cinereo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque minutissime (vix per- 
spicue) punctulatis, hoc subrotundato, ad latera minutissime 
crenulato, postice in medio fovea rotundata punctiformi profunde 
impresso ; elytris parallelis, vix clarioribus, minuto punctulato- 
striatis, interstitiis vix convexis ; aotennis pedibusque tostaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ^. 

Latridius elongatus, Gi/IL, Ins. Suec. iv. 130(1827). 
Corticaria elongata, Steph., IIlus. Brit. Ent. iii. 108 (1830). 

, Mannerh., Germ. Zeitsch. v. 44(1844). 

, Redt., Fna Austr. 210 (1849). 

, Waterh., Trans. Ent. Soe. Bond. v. 140 (1859). 

Habitat inter quisquilias in hortis, sed prsecipue sub recremeuto ad 
basin acervorum foeni sparse, in intermediis ac (minus copiose) 
in editioribus. 

The diminutive C. elongata, Gyll., which is so common throughout 
Europe, but which has not hitherto been detected in any of these 
Atlantic archipelagos, abounds in the intermediate districts of 
St. Helena, where in all probability it has become accidentally 
naturalized from England. It is usually to be met with amongst 
garden-refuse and under cut grass, and more particularly beneath 



LATRIDIID^. 51 

the rubbish which has accumulated around the base of haystacks. 
In such localities I have taken it abundantly at Plantation, and 
more sparingly even on the central ridge. 

Apart from its small size and rather parallel oblong outline, the 
present Corticaria may be known by its pale rufo-ferruginous hue, 
its very slightly shining pubescent surface, and by the deep rounded 
fovea in the centre of its prothorax behind. At first sight it closely 
resembles the C. fagi of Madeira ; but that species has the head and 
prothorax very much more strongly punctured, — the latter moreover 
being a trifle narrower posteriorly (or less straightened at the sides), 
with the edges more coarsely crenulated, and with the central fovea 
wider and deeper. Added to which, there are generally traces of an 
extra fovea on either side near to the basal angles ; and the elytra 
are not quite so parallel. 

Genus 25. LATRIDIUS. 

Herbst, Kaf. v. 8 (1793). 

§ 1. Antennarum clava 3-articulata. 

50. Latridius nodifer. 

L. elongato-ovatus, nigro- aut f nseo-i^iceus (immatarus ferrugineus), 
ubique insequalis vel nodosus, fere opacus ; capite prothoraceque 
rugulosis, illo antice leviter ac breviter bicostulato, hoc angusto, 
ante basin profunde transversim constricto, in disco argute longi- 
tudinaliter bicostato ; elytris in medio rotundato-ampliatis, valde 
inaequahbus, grosse et dense striato-punctatis (punctis magnis), 
interstitiis alternis costato-elevatis, pone medium nodes -1 (internos 
majores, obtusiores, rufescentiores) efficientibus ; antennis brevi- 
bus, gracilibus, piceo-t«staceis clava obscuriore ; pedibus piceo- 
testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1. 

Latridius nodifer, Westw., Int. to Ent. i. 155, pi. 13. f. 23 (1839). 

, Steph., Man. Brit. Col. 129 (1839). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 70 (1870). 

, Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 253 (1871). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque (prsesertim illis) insulae, inter 
quisquilias vulgaris. 

This curious little nodose Latridius, which untU within the last 
few years had been observed only in England, but has now been 
detected in various parts of the continent of Europe, and which has 
established itself in the Azorean and Madeiran archipelagos, is 

E 2 



52 LATRinilDiK. 

extremely common in the intermediate districts of St. Helena, 
ascending even to the central ridge. It swarms at Plantation, 
principally amongst garden-refuse; and I have also met with it at 
West Lodge, and sparingly towards Diana's Peak. In all probability 
it was originally introduced into the island, perhaps along with 
consignments of plants. 

The very nodose elytra of this singular species (which are coarsely 
striat-e-pnnctate, and have their alternate interstices greatly elevated 
shaping out behind the middle four nodules — of which the inner 
ones are the most raised, obtuse, and subrufescent), added to its 
rather narrow but transversely-constricted prothorax, which has 
two sharp thread-like costse down its disk, will more than suffice to 
characterize it. 

§ 2. Antennarum clava 2-articulata. (Subg. Latridulus, \Yoll.) 
51. Latridins approximatus, n. sp. 

L. elongato-ovatus, angustulus, aut ferrugineus aut piceus, fere 
opacus ; capite prothoraceque rugulosis, illo subquadrato in medio 
leviter canaliculato, hoc angusto, longe ante basin profunde trans- 
versim constricto, in disco leviter longitudinaliter bicostulato 
(costulis postice approximatis) ; elytris dense striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis alternis sensim elevatis ; autenuis (brevissimis) tar- 
sisque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-|^. 

Habitat ad domes, necnon in cultis intermediis sub quisquiliis, ad 
Plantation a meipso lectus. 

It is only at Plantation that I met with this small and rather 
narrow Latridins — my few examples (eight in number) having been 
captured, partly amongst garden-refuse and partly even within the 
house. In all probability therefore the species is a naturalized one, 
though the peculiarity of its antennae (which are extremely short, 
and have their club only 2- instead of 3-jointed) certainly distin- 
guishes it from all the European ones with which I am acquainted. 
In other respects it is a very ordinary-looking form — its either 
piceous or ferruginous hue, and the slightly raised alternate inter- 
stices of its elytra, being quite in accordance with a great number of 
the Latridii. Its prothorax is somewhat narrow, and deeply con- 
stricted (transversely) behind the middle ; and the two hair-like 
costae with which the disk is furnished approximate posteriorly, if 
indeed they do not completely unite. 



MYCETOPHAGIDA. 53 

Fam. 11. MYCETOPHAGIDiE. 

Geuus 26. MYCET^A. 
(Kirby) Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 80 (1830). 

52. Mycetaea Mrta. 

M. minuta, obovata, rufo-ferrugiuea, nitida, longe et suberecte 
griseo-pilosa ; capite prothoraceque distincte punctatis, hoc 
transverso, versus utrumque latus linea elevata instructo ; elytris 
antice convexis rotundatis, postice paulo acuminatis, grosse 
subseriatim puuctatis (punctis maguis) ; antennis pedibusque 
rufo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-vix 1. 

JDermestes fumatus, Mshin [nee Linn., 1767], £nt. Brit. 65 (1802). 
Silpba hirta, M.shm, I. c. 124 (1802). 
Mycetsea hirta, Woll, Col. Atl. 156 (1865). 

— , Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 71 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 142 (1875). 

Habitat sub truncis emortuis vetustis, necnon inter quisquilias, in 
intermediis editioribusque insulae. 

Not uncommon in the intermediate and rather elevated districts of 
St. Helena, especially in the neighbourhood of houses and cultivated 
grounds, — occurring also under old logs of wood, particularly of the 
firs and Spanish-chestnut trees. I have taken it at Plantation, as 
■well as at West Lodge, Thompson's Wood, and at Cason's ; and 
there cannot be the slightest doubt that it has been accidentally in- 
troduced in the island. 

The diminutive size, obovate outline, and rufo-ferruginous hue of 
this little European species (which has been detected also in the 
Azorean and Madeirau groups), added to its shiuing and coarsely- 
punctui-ed surface, which is clothed with elongate suberect hairs, 
and the raised Kne with which it is furnished towards either side of 
its prothorax, will sufiice to distinguish it. 

Genus 27. TYPH^A. 
(Kirby) Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 70 (1830). 

53. Typhsea fumata. 

T. regulariter paraUelo-oblonga (sc. antice et postice aequaliter 
obtusa), rufo-ferruginea, subnitida, longe fulvo-pubescens ; capite 
prothoraceque minutissime punctulatis, hoc transverso, subcon- 
vexo ; elytris sensim pallidioribus, minutissime punctiilatia, vix 



54 DERMESTlDiE. 

striatis sed pilis in lineis longitudinaliter dispositis; antennis 
(crassiusculis) pedibusque (compressis) vix pallidioribiis. 
Long. Corp. lin. I5. 

Dermestes funiatus, Linn., Sijst. Nat. ii. 504 (1767). 
Typhffia fumata, Wall, Col. Atl. 157 (1865). 

JLl , Id., Col. Hesp. 78 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 71 (1870). 

- , Melliss, St. Hel. 142 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis insulse ; inter quisquilias et prsecipue sub 
recremento ad basin acervonim foeni sparse, vulgaris. 

The common and widely spread European T. fumata (which 
abounds in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape- Verde 
archipelagos, and which is registered even from the United States) 
has been imported into St. Helena, — where it is now thoroughly 
established, principally at intermediate altitudes. It occurs for the 
most part beneath garden-refuse and cut grass, as well as amongst 
the rubbish around the base of haystacks, and is very common at 
Plantation and elsewhere in that neighbourhood. 



Fam. 12. DERMESTID^. 

Genus 28. DERMESTES. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ii. 661 (1767). 

54. Dermestes cadaverinus. 

D. cylindrico-oblongus, elongatulus, convexus, subnitidus, niger, 
densissime minuteque punctulatus sed pilis demissis griseis 
fulvescentibusque dense vestitus (sc. pilis ad marginem pro- 
thoracis posticum, necnon in scutello, laetius fulvescentibus) ; 
capite subrotundato, oculis magnis ; prothorace transverse, postice 
trisinuato ; antennis pedibusque piceis. Subtus magis fulvo- 
cinereo nigroque pubescens ; abdomen sc. fulvo-cinereum, seg- 
mentis in medio bimaculatim (maculis a basi usque ad apicem 
gradatim decrescentibus), necnon in macula ad utrumque latus 
sita, nigris. 

Mas abdominis segmentis 3"° et 4*° fascicule setarum fulvarum 
minuto rotundato in medio instructis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4^. 

Dermestes cadaverinus, Fab., Syst. Ent. 55 (1775). 

, Oliv., Ent. ii. 9. 3 (1790). 

domesticus (Oebl.), Germ., Ins. Spec. Nov. 85 (1824). 

cadaverinus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 309 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 142 (1876). 

Habitat "in St. Helena. Mus. Dom. Banks.''' [sec. Fabricius, 1775]. 



dermestidjE. ob 

I have not myself, as yet, seen a St.-Heleua example of this well- 
nigh cosmopolitan Dermestes, which is so liable to accidental dis- 
semination throughout most countries of the civilized world ; 
nevertheless since the actual type (in the collection of the late Sir 
Joseph Banks) from which it was originally described by Fabricius, 
in 1775, was from St. Helena, it is impossible not to assign it 
a place in the present catalogue. Indeed we may be pretty con- 
fident that it will sooner or later be found again in the houses 
or stores of Jamestown, where its near ally the D. vulpinvs has 
recently been met with. It is common in the comparatively neigh- 
bouring island of Ascension, where it was taken in profiision by 
the late Mr. Bewicke : and it has been recorded not only from 
Europe, but even from the East Indies, Arabia, Siberia, North and 
South America, Otaheite, &c. ; though it would appear to have 
established itself more in warm countries, generally, than in tempe- 
rate ones. 

The D. cadaverinus is rather more elongate and cylindrical than 
many of the Bennestce : and its dark surface is densely clothed with 
a coarse griseous decumbent pile, a portion of which, however, (espe- 
pecially on the scutellum and the hinder edge of the prothorax) is 
slightly fulvescent. The pubescence of its underside is more con- 
spicuously of a fulvo-cinereous hue, the abdomen however being 
dappled with black, — each segment having two dark patches in the 
middle (becoming gradually smaller, and more approximating, as 
they approach the apex) and a somewhat lunate one on either 
side ; and in the male sex the third and fourth segments are addi- 
tionally furnished in the centre with a little rounded fossette, or 
fasciculus, of strong and brightly fulvescent bristles. 



55. Dermestes vulpinus. 

D. praecedenti prima facie subsimilis, sed plerumque paulo minor ac 
minus elongatus, capite (oculis minoribus) prothoraceque ad 
utrumque latus magis albido-pubescentibus, elytris singulatim ad 
apicem spinula minutissima acutissima (ab angulo suturali sur- 
gente) armatis, antennarumque articulis intcrmediis vix sub- 
minoribus. Abdomen subtus pallidius, sc. albidum, segmentis 
macula laterali magis rotundata et magis nigra ornatis, ultimi 
parte centrali omnino nigra sed ad apicem fulvo-pnbescente. 

Mas abdominis segmento 4*° foveola rotundata minuta (breviter 
fulvo-setosa) in medio instructo. 

Long, coi'p. lin. 34 -vix 4. 



56 DERMESTIDiE. 

Dermestes vulpinus, Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 64 (1781). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 159 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 79 (1867). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 142 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus mercatorumque repositoriis, a Dom. Melliss 
lectus. 

Like tlie last species, the present one is equally cosmopolitan, — 
though perhaps more liable to introduction into temperate climates 
than into tropical ones. It has established itself in the Madeiran, 
Canarian, and Cape-Verde archipelagos ; and although I did not 
myself meet with it, it was taken at St. Helena by Mr. Melliss. 

From the D. cadaverimis (which it much resembles at first sight) 
the present Dermestes may immediately be known by the excessively 
diminutive spinule (not always distinguishable, however, unless the 
elytra be a little uplifted, or raised) with which the extreme apex 
of each el}i;ron is armed. It is also a trifle smaller, and relatively 
less elongated, than that species ; the ' intermediate joints of its 
antennae are perhaps not quite so large ; its eyes are less developed ; 
its head and prothorax are clothed on either side with a whiter 
pubescence; and its abdomen is also whiter beneath, as weU as 
differently dappled — the lateral spots being not only more lateral, 
but rounder and blacker ; and the apical segment has its central 
region altogether dark, though fringed with fidvescent pile. Its 
male sex has a minute rounded fossette in the centre of the fourth 
abdominal segment only, instead of on the third and fourth as in the 
D. cadaverinus. 

Genus 29. ATTAGENUS. 
Latreille, Hist. Nat. iii. 121 (1802). 

56. Attagenus gloriosae. 

A. ovalis, convexus, subnitidus, niger, ubique densissime minutissi- 
meque punctulatus ; capite parvo, depresso, grosse fulvo-cinereo- 
pubescente ; prothorace transverso, postice lato trisinuato, grosse 
fulvo-cinereo- (sed in disco antico nigro-) pubescente ; elytris 
baud striatis, grosse nigro-pubescentibus sed fascia transversa 
dentata (ante medium posita) fulvo-cinerea ornatis ; antennis 
(brevibus) rufo-testaceis, clava pedibusque (gracilibus) testaceo- 
piceis. 

Long. corp. lin. vix 2. 

Anthrenus gloriosae, Fah., Syst. Eleu. i. 107 (1801). 
./Ethriostoma glorios*, Mots., Ffwl. Ent. 146 (1858). 
Attagenus gloriosse, Woll. Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 310 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 143 (1875). 



HISTERID^. 57 

Habitat in domibus mercatorumque repositoriis, ad Jamestown 
interdum vulgaris. 

The widely spread A. gloriosce, which is well-nigh universal 
within the tropics (being reported from Eastern Africa, India, 
America, &c., and which has established itself even at Ascension), is 
occasionally common in the houses and stores of Jamestown, — 
which is the only locality in which I have myself observed it, and 
where it has likewise been captured by Mr, Melliss and Mr. N. 
Janisch. Its convex, oval body and darkly pubescent surface, 
which, however, is conspicuously ornamented with a fulvo-cinereous 
fascia before the middle of the elytra, and which has the hairs 
of its head and prothorax (except those on the fore disk of the 
latter) of the same fulvo-cinereous hue, will abundantly distin- 
guish it. 



Fam. 13. HISTERID^. 

Genus 30. TRIBALUS. 
Erichson, in Kluy Jahrb. i. 1G4 (1834). 

57. Tribalus 4-striatus. 

T. rotundato-ovalis, niger, ubique (in disco levius) punctatus ; 
fronte minutius densiusque punctulata, subsemicirculari, angulis 
anticis subrectis, simplici (nee transversim carinata), oculis 
parvis ; elytrorum striis 4 dorsalibus, sat profundis, punctatis, 
usque ad medium ductis, suturali nulla sed ad basin ipsam 
subarouatim brevissime conspicua, humerali tenui obHqua ; pygidio 
perpendiculari ; antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis, tibiis anticis 
circa 5- vel 6- leviter denticulatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 1|. 

Tribalus 4-striatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 310 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 143 (1875). 

Habitat St. Helenam, a Dom. Melliss semel tantum repertus. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the only two Histerids which 
have as yet been detected at St. Helena I failed myself to procure, — 
a single example, merely, of each of thorn, having been obtained by 
Mr. MeUiss. Unfortunately he preserved no note as to their exact 
localities ; but I think it is almost certain that both species are 
introduced ones, and such as might occasionally be met with in the 
vicinity of Jamestown. Still, as I was not able to identify them, in 



58 niSTERID/K. 

my memoir on St.-Helena Coleoptera in 18G9, with any of the 
exponents of their respective groups figured in De Marseul's 
monograph, I had no option but to treat them as novelties ; though 
one of them has since been identified by Mr. G. Lewis with the 
widely spread Saprinus hicolor, Fab. 

Although with every appearance of an ordinary Saprinus, I 
mentioned in my paper (above referred to) that the rather small 
size and entirely punctulated surface of the present Histerid, 
combined with its semicircular ^tncarinated forehead, and the 
fact of its elytra being totally free from a sutural line (which 
is only traceable as a very short subscutellary arcuated impression), 
affiliate it better with the little cluster of species which constitute 
the genus Trihahis ; though it seems to differ from the whole 
of them in having four very distinct dorsal punctured strife con- 
tinued to about the middle of each elytron. Apart from other 
features, its black or piceous-black hue, subrufescent limbs, and 
perpendicular pygidium will additionally characterize it. 

Genus 31. SAPRINUS. 
Erichson, in King Jahrh. i. 172 (1834). 

58. Saprinus bicolor. 

8. submetallicus, nitidissimus ; capite prothoraceque aenescentibus, 
illo dense punctato, fronte ab epistomate linea transversa distincte 
divisa, hoc versus latera et basin grosse punctato, in disco Iseviore, 
ad latera nudo (nee ciliato) ; elytris cyaneis (aut subvirescenti- 
cyaneis), sat dense ruguloso-punctatis, punctis in disco antico et 
versus humeros obsoletis, striis humeralibus obsoletis, subhumerali 
distincta, longe ultra medium postice ducta, 4 dorsaUhus ad 
medium terminatis (4'* in siitiiralem integram antice arcuatam 
coeunte) ; pygidio propygidioque obscurioribus, profunde punc- 
tatis ; antennis pedibusque nigro-piceis ; tibiis anticis circa 
8-9-denticulati8. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3.' 

Hister bicolor. Fab., Syst Eleu. i. 86 (1801). 

Saprinus bicolor, Mars., Mon. des Histerid. 4.39. 66 (1853). 

lautus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 311 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 143 (1875). 

Habitat in St. Helena ; semel collegit Dom. Melliss. 

As above stated, I did not meet with this insect at St. Helena, the 
only example which I have seen from thence having been found by 
Mr. Melliss. It is a rather large and very beautiful Saprinus, with 



APIIODIID7E. 59 

a blue tinge on the elytra and a somewhat brass}- one on the head 
and prothorax, and one which has slightly the prima facie aspect of 
the widely-spread S. semipunetatus ; nevertheless the fact of its 
epistome being divided from the forehead by a strong transverse 
line, in conjunction with its sutural stria being complete, and 
uniting in front with the fourth discal one, remove it into a totally 
different section of the genus. 

The S. hicolor, which is manifestly an introduced species at St. 
Helena (if indeed it be truly established at all), appears to possess 
a wide acquired range, — it being recorded from the Cape of Good 
Hope (where it has been found lately by Mr. Gray) and Natal, and 
many examples being now before me which were collected by 
B. Gregory, Esq., of H.M.S. ' Spiteful,' in the district of the Congo. 
And since it is cited likewise from Arabia, we may expect it to 
occur in many intervening parts of the African continent. 



Sectio 6. LAMELLICORNIA. 

Fam. 14. APHODIID^. 

Genus 32. APHODIUS. 
lUiger, Kaf. Preuss. i. 28 (1798). 

59. Aphodius granarius. 

A. parallelo-oblongus, nitidus, ater, immaculatus ; clypeo rugose et 
dense punctate ; prothorace minutissime et parce punctulato 
punctisque majoribus perpaucis distantibus irrorato ; elytris cre- 
nulato-striatis, interstitiis minutissime parcissimeque punetulatis, 
ad apicem vix subpicescentioribus : antennis testaceis, clava 
obscuriore ; pedibus nigro-piceis, tarsis piceo-testaceis, tibiis 
anticis fortiter 3-dentatis. 

Maris clj-peus postice tuberculo medio instructus. 

Fcem. clypeus fere simplex. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2|. 

Scarabseus granarius, Linn., Si/st. Nat. i. ii. 547 (1767). 
Aphodius carbonarius, Brnlle, in W. et B. (Col.) 60 (1838). 

granarius, Woll, Col. Atl. 178 (I860). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 73 (1870). 

Habitat in stercoro bovino et cquino, a Dom. P. Whitehead ad 
Woodcot captus. 



60 APHODIID^. 

This widely-spread European Aphodius, which is so liable to 
accidental transportatiou along with cattle, and which has established 
itself in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian archipelagos, appears 
to be rare at St. Helena, — the only two examples of it which I have 
seen having been taken by Mr. P. AMiitehead at Woodcot, Occurring, 
however, in the dung both of horses and cattle, it will perhaps be 
found to be pretty generally distributed. Its deep black unmacu- 
lated surface will at once distinguish it from the following species. 



60. Aphodius lividus. 

A. prsecedenti similis, sed vix subminor, subangustior ; clypeo in- 
sequaliter diluto (sc. utrinque gradatim rufo-testaceo) et paulo 
minus rugose puiictato ; prothorace subbreviore, ad latera (in 
medio nigro-plagiato ) et (angustius) postice gradatim testaceo ; 
elytris testaceis, sed per suturam necnou (minus) in utroque 
disco lurido-obscurioribus ; antennis pedibusque subpicescenti- 
testaceis. 

Maris clypeus postice tuberculo medio instructus. 

Feem. clypeus magis simplex. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2^. 

Scarabseus lividus, Oliv., Ent. i. 3. 86 (1789). 
Aphodius lividus, Woll, Col. Atl. 178 (1865). 

, Id, Col. Hesp. 89 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 74 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel 144 (1875). 

Habitat in locis similibus ac praecedens, necuon etiam inter quisqui- 
lias marcidas in cultis. 

The European A. lividus^ which is even more widely spread still 
than, the last species (and which abounds in the Azorean, Madeiran, 
Canarian, and Cape- Verde groups), is a universal insect in the inter- 
mediate and elevated districts of St. Helena, — where doubtless it 
must have been introduced originally along with cattle. It occurs 
not only in the dung of the latter, but likewise amongst decaying 
vegetable refuse, — under which circumstances I have met with it 
commonly at Plantation, as well as (though more sparingly) on the 
central ridge, both towards Diana's Peak and Cason's ; and it has 
been found by Mr. P. Whitehead at Woodcot. 

Apart from its being (on the average) just appreciably smaller and 
narrower than that species, the A. lividtis may be known from the 
deep-black A. granarius by having its clypeus and the sides and base 
of the prothorax more or less testaceous, and its elytra of the same 



TROGID^. 61 

hue, — the disk of each of them however being slightly, and the suture 
more appreciably, darkened. Its limbs too are pale, being pioeo- 
testaceous instead of nearly black. 



Fam 15 TR0GID.5]. 

Genus 33. TROX, 
Fabncius, / 7it. Syst. i, 86 (1792). 

61. Trox Wuiteneadii. 

T. ovato-oblongxxs, niger, scabrosus, opacus, antice in limbo fulvo- 
setoso-ciliatus (sed in margine clytrorum calvus) ; clypeo antice 
acute triangulariter acuminate ; prothorace transverse, antice ad 
latera explanate rotundato, ad angulos posticos subito emarginato- 
angustiore, ubique (sed praesertim utrinque) valde inoequali, costis 
binis flexuosis obtusis dorsalibus, altera valde elcvata antice 
abbreviata (inter dorsum et latus posita) et tertia obscura valde 
abbreviate curvata antica (in dorsalcm antice curvatim mergente), 
prsecipue discernendis ; coleopteris costis 4 (praeter suturam) valde 
elevatis utrinque instructis (costis 2 exterioribus, atque etiam subsu- 
turali postice, fractis,interruptis), inters titiis leviter sed grossissime 
et obtuse subbiseriatim tubcrculatis (tuberculis versus suturam 
subobsoletis ) ; antenuis ferrugineis, art" basilari longissime fulvo- 
piloso ; pedibus fulvo-pilosis ; tarsis piceis, anticis brevissimis ; 
tibiis omnibus extus simplicibus (baud denticulatis ), anticis baud 
dilatatis sed ad angulum externum process u lato bipartite (e den- 
tibus duobus composito) terminatis. 

Long. Corp. lin, 4. 

Habitat inter quisquilias in intermediis, rarissimus. Species valde 
distincta in honorem Dom. P. Whitehead citata, qui exemplar 
unicum ad Woodcot nuperrime coUegit. 

A single example of this large and well-marked Trox was taken 
lately by Mr. P. Whitehead, amongst refuse, at Woodcot, and for- 
warded to me from St. Helena ; and I have great pleasure in dedi- 
cating so interesting an addition to the catalogue to its captor — 
whose successful researches have rendered me so much assistance in 
compiling the present volume. Although the species may possibly 
prove to have a South-African range, it is nevertheless totally 
distinct from every other with which I am acquainted, or to the 
diagnosis of which I have had access, — its main features consisting 
in its acute, triangularly acuminated clypeus, and the four sharply 
elevated costas with which each of its elytra (independently of the 



02 RUTELID/E. 

raised suture) is furnished. The two outer ridges, however, as well 
as the extreme apex of the first or inner one, are somewhat broken 
up and interrupted ; and the longitudinal spaces between them are 
branded with a double row of large and obtuse, but not much, 
elevated, tubercles — which, however, become nearly obsolete towards 
the suture. Its prothorax (which is suddenly scooped out at the 
basal angles, and which, together with the head, is ciliated with 
fulvous setae, the elytra having their margin bald) is extremely 
uneven, particularly towards the sides ; and there are two somewhat 
flexuose costse down the dorsal region, as well as a greatly raised 
one behind, midway between the centre and edge, and an obscurer 
short curved one in front, rounded into the anterior extremity of the 
dorsal one which is nearest to it. Its tibiae are simple externally (or 
free from denticles) ; though the front pair (which are not at all 
dilated) have their outer angle produced into a broad and slightly 
bipartite process (as though composed of two basally confluent 
teeth) ; and its fore feet are exceedingly abbreviated. 



Fam. 16. RUTELID^. 

(Subfam. ANOPLOG^^ATEIDES.) 

Genus 34. ADORETUS. 

(Eschcholtz) De Castlu., Hist. Xat. ii. 142 (1840). 

62. Adoretus versutus. 

A. valde alatus, ovato-oblongus, depressiusculus, bruuneo-piceus 
pilisque cinereis demissis parce et grosse irroratus ; capite pro- 
thoraceque nitidis, iUo magno, rugose punctato, postice in medio 
convexo ac minus sculpturato, oculis maximis, clypeo semicirculari 
picescentiore ad marginem recurvo, hoc brevissimo, marginato, 
grosse punctato, ad latera rotundato, angulis anticis subporrectis, 
posticis rotundato-obtusis ; elytris amplis, magis brunneis, sensim 
minus nitidis, punctato-rugosis (punctis, saltem majoribus versus 
latera, subseriatim dispositis), parce longitudinaliter costatis ; 
antennis (brevibus) pedibusque (robustis) rufo-ferrugineis, tibiis 
anticis S-dentatis, posticis latis ; tarsis piceis, unguiculis magnis, 
inaequalibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 5|-6. 

Adoretus vestitus, Bohem. [nee Reiche, 1847], Eugen. Res. 56(1858). 

versutus, Harold, Col. Hefte, v. (1869). 

, Woll, A7in. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 312 (1869). 

, Melliss. St. Hel 144 (1875). 



DYNASTIDiE. G3 

Habitat in inferioribus intermediisque insulag, folia Quercus (et olim 
Vitis) copiosissime destruens. 

Apparently a very common insect in the rather low and inter- 
mediate districts of the island during the early summer months, 
where it used formerly to be very destructive to the vines, but where 
now it subsists more particularly on the young foliage of the oaks. 
This latter peculiarity in the modus vivendi was first pointed out to 
me by the Kev. H. Whitehead, — who, on the 15th of December 
1875, brought me a perfect profusion of specimens which he had 
gathered during the previous evening at Woodcot ; and he assures 
me that they make their appearance every year, much about the 
same season, in equal abundance. Mr. l^[ellis8, however, says that 
it devours " the leaves and young shoots of the vines so voraciously 
as very soon to reduce a vine from full leaf to bare stems. As it 
hides away under stones and woodwork during daylight, only 
emerging as night comes on, the gardener finds that it requires 
special exertion to keep it in check ; " but as the vines have now so 
greatly disappeared, its change of Jiabitat is not unintelligible. 

Not to mention its more strictly generic characters, the powerfully 
winged A. versutus may be known from the few Lamellicorns which 
are here enumerated by its oblong outline, and brownish, or brownish- 
piceous, surface (which is sparingly clothed with a short, but coarse 
and decumbent, cinereous pubescence); by its rather large head, 
semicircular clj'peus, and greatly developed eyes ; by its extremely 
abbreviated and strongly margined prothorax ; by its ample, sub- 
costate, rugulose elytra ; and by the inequality of its claws. 



Fam. 17. DYNASTIDiE. 

(Subfam. PENTODONTIDES.) 

Genus 35. HETERONYCHUS. 
(Dejean) Burm., Ilandb. der Ent. v. 90 (1847). 

63. Heteronychus arator. 

H. alatus, breviter oblongus, subcylindricus, niger aut piceo-niger, 
supra calvus convexus nitidus ; capite subtriangulari, rugose trans- 
versim subplicatulo-aspurato, cl}'peo ad latera et antice (trisinuato) 
anguste recurvo ; prothorace transverso-quadrato, convexo, fere 
impunctato, ad latera aequaliter rotundato : elytris postice paulo 



64 DYNASTID^. 

truncato-abbreviatis, profunde punctato-striatis, striis punctisque 
ad latera subevanescentibus : antennis (brevissimis) pedibusquo 
(robiistis) piceis : tibiis latis, anticis fortiter 3-dentatis, posteri- 
oribus valde spinosis, 

2Ias tarsorum antieorum unguiculo interno valde incrassato et 
inflexo. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6-7. 

Scarabfeus arator, Fab., Ent. Si/st. i. 3.3 (1792). 
Heteronvchus arator. Burm., I. c. 94 (1847). 

Sanct^-Helenee, Blanch., Voy. P. IS. iv. 105, p. 7. f. 6(1853). 

arator, Woll, Journ. Ent. i. 210 (18(31). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist.iy. p. 312 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 144 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque, hinc indo occuiTens, ad latera 
viarum necnon in terra sub lapidibus. 

Next to the two species of Mellissius, this is the largest of the 
St.-Helena Lamellicorns ; and it has much the appearance of being 
truly indigenous, though found equally in Southern Africa. It occurs 
at intermediate and rather lofty altitudes, its normal range being 
from about 2000 to 3000 feet above the' sea. Midway between 
Plantation and the central ridge it usually commences to make its 
apj)earance, and is sometimes very abundant as we approach the 
loiver portions of the latter,^ — as, for instance, along the road from 
Cason's to High Peak and West Lodge. It was taken, however, by 
Mr. Gray as low down as Francis Plain, and by Mr. P. Whitehead 
at Woodcot. It is more particularly along the sides of the roads 
that it is practically to be met with, " in the neighbourhood," as 
Mr. Melliss well observes, " of grass-lands and hayfields," — where it 
may often be seen lying dead in considerable numbers, or crawling 
sluggishly about amongst the loose friable dusty soil, in company 
with the MeUissius eudoxus, with which at first sight it might almost 
be confounded. Apart however from the structural characters which 
separate it from that insect (amongst which its fully developed wings, 
and the greatly thickened and curiously bent inner claw of the two 
anterior feet of the male should be especially noticed), it may at once 
be recognized by its much smaller size and more shortly oblong, sub- 
cylindric outline, by its darker hue and more highly polished surface, 
by its clypeus being more rugose, and trisinuate (instead of trun- 
cate) in front, by its prothorax being unsculptured, and by the 
punctures of its elytra being distributed in regular striae. 

Unlike those of the MeULssH, the sexes of the ff. arator are about 
equally abundant. 



DYNASTlDiE. 



65 



Genus 36. MELLISSIUS. 

(Bates) Wollaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 313 (1869). 

Corpus crassum, supra nudum, subtus pilis longis robustis obsitum ; 
cap>ite triangulari, dypeo apice truncate, necnon ibidem, ac subito 
(ante oculos) in genis, plus minus incrassato recurvo, fronte in 
medio tuberculata: prothorace magno, convexo, ad latera sub- 
sequaliter rotundato, in utroque sexu simplici (nee antice impresso) ; 
prosternali lobo (inter coxas anticas) brevi, piloso : scutello semi- 
circulai-i -triangulari : alls minutis, obsoletis : instrumentis stridu- 
lantihus propygidium pliculis brevibus tuberculisve transversis (vel 
ubique dense, vel multo parcius) asperantibus. Antennce O-arf^ : 
art" 1"° elongate, robusto, subclavato, subflexuoso, 2**° brevi trans- 
verso, 3"° minore breviore, 4", o'", 6'° gradatim paulo crescentibus, 
reliquis clavam magnam foliatam ovalem 3-articulatam efficienti- 
bus. Lahrum clypeo absconditum. Mandihulce cornetE, robustae, 
subtriangulares, concavae, apice incurvae obtusae, extus setis lon- 
gissimis instructse. Max'dlaram lohus intermis obsoletus ; externus 
latus, suboblongus, setisque longissimis ubique obsitus. Pcdporum 
maxiUarium articulus idtimus obovato-oblongus, lahicdium sub- 
ovatus. Mentum (ligulam occultans) elongatum, subtriangulare, 
corneum, pilis longissimis obsitum. Pedes fossorii, robusti, sub- 
aequales : tibiis anticis extus fortiter tridentatis, posterioribus apice 
truncatis ciliatis : unguiculis sequalibus. 

Although published in 1869, I have thought it desirable to give 
a fresh, and somewhat emended, diagnosis of this remarkable genus, 
on account of its extreme importance in the aboriginal fauna of 
St. Helena, — the two representatives of it which have hitherto been 
brought to Kght being perhaps the only Lamellicorns, with the 
possible exception of the HeteronycJius arator, which have any 
claims whatever to be looked upon as truly and absolutely indi- 
genous. Its structural features bring it into rather close proximity 
with the Australian groups Cheiroplatys and Isodon, although it is 
abundantly distinct from both of them ; yet, unlike the members of 
those genera, the prothorax is entire in both sexes, and the organs 
for stridulation are developed ; moreover the anterior tibiae are not 
enlarged as in Cheiroplatys. The wings of the Mellissii, unlike those 
of Heteronychus, are so small and rudimentary that the species must 
be considered as practically apterous ; and their legs, as though to 
compensate for the organs of flight, are extremely robust and 
powerful, and are much in accordance with their sluggish, fossorial 
modes of life. 



6G DYNASTID^. 



04. Mellissius eudoxus. 

M. crassus, subquadrato-ovatus, rufo-piceus, iiitidus ; capite (prae- 
sertim in J) grosse ruguloso-punctato ; clypeo subtriangulari, 
apice late truncato et ibidem angustc recurvo, ad latera anguste 
marginato ; prothorace magno, convexo, grosse punctato, angulia 
anticis subporrectis acutiusculis, posticis rotuiidato-obtusis, ad 
latera subrotundato et longe fulvo-ciliato : elytris subquadratis sed 
pone medium latiusculis, apice subtruncato-abbreviatis (angulis 
sutiiralibiis vix rotundatis), propygidium recte transversum sub- 
laeve nitidum (mucronibus perpaiicis distantibus, in medio majori- 
bus traiisversis, adspersum) occultantibus, grossissime et confuse 
Bubmalleato-punctatis (punctis plus minus confluentibus, et non- 
nullis vix sublongitudin alitor dispositis), sutura subelevata, et 
saepius obsoletissime longitudinaliter sub-bicostatis ; pygidio semi- 
circulari, subnitido ; pedibus robustis, fossoriis, fulvo -pilosis. 

Maris clypeus tuberctJo medio distincto instructus ; prothorax sub- 
major ; pygidium minutissime et densissime subrugulosum. 

Foem. clypeus minus distincte tuberculatus ; prothorax subminor ; 
pygidium sensim laevius. 

Long. corp. lin. 7-9. 

Scarab?eus eudoxus, in Bej. Cat. 168 (1837). 

MeUissius eudoxus, Woll, Atin. Nat. Hist. iv. 314 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 145, pi. 23. f. 3 (1875). 

Habitat subeditiores insulse, ad latera viarum, praesertim juxta gra- 
minosos, lente movens. 

The normal range of the M. eudoxus does not differ greatly from 
that of the HeteronycJms arator, though, while ascending (in like 
manner) to the less-elevated portions of the central ridge, it perhaps 
scarcely descends quite so low as that insect does, — about 2500 feet 
above the sea being the height at which it is more particularly 
abundant. Like the Heteronychus arator, it is more often to be met 
with crawling sluggishly at the sides of the roads, in the vicinity of 
grass-lands, than elsewhere, — its larvas, apparently, being very 
destructive to the roots of the grass. Mr. Melliss speaks of the 
latter, in conjunction with those of the M. adumhratus, as called 
" hog- worms," and quotes an account by General Beatson of the 
manner in which they pursue their depredations ; but I think it 
must be the grubs of (more particularly) the M. eudoxus to which in 
reality he alludes, for that species is certainly very much more 
abundant than the other. Indeed we met with the eudoxus almost 
universaDy throughout the rather elevated central and south-western 
parts of the island (particularly in the vicinity of Cason's, High 



DYNASTID.E. 67 

Peak, and West Lodge), and more sparingly even in the northern 
ones, whereas of the adumbratv^ I did not procure so much as a 
single example during our six months' sojourn in the island ; so 
that, if the "hog-worms " do really " play so important a part in the 
destruction of the grass on the high lands, by feeding on its roots, 
that large patches, and sometimes whole fields, are laid bare," I 
suspect that it must be the M. eudoxus, and not the comparatively 
rare aduinbratus, which is mainly responsible for the damage. I 
will, however, just add, that our researches were so very much less 
pursued in the northern division of the island than they were in the 
central and south-western ones, that it is not impossible that the 
adumbratus may be found to occur in some parts of the former, and 
that the work of depredation may be carried on by both species within 
their respective areas ; though, even in that case, the fact undoubtedly 
remains that by far the larger portion of the high land has the'M. 
eudoxus for its tenant, and not the adumbratus. Possibly, though 
I did not observe it there, the latter may prove to be the dominant 
form on the Longwood and Deadwood Plains, or (which is stiU 
more likely) towards the eastern coast. 

The excessive rarity of the female sex in the Mellissii, as compared 
with the males, is very remarkable. Indeed when I enunciated the 
genus in 1869 I had not seen a single female of either species, though 
I had 18 examples altogether before me ; and even now, out of a 
large number of the M. eudoxus which were collected by myself, 
there are only two or three of that particular sex. It does not 
appear, however, to differ much, in its general characters, from the 
male — the tubercle of its clypeus being merely a little less distinct, 
its prothorax a trijle smaller, and its pygidium appreciably smoother 
(or less rugulose). 

65. Mellissius adumbratus. 

M. prsecedenti similis, sed subpallidior ac magis opacus ; capite paulo 
minus rugose punctato ; clypeo subangustioro, ad apicem minus 
late truncate sed magis recurve, ad latera minus obliquo et cras- 
sius marginato, tuberculo medio magis elevato instructo ; pro- 
thorace sublevius punctato, necnon ad latera in medio subangidato 
(aut, saltern, minus aequaliter rotundato) ; elytris nullo modo (non 
etiam obsoletissime) sub-bicostatis, sutura sensim minus elevata, 
angulis ipsis suturalibus omnino rectis, punctis etiam minus sub- 
longitudin alitor dispositis ; propygidio (vix omnino elytris abdito) 
triangular! {i. e. in medio angulatim producto, nee recto), magis 

f2 



68 DYNASTID.E. 

opaco, multo densius ac magis regulariter plicatulo-asperato ; 
pygidio lunari (nee semicirculari) et magis opaco. 
Long. Corp. lin. 8|-9|. 

Mellissius adumbratus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 315 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 145 (1875). 

Habitat (nisi fallor) versus orientem insulae, a Dora. Melliss supra 
Prosperous Bay.deprehensus. 

I have scarcely sufficient material to decide for certain vrhether 
this species may not be, on the average, a trifle larger than the last 
one ; however, it is certainly a little paler, or redder, and very much 
more opake. Its head is rather less roughly sculptured; and its 
clypeus (which is narrower, or less obliquely sloping at the sides) is 
less broadly truncated, as well as appreciably more recurved, in front, 
with its lateral edges more thickened, or coarsely margined, and 
with its central tubercle more developed ; its prothorax, which is 
not quite so deeply punctured, is rather less equally rounded at the 
sides, it having a faint tendency to be subangulated in the middle. 
Its elytra, which are free from all appearance of being even obsoletely 
(as in the M. eudoccus) longitudinally-costate, have their suture less 
elevated and their sutural angles somewhat more sharply expressed ; 
and they are also sufficiently truncated behind to leave exposed 
(which is not the case in the M. eudoxus)' a small portion of the 
propygidium. The latter is triangular instead of transverse, it being 
separated from the pygidium by an angular line instead of a straigTit 
one ; and it is likewise more opake, and much more densely asperated 
with minute transverse tubercles (or short file-hke plaits) for the 
purpose of stridulation. And its pygidium is lunate (instead of 
semicircular), and more opake*. 

In speaking of this insect and the last one, Mr. Melliss says, 
" Both species are plentiful, and occur in similar localities ; " but I 
have already given my reason why I think that some qualification 
of that statement is necessary. Indeed, out of 18 examples which 
Mr. MelHss himself sent to me for examination, three only belong to 
the M. adumbratus ; and these three embody all that I yet know 

* In all probability the M. adumhratihs will be found to stridulate audibly. 
In my original diagnosis of the genus and its two representatives, I expressed 
an opinion that, from the comparatively slight file-like arrangement on its pro- 
pygidium which is observable in the M. eudoxKS, that species would scarcely be 
able to produce a sound sufficiently loud to be heard ; and I may now add that 
I have not succeeded in detecting in it any stridulation that is appreciable. 
But whether the powers of the M. adumbratus are, in that respect, greater (as I 
am rather inclined to believe), remains yet to be proved. 



ELATE RID.E. 69 

about the latter. And, moreover, since Mr. Melliss expressly men- 
tions that he " found this insect under stones on the low barren 
plains near Prosperous Bay " (a locality which we never explored, 
and which is totally different from those which are normally 
occupied by the M. eudoxus), I would venture to surmise that it is 
probably towards the eastern side of the island, and perhaps at a 
rather lower altitude, that the M. adumbratus will be found more 
particularly to occur*. 



Sectio 7. PRIOCERATA. 

Fam. 18. ELATERID^. 

Genus 37. ANCHASTUS. 
Leconte, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.x. 459 (1853). 

66. Anchastus compositarmn, n. sp. 

A. elliptico-elongatus, angustulus, niger, pilisque brevissimis minu- 
tissimis demissis cinereis parce irroratus ; capite prothoraceque 
subopacis, densissime et profunde punctatis (punctulis nonnuUis 
intermediis minoribus), hoc maguo, convexo, in medio coleopteris 
latiore, angulis posticis valde productis, acutissimis, subsinuatim 
vix exstantibus, et carinuhs binis instructis, in disco postico 
obsolete canaliculato, basi transversim declivi sed in parte media 
ipsissima (ante scutellum) sublobato-elevato ; elytris elongato- 
ellipticis, sensim nitidioribus, grosse arguteque crenato-striatis, in 
interstitiis minutissime levissimcque punctulatis ac obsolete sub- 
rugulosis ; antennis, palpis, pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis ; tarsorum 
art° 3"" subtus late bilobo. 

Var. 0. capite prothoraceque sensim nitidioribus, hoc postice magis 
subito declivi ; elytrorum interstiis paulo magis rugulosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5-6. 

Habitat editiores, prascipue in ligno Compositarum antique ; Eestate 
ineunte, occurrens. 

The present species and the following one, which are the only 
Elaterids which have hitherto been detected at St, Helena, resemble 
each other very closely ; nevertheless I am satisfied that they are 

* The very excellent figure which Mr. Melliss has given to illustrate this genus 
belongs evidently, from its shining surface, to the M. eudoxus ; nevertheless I 
may just mention that it is cited as the adumbratus, — which would seem to 
imply that the two species may perhaps have been a little confounded by him as 
to their exact points of difference. 



70 elatkridj*;. 

truly distinct, and that they cannot be looked upon as local modifi- 
cations of a single form, — being, in point of fact, very frequently 
found associated. They both of them occur in the higher parts of 
the island, within the region of the arborescent Compositoe, — to which 
in their larva-states they would appear to be attached. Indeed, 
until they make their appearance after the early summer rains (about 
the beginning of February), when they may be found abundantly 
beneath stones in open grassy places, the few which I have ever met 
with have been broken out of the dead boughs and trunks of the 
various cabbage trees and gumwoods, — within which they clearly 
undergo their transformations. In fact on the eastern, and almost 
inaccessible, side of High Peak I on one occasion brought away with 
me a small portion of an old rotten branch of the " Whitewood 
Cabbage Tree*' {Petrohium arhoreum, R. Br.), within which the 
Ancliasti had manifestly just arrived at maturity; and although less 
than a foot in length, I obtained, by breaking it open carefully, more 
than 50 examples, — about two thirds of which belonged to the 
present species, and the remainder to the A. atlanticus ; and my 
belief is, that the A. compositarum will be found to be more attached 
to the Petrohium arhoreum than to any of the four native cabbage 
trees. Along the whole line of the central heights, from Diana's 
Peak to High Peak, the A. compositarum may be captured at times, 
during the commencement of the summer, in this sort of manner, — 
a single piece of dry tinder-like wood harbouring often a perfect 
colony of individuals ; and I may add that Mr. P. "Whitehead has 
obtained the species on Stitch's Ridge in much the same profusion 
as I did at High Peak. 

The A. compositarum is, on the average, the larger of the two 
Anchasti, and its limbs are usually a trifle more robust ; its surface 
is appreciably darker (it seldom being brownish or fuscescent), as 
well as more sparingly besprinkled with a much shorter and more 
minute cinereoiis pubescence ; its elytral interstices are more finely 
punctured, and less rugulose ; and its prothorax, which is just per- 
ceptibly opaker, convexer, and more rounded about the middle, has 
its posterior angles relatively someweat narroiver and more acute, 
and less straightened, — having a slight tendency to be a little sinuated 
or outwardly-curved. 

The examples from Flagstaff' Hill, in the extreme north of the 
island, are not quite so typical as those from High Peak and Stitch's 
Eidge, being in some respects intermediate between the two species; 



ELATERID^. 71 

nevertheless their exceedingly narrow and acute hinder prothoracic 
angles and very abbreviated pubescence will, I think, refer them to 
the A. compositarum rather than to the atlcmticus, though in their 
less opake head and prothorax (the latter of which is very suddenly 
sloped off in the middle), as well as in the more rugulose interstices 
of their occasionally subfusceseent elytra, they approach somewhat to 
the latter. In all probability they belong to the Gumwood fauna 
which must once have been dominant on the Longwood and Dead- 
wood plains, and may perhaps represent some slight modification, 
or variety, peculiar to those trees, which have now almost totally 
disappeared. 

67. Anchastus atlanticus. 

A. prsecedenti similis, sed minor, plerumque paulo magis piceus aut 
fuscescens, pilisque longioribus grossioribus ac sensim magis 
griseis vestitus ; capite prothoraceque submagis nitidis, hoc vix 
minus convexo et in medio vix angustiore, angulis posticis sensim 
rectioribus minusque acutis (sc. nullo modo subsinuatim subex- 
stantibus), postice paulo abruptius declivi ; elytris vix magis 
ellipticis, insterstitiis paulo magis subruguloso-asjieratis ; antennis 
pedibusque subrobustioribus, tarsorum posteriorum art" 1"'° vix 
minus elongato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4-vix 5. 

Anchastus atlanticus, Cmid., Mem. Mat. ii. 409, t. 3. f. 8 (1859). 
Heteroderes puucticollis, IVolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 317 (1869). 
Anchastus atlanticus, Id., ibid. viii. 401 (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Mel. 146 (1876). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque insular ; vel sub lapidibus in 
graminosis apertis, vel in ligno Compositarum antique. 

As already implied, this is (on the average) a rather smaller species 
than the preceding one, less decidedly black (the elytra being fre- 
quently picescent, or even brownish), and clothed with a coarser and 
longer pile ; its head and prothorax are just perceptibly more shining, 
the latter being also a trijle less convex and less rounded before the 
middle, as well as a little more ahru/pthj dcsilient behind, and with the 
posterior angles appreciably straighter and not quite so narrowed or 
acute ; its elytra (which are somewhat more shortened, or elliptic) 
have their interstices more rugulose ; and its limbs are less con- 
spicuously robust. 

Like the last one, the present species appears to be attached, in 
at any rate its larval condition, to the arborescent Gompositce of a 
somewhat high altitude, more particularly (I think), though by no 



72 CLERID/K. 

means exclusively, to the Little Bastard Gumwood, or Aster gum- 
miferus, Hk. fil. ; but in its perfect state it is more often to be met 
with beneath stones in open grassy spots, especially in the vicinity 
of those particular shrubs. After the early summer rains, about the 
beginning of February, it makes its appearance in comparative abun- 
dance ; during which season I took it in profusion just behind the 
lofty ridge, above "West Lodge, overlooking the great Sandy-Bay 
crater, as well as on the eastern (and well-nigh inaccessible) slopes 
of High Peak, and also (though more sparingly) so low down as 
even Plantation, It has been captured by Mr. P. "Whitehead on 
Halley's Mount, and likewise (in great profusion), beneath stones, 
on Green Hill. 

Fam. 19. CLERIDiE. 

Genus 38. CORYNETES. 
Herbst, Kdf. iv. 148 (1791). 

68. Corynetes rulipes. 

C. ovato-oblongus, caeruleus aut cyaneus, nitidus, pilisque elongatis 
suberectis grisco-nigrescentibus obsitus ; capite prothoraceque 
(interdum subaeneo-tinctis) profunde punctatis, hoc subconico-rotun- 
dato ; elytris profunde substriato-punctatis, insterstitiis transversim 
rugulosis ; antennis pedibusque la^te rufo-testaceis, illarum clava 
(magna) articulisque adjacentibus nigrescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2^-vix 3. 

Anobium rufipes, Thunh., Nov. Ins. Spec. i. 10 (1781). 
Corynetes rutipes, JVolL, Col. Atl. 209 (1865). 

^ , Id., Col. Hesp. 102 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 317 (1869). 

, Ilelliss, St. Hel. 146 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus repositoriisque insulse, ex alienis certe introductus. 

There are few insects more widely dispersed than the common 
European C. rufipes, its constant liability to transmission along with 
various articles of commerce and merchandise having rendered it 
well-nigh cosmopolitan. It has become established in the Canarian 
and Cape-"V^erde archipelagos, and was taken by the late Mr. Bewicke 
at Ascension ; but at St. Helena it does not appear to be usually very 
abundant, though to be met with occasionally in the houses and stores 
of Jamestown, — where it has been likewise found by the Rev.H."\\Tiite- 
head and Mr. N. Janisch. Mr. Melliss mentions that it occurs also 
about Ladder Hill. Its bright cyaneous, or metallic-blue, surface 



PTINID^. ANOBlIDiE. 73 

(wliich is coarsely punctured, and clothed with dark suberect hairs), 
in conjunction with the clear rufo- testaceous hue of its antennas and 
legs, the former of which, however, have their club and anteclaval 
joints blackish, will abundantly characterize it. 

Fam. 20. PTINID^. 

Genus 39. GIBBIUM. 
Scopoli, Int. ad Hist. Nat. 505 (1777). 

69. Gibbiiim scotias. 

O. ovatum, valde convexum, politissimum, calvum, esoulpturatum, 
subtranslucens, rufo-castaneum ; capite deflexo ; prothorace bre- 
vissimo, transverse, elytris arete applicato ; antennis pedibusque 
elongatis, crassis, densissime fulvo-cinereo-squamosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Ptinus scotias, Fah., Spec. Lis. i. 74 (1781). 
Gibbium scotias, WolL, Col. Atl. 214 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 318 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat circa domes et in cultis, rarissime ; certe intreductum. 

A single example of the European G. scotias (which has become 
naturalized also in Madeira) was taken by Mr, Gray, amongst garden 
refuse, at Plantation, and another had previously been met with by 
Mr. Melliss ; but the species is, of course, a mere introduction from 
more northern latitudes. There is no fear of confounding it with 
any thing else which concerns us in this volume, — its extremely 
convex, highly polished, unsciilptured, glabrous, semitransparent, 
globule-shaped body, added to its bright- chestnut (or rufo-casta- 
neous) hue, and the fact of its thick, elongate limbs being densely 
clothed with a fine and closely-set fulvo-cinereous pubescence being 
more than sufficient at once to characterize it. 

Fam. 21. ANOBIID^. 

Genus 40. ANOBIUM. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 62 (1775). 

§ 1. Scutellum transversmn. 

70. Anobium velatum. 
J^.parallelo-oblongum, subcylindricum, piceo-brunneum, subnitidum, 



74 ANOBIID^. 

longe et moUit,er fulvo-cinereo-pubescens pilisque elongatis sub- 
erectis moUibus velatum ; capite prothoraceque granulato-asperatis, 
illo oculis maximis, prominentibus, hoc lato, convexo, transverso- 
Bubquadrato, ad latera in medio subrecto, angxilis posticis rotun- 
datis, linea lieviore obsoleta dorsali instructo ; elytris profunde 
striato-puuctatis, interstitiis parce granulato-rugulosis ; antermis 
pedibusque longiusculis, crassis, piceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Anobium velatum, WolL, Ins. Mad. 276, t. v. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Col.Atl, 226 (I860). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 318 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat in cultis et domibus, ad lignum antiquum ; rarissimum. 

I did not meet with this Anobium at St. Helena ; but a single 
example was obtained by Mr. Melliss, and a second has been given 
to me by Mr. P. Whitehead — taken by himself at Woodcot. The 
species is without doubt a naturalized one, and may perhaps have 
been more abundant before the vines (to which I believe it to be a 
good deal attached ; at least so it appears to me in at any rate the 
Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos) were so generally destroyed. 
It is the largest of the St.-Helena Anobia ; and it may be further 
distinguished by its roughly sculptured, piceous-brown surface, which 
is clothed with soft, elongate, and nearly erect hairs, and by its 
rather wide^ convex, transverse -quadrate prothorax. It is studded 
with small granules, rather than punctules ; but the punctures of its 
elytral striae are both deep and somewhat coarse, and its eyes are 
very large and prominent. 

§ 2. Scutellum subtriangulare. 

71. Anobium paniceum. 

A. breviter oblongum, subopacum, rufo-ferrugineum, broviter et 
molliter (et vix demisse) fulvo-cinereo-pubescens; capite pro- 
thoraceque minute subgranulatis, hoc lato, convexo, ad latera 
leviter explanato rotundato, postice in medio obsolete subearinu- 
lato-gibboso ; elytris minute crenulatp-striatis ; antennis pedi- 
busque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa I5. 

Dermestes paniceus, Linn., Fna Suec. 431 (1761). 
Anobium paniceum, WolL, Col. Atl. 227 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 109 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 77 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus insulae mereatorumque repositoriis, passim. 



ANOBIIDiE. 75 

Like the A. domesticum, this universal European insect (which 
occurs in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Gape-Verde groups) 
has acquired for itself almost a world-wide range, its liability to 
intertransmission amongst civilized countries along with farinaceous 
substances and other articles of commerce having succeeded in esta- 
blishing it almost everywhere. At St. Helena it is not uncommon ; 
often amongst bread and meal,. as well as about old houses generally, 
— under which latter circumstances it has been taken by Mr. P. 
Whitehead at Woodcot. 

The A. molle is a rather small and insignificant Anohmm, and one 
which may be known by its shortly-oblong outline, rufo-ferruginous 
hue, and nearly opake, densely pubescent surface, — the hairs of 
which, however, although equally fine and soft, are not quite so 
elongate, or so erect, as those of the A. velatum. Its prothorax is 
as wide behind as the base of the elytra, and nearly even ; and the 
latter are minutely crenate-striated. 

72. Anobiiim douiesticum. 

A. angustulum, elongatulum, subopacum, brunneo-piceum elytris 
dilutioribus, minutissime, brevissime, et omnino demisse fulvo- 
pubcscens ; capite prothoraceque angustis, subgranulato-rugulosis, 
hoc paiTO, in^quali, lateraliter eompresso, versus augulos posticos 
anguste acuteque subexplanato-marginato, in disco postico alte 
gibboso-carinato ; elytris profunde striato-punctatis, utrinque 
ante apicem obsolete subgibbosis ; anteunis (rufo-testaceis) pedi- 
busque (piceo-ferrugineis) longiusculis, gracilibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. I5-2. 

Auobium domesticum, Fourcr., Ent. Par. i. 26 (1785). 

striatum, OJw., Ent. ii. 1(J. 9 (1790). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 227 (I8G0). 

, Id., Cvl. Hesp. 109 (1867). 

domesticum, Crotch, in Go(hn. Azor. 77 (1870). 

striatum, Melliss, St. Bel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus, passim ; ex Anglia forsan introduetum. 

This widely-distributed European Anobhon, which from its con- 
stant liability to exportation along with timber (and in vessels) has 
acquired an almost cosmopolitan range, and which has established 
itself in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape-Terde archi- 
pelagos, occurs sparingly in houses at 8t. Helena. I have met with 
it frequently at Plantation ; and it has been found by Mr. P. White- 
head at Woodcot. 



76 ANOBIID/E. 

The rather narrow outline and piceo-brownish hue of the A. do- 
tnesticum, added to its nearly opake and very minutely and shortly 
pubescent surface, and its small, uneven, laterally compressed pro- 
thorax, which is acutely margined towards the posterior angles, and 
obtusely carinated (or gibbose) on the hinder disk, will sufficiently 
distinguish it, 

73. Anobinm confertum. 

A. cylindricum, aut nigrum aut fusco-nigrum, opacum, ubique 
minutissimo et densissime subarenaceo-granulatum (vix punctu- 
latum) pubeque brevi cinerea et omnino demissa parce sericatum ; 
capite deflexo, oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace brevi, 
transverse, simplici, convexo, postice elytrorum latitudino, angulis 
anticis subrectis, posticis magis rotiindatis, ad latera subrecto 
regulariter explanato -recurve atque ferrugineo ; elytris obsoletis- 
sime longitudinaliter substriatis (sed nullo modo punctatis) ; 
autennis pedibusque gracilibus ct iua^qualiter piceo-fcrrugineis, 
tarsis clarioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2^. 

Anobium confertum, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist, iv, 319 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat inter arbusculos Asteris glutinosi, Roxb. (anglice " Scrub- 
wood "), lignum antiquum destruens. 

The single example, taken by Mr. Melliss, which I had seen of 
this very distinct Anobium in 1869 was unaccompanied with any note 
as to its habitat ; and considering, therefore, how eminently liable 
the Anohia are to accidental introduction throughout the civilized 
world, I expressed my doubts (while describing it as new) as to its 
real claims to be regarded as indigenous at St. Helena. Even now, 
only one more individual has come beneath my notice ; but since its 
modus Vivendi is unmistakably defined, I am enabled at all events 
to treat the species which it represents as, without doubt, one of the 
aboriginal exponents of the fauna ; so that the A. confertum is no 
longer dubious as regards the question of its origin. It is to Mr. 
P. Whitehead that we are indebted for clearing up this particular 
point, and shovtdng that it is probably to the Aster glutinosus, or 
" Scrubwood," that the insect is attached, — some decayed portions 
of that viscous and essentially characteristic shrub which he collected 
in the vicinity of Flagstaff Hill having produced, amongst certain 
Microxylobii of undoubted Scrubwood-infesting habits, the specimen 
to which I have just called attention. Unfortunately we had no 



BOSTRICHID.^. 



n 



opportunities, during our six months' sojourn in the island, of in- 
vestigating the Scrubwood, — one of the aboriginal arborescent Com- 
positce which is now becoming extremely scarce, and confined to a 
few hot and arid districts towards the coast which are practically 
difficult of access ; but Mr. Whitehead has proved to a demonstration 
that it harbours a little fauna of its own, and that it only requires 
to be carefully searched to add (even yet) new members to the 
catalogue. I have consequently but little doubt that when the 
Scrubwood-regions have been thoroughly examined, the present 
Anohium will be found to occur more plentifully, and will cease to 
be (as now) well-nigh unique *. 

There is no fear of confounding the A. confertum with any other 
of the Anohia recorded in this volume, — its cylindrical outline and 
opake ctiriously-sculpturcd surface, which is altogether devoid of 
punctures but which is most densely, evenly, and minutely granu- 
lated all over (like the finest possible seal-skin), and apparently 
more or less clothed, or sericated, with an extremely short and quite 
decumbent whitish, cinereous pubescence, being more than sufficient 
to distinguish it. Its colour is either black or brownish black ; its 
eyes are large and very prominent ; its prothorax is wide, transverse, 
and even, with the lateral edges rather straightened, but ferruginous 
and conspicuously fiattened and recurved ; its elytra are almost free 
from even obsolete traces of longitudinal striae ; and its limbs are 
slender and piceo-femiginous, 

Fam. 22. BOSTRICHID^. 

Genus 41. RHIZOPERTHA. 

Stephens, ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 254 (1830). 

74. RMzopertha bifoveolata. 

jR. breviter cylindrica, piceo-ferruginea, subopaca ; prothorace magno, 
subgloboso, valde convexo, scabroso, necnon antice mucronibus 
fortiter asperato, ad basin foveolis duabus mediis impresso ; elytris 
ubique confertim punctatis (baud striatis), ad apicem integris ; 
antennis longiusculis, robustis. 

Long, Corp. lin. circa 1^=. 

* Since these observations were written, another example of the A. confertum 
has been communicated by Mr. P. Whitehead. It was taken by himself on 
" the Bam," amongst the bushes of Scrubwood ; and he has even sent me a por- 
tion of the dead sticks out of which he obtained it ; so that I need scarcely add 
that the above remarks have been most completely corroborated. 



78 BOSTRICHID.E. 

Rhyzopertha bifoveolata, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 409 (1858). 
Rhizopertha bifoveolata, Id., Col. All. 232 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 110 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 320 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 147 (1875). 

Habitat in mercatorum repositoriis ; mild non obvia, sed certe ex 
alienis introducta. 

I did not meet "witb this insect at St. Helena, where, however, it 
was taken by Mr, Melliss ; but there can be no question that the 
species is merely a naturalized one, and only requires to be searched 
for in the stores and houses of Jamestown. Like the R. pusilla, it 
seems to be more particularly attached to dried roots, imported as 
articles of merchandise, — whether whole, or (like ordinary arrow- 
root) in the form of farina ; and indeed it was in a cask of flour that 
it was introduced, many years ago, into Madeira. I obtained it, 
however, under circumstances which appeared somewhat more 
natural, in the interior of St. lago, in the Cape- Verde group. 

In my original diagnosis of this insect, in 1858, 1 mentioned that 
the R. bifoveolata is rather larger and broader than the common R. 
pusilla, but proportionally not quite so long, as also a little darker, 
or more piceous, and nearly opake. Its prothorax is much larger 
and more globose, — being exceedingly convex, wider and more 
roughened in front, and with two deep, rounded f ovese or depressions 
(separated only by a narrow rudimentary dorsal line) in the centre 
behind. Its elytra are uniformly and closely punctured all over, the 
punctures being much smaller and more numerous than those of the 
R. pusilla, and without any tendency to be arranged either in strite 
or longitudinal rows ; and they are rounded and entire at the apex, 
there being no appearance of an oblique truncation ; and the 
antennae, which are a little paler than the rest of the surface, are 
somewhat longer and more robust than in that species. 



75. Rhizopertha pusilla. 

R. angustulo-cylindrica, piceo-ferruginea, subnitida ; prothorace 
semicirculari-cylindrico, scabroso, necnon antice mucronibus aut 
pliculis transversis asperato ; elytris profunde striato-punctatis 
(punctis magnis), ad apicem obsolete oblique tnmcatis aut retusis 
(vix omnino integris) : antennis rufo-testaceis ; pedibus gracUibus 
rufo-piceis, tarsis clarioribus. 

Long. Corp. liu. circa li. 



TOMICID^. 79 

Synodendron pusillum, Fah., Ent. Sijst. v. (Siippl.) 156 (1798). 
Rhyzopertha pusilla, Steph., I. c. 354 (1830). 
Rhizopertha pusilla, WolL, Coll. Atl. 232 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 320 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. mi. 148 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus repositoriisque ad Jamestown, farinas radicesqne 
destruens. 

I met with this almost cosmopolitan insect sparingly on outer 
walls, particularly of warehouses, in Jamestown, — where it appears 
to have established itself (as it has at Madeira and elsewhere) 
through the medium of commerce, being particularly partial to 
farinaceous substances and dried roots. I need scarcely add that it 
has no real connexion with the true fauna of St. Helena. 



Sectio 8. KHYNCHOPHORA. 

Fam. 23. TOMICID^. 

Genus 42. TOMICUS. 
LatreUle, Hist. Nat. iii. 203 (1802). 

76. Tomicus aemiilus. 

T. cylindricus, nitidus, nigro-piceus, pilisque longiusculis suberectis 
fiilvescentibus parce obsitus ; prothorace amplo, posticc evidenter 
punctulato, in disco mox ante medium subnodoso-convexo, antice 
dilatato obtuse rotundato necnon mucronibus asperato ; elytris 
leviter striato-punctatis punctulisque minoribus in interstitiis 
uniseriatim notatis, ad apicem retusis, parte perpendiculari denti- 
bus sublateralibus duobus subajquaUbus (sc. superiore et inferiore) 
ac perpaucis lateralibus minutissimis granuliformibus utrinque 
armata ; antennis pedibusque infuscato-testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. circa li. 

Tomicus femulus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 321 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 148 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis (rariua editioribus), arbores (praecipue Podo- 
carpi elongati, I'He'r.) perforans. 

When I described this species in 1869 I had seen only a single 
example of it, which was taken by Mr. Melliss but the habitat of 
which was totally unknown to me. During our resideiice, however, 
at Plantation I met with it in absolute profusion, — principally boring 



80 HYLESINIDjE. 

into the stems, and beneath the loose outer bark, of the gigantic 
Cape yews {Podocarpus elongatus, I'ller.) ; so that it is not impossible 
that it may have been originally introduced into the island, and have 
since become completely naturalized. Still I do not feel confident 
that this is the case ; for I have taken it also, though very much more 
sparingly, even on the central ridge. Like most of the Tomici, 
however, it is a species which uses its wings vigorously ; so that, 
when once established in any country or district, it would very soon 
spread. 

In its general size, outline, proportions, and sculpture, the T. 
cemulus has much the ])rimd facie appearance of the European 
T. saxesenii (which occurs likewise in the Azorean, Madeiran, and 
Canarian groups) ; but, as I mentioned in 1869, a closer inspection 
wiU show not only that it is a little larger and more pilose, with its 
prothorax less alutaceous and more distinctly punctulated behind, 
but that its elytra are more retuse (or perpendicularly truncated) at 
the apex, and that each of them is armed with (in addition to 
smaller and granuliform ones) two robust acute spines. This latter 
character, apart from its more evidently punctulated prothorax and 
darker hue, will equally separate it from the T. perforans, a species 
closely resembling the saxesenii, and which has been found in the 
Madeiran and Cape-Verde archipelagos, — where, however, in all 
probability, it has become naturalized through indirect human 
agencies. 

Fam. 24. HYLESINID^. 

Genus 43. HYLURGUS. 
Latreille, Oen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 274 (1807). 

77. Hylurgus ligniperda. 

H. cylindricus, subnitidus, niger sed in elytris obsoletissime sub- 
picescens (immaturus omnino ferrugineus), pilisque erectis (in 
capite prothoraceque, necnon ad elytrorum apicem, longioribus) 
cinereo-fulvis vestitus ; capite prothoraceque dense et profunde 
punctatis, illo crasso triangulari-quadrato, hoc elongate, sub- 
conico, in medio linea leevi subcarinulato ; elytris densissime et 
grosse asperato-rugulosis (vix certe punctatis), et obsolete longi- 
tudinaliter striatis, ad apicem ipsum leviter truncatis aut retusis ; 
antennis tarsisque piceo-testaceis, femoribus tibiisque (latis, com- 
pressis, extus spinulosis) piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2 1. 



COSSONIDiB. 81 

Bostricbus lisniperda, Fab., Ent. St/st. i. ii. 367 (1792). 
Hylurgus ligniperda, Wall, Col. Atl. 250 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 321 (1869). 

, Crotch, in Goclm. Azor. 78 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. IIcl. 148 (1875). 

Habitat pinos emorh^as in intermediis rariusque in editioribus, sub 
cortice laxo erodeus. 

The common European H. ligni'perda (which has established 
itself abundantly in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian archipe- 
lagos) is universal beneath the bark of old fir trees at St. Helena, 
occurring at intermediate and lofty altitudes — where it has doubtless 
become naturalized, along with the various pines, from Europe. 
Its thick, cylindrical outline, and elongate, subconical prothorax, 
added to the long and erect cinereo-fulvescent hairs with which it 
is clothed (particularly, however, on the anterior and posterior ex- 
tremities of its body), and its broad, compressed, and externally 
spinulose tibiae, will at once distinguish it from evei'y thing else with 
which we have here to do. 

Although in general outline and aspect a little resembling at first 
sight some of the larger exponents of Psevdostenoscelis, nevertheless 
its total freedom from a hook at its outer tibial angle, its flattened, 
externally spinulose tibiae, and the subretuse apex of its elytra will, 
even of themselves, immediately separate it from that group, and 
indeed from all the members of the Cossoniche. 

I have taken the H. ligniperda abundantly at Plantation, as well 
as in old pine-trees at Cason's and elsewhere. 



Fam. 25. COSSONID^. 

The excessive importance of the Cossouidce at St. Helena, which 
number more than a quarter of the entire Coleopterous fauna (so far 
at least as the latter has hitherto been ascertained), renders it 
desirable to furnish a short analysis of the groups, in order to 
facilitate the study of an assemblage of forms which might otherwise 
be somewhat difficult both to classify and determine. For the actual 
species themselves I must refer to the several diagnoses as given in 
situ ; but the following Table will perhaps be found useful in 
enabling us to recognize the main characters on which the various 
genera have been established : — 



82 COSSONIDiE. 

A. Rostrum brevissimum, latum, crassum, triangulare. Abdominis 
segm*" 1"'" et "2^" lined argute divisis . . [Subfam. Stenoscelides.] 
a. ocvli laterales. elytra postice asperata. 

fi. funiculus 7 -articulatus. oculi valde demissi. 
Stenoscelis. 
jSjS. funictdus 5-articulatns. oculi sensim prominuli, 
Pseudostenoscelis. 
aa. octdi subsuperiores. elytra postice hand asperata. 
Pachymastax. 

AA. Rostrum vel breve vel plus minus elongatum et gracile. Abdominis 
segm*'' 1'"" et 2''° inter se arete connatis .... [Subfam. Cossonides 

et Pentarthrides.] 

y. futiiculus 7 -articulatus | 

Pbloeophagus. V [Subfam. Cossonides.] 

yy. funictdus 6-articulatus ) 

Hexacoptus. 

yyy. funiculus 5-articulattis [Subfam. Pentabthrides.] 

6. oculi minuti. prothorax szibtriangularis. 
Pentarthrodes. 
8S. oculi obsuleti, stibnuUi. jjrothora.r subovalis. 

Pseudomesoxenus. 
6S8. octdi plus minus conspicui. 

e. rostrum breve, triangulare ; oculis valde demissis. 

Isotornus. 
f e. rostrum vel elo7igato-subtriangulare, vel breviter parallelum. 
^. corpus nigrutn atit piceum (nee ceneum), 

Microxylobius. 
f^. corpus plus minus ceneo-micans. 

rj. prothorax nunquam grossissime scidpturatus. 

Acantbomerus. 
T]r], prothorax grossissime sculpturatus. 
Eucoptoderus. 
eee. rostrum plus minus elongatum, S(epe gracile. 
6. corjms ceneo-micans. 

I. inceqtialiter (aut senii-J politttm, sc. hinc inde 7iitidum 
et hinc inde opacum. 
Chalcoti'ogus. 
u. aqualiter polittnn. 

K. funictdi art" 2^" valde elongato. 
Lamprocbrus. 
KK. funiculi art^ 2'^" quam primus paululum longiore ; 
rostro robusto, distorte curvato. 
Xestopbasis. 
6'^ corpus nullo modo metallicum. 

A. magnum ; rostro robusto, distorte curvato. 
Tapiromimus. 
>.v. rostro gracili, lineari. 

u. prothorax antice simplex (i. e. truncatus). 
TjcbioiTbiuus, 
Hfi. prothorax antice obtuse prodtictus, cuculliformis, 
caput tegens. 

Crvptommata. 



COSSONID^. 83 

(Subfam. 1. STENOSCELIDES.) 

Genus 44. STENOSCELIS. 

Wollaston, Jouni. of Ent. i. 141 (1861). 

Corpus cylindricum, dense sculptnratum, subnitidum ; rostro brevis- 
simo, crasso, triangulari, oculis lateralibus, subreniformibus, valde 
demissis, scrobe brevissimo, fere nnllo, ante oculos sito ; protliorace 
postice recte trnncato, antice distincte constricto, necnon ad latera 
in medio sinuate ; scntdlo minutissimo, punctiformi. Elytris antice 
transversim plicato-rugosis, postice (subito desUientibus, tamen 
vix subretusis) parce tuberculato-asperatis ; metasterno mediocri ; 
ahdominis segmentis 1™° et 2^° linea argute divisis. Antennce 
breves, subgraciles ; sccq^o brevissimo ; funiculi (7-articulati, 
parum compacti) art" l"" magno, antice recte truncate ; capitvlo 
abrupto, subrotundato. Pedes subgraciles, antici omnino, inter- 
medii fere omnino contigui, postici paulo distantes ; f arsis elonga- 
tis, gracilibus, art" 1™° elongate, 3*'° vix latiore sed minutissime 
bilobo, ult™" elongate. 

The genus Sfenoscelis was enunciated by mj'self in 1861 to receive 
a small and cylindrical Bylastes-like Cossonid (apparently conspecific 
with the present one from St. Helena) which was taken by the late 
Mr. Bewicke, during the preceding year, at the Cape of Good Hope ; 
and it still makes, as I cannot but believe, the nearest approach to 
the members of the Hylesinidc^, of all the true Curculionids which 
have as yet been brought to light. Perhaps, indeed, Pseudostenoscelis 
may be said to have a nearly equal claim to be prima facie suboscu- 
lant between the two groups ; nevertheless in the genus now under 
consideration the rostrum is (if possible) even still shorter and more 
triangular, the scape is even still more abbreviated, and the elytra 
are more decidedly asperate ; so that on the whole it is best placed 
in juxtaposition with the exponents of the preceding family. 

Since nearly aU the St.-Helena members of the Cossonidce which 
are absolutely and undoubtedly aboriginal seem to possess a o-jointed 
funiculus (the only exceptions to that rule being the one which we 
are now discussing, the Hexacoptus ferrugineus, and the European 
PKlceophagus ceneopiceus which has manifestly been naturalized), and 
since, as just mentioned, the StenosceUs hylastoides occurs equaU}' in 
Southern Africa, it may perhaps be open to inquiry whether the 
latter may not have beeu introduced originally from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and have since completely established itself. At any rate this 
conclusion is somewhat borne out by its mode of life, inasmucti as it 

g2 



84 COSSONlDiE. 

i 

is only within the intermediate cultivated districts that I have hitherto 

met with it ; whereas the closely-resembling Pseudostenoscelides are 

attached more emphatically to the native arborescent Compositoi, not 

only of intermediate but (more particularly) of the loftiest elevations. 

78. Stenoscelis hylastoides. (Fig. 1.) 

S. breviter cylindrica, nigra, fere calva, subnitida ; capite protho- 
raceque sat profunde et deusissime puuctatis, illo a^quali et (una 
cum rostro) late triangular!, ociilis valde demissis, hoc triangulari- 
quadrato, postice recte truncato, ad latera in medio distincte 
sinuato ; elytris vix (tamen antice evidentius) picescentioribus, 
striato-punctatis, interstitiis minutissime punctulatis ac rugose 
seriatim asperatis, asperitate antice x^licaturas transversas sed 
postice tubercula parva acuta efFormante : anteunis tarsisque 
ferrugineis, femoribus tibiisque piceis. Suhtas alutacea, parce 
subfulvescenti-pilosa, distincte sed leviter punctata. 

Long. Corp. lin. Ij-lf. 

StenosceUs hvlastoides, JFolL, I. c. 142, pi. 11. f. 1 (1861). 

, Id., Aim. Nat. Hist. iv. 401 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. mi. 148 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis (prsecipue cultis) insulae, lignum aridum pul- 
verosum et valde antiquum destruens. 

I have taken this insect most abundantly "within pieces of dry 
rotten wood, completely dusty and pulverized, as ■well as in old 
decayed posts, at Plantation ; and it has been found by Mr. P. White- 
head at Woodcot under precisely similar circumstances ; but I did 
not observe that it ascends, like the closely-resembling members of 
Pseudostenoscelis, to the central ridge, to attach itself to the native 
arborescent Compositce. Perhaps therefore it may be less strictly 
indigenous than the exponents of that genus, and more particularly 
so since it is not confined (Hke them) to St. Helena, but exists like- 
wise at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Genus 45. PSEUDOSTENOSCELIS (nov. gen.). 

Corpus cylindricum, dense sculpturatum, plerumque subnitidum ; 
rostro brevissimo, crasso, subtriangulari, ocnlis lateralibus, subro- 
tundatis, scrobe brevissimo sed profundo, foveiformi, ante oculos 
sito ; protJiorace postice recte truncato, antice plus minus con- 
stricto, ad latera in medio plus minus sinuato ; scutello minutis- 
sime, punctiformi ; elytris antice et postice (subito desilientibus, 
tamen vix subretusis) parce tuberculato-asperatis ; metasterno 
mediocri ; abdominis segmentis 1"° et 2"^° linea argute divisis. 
Antennce breves subgraciles ; scapo brevi ; funiculi (5-articulati, 



COSSONIDiE. 85 

sublaxi) art" 1""° magno, antice recte truncate; eapitulo abrupto, 
subrotundato. Pedes subgraciles, antici omnino, intermedu fere 
omnino contigui, postici paulo distantes ; tarsis elongatis, gracili- 
bus, art" 1"" elongate, 3''" vix latiore sed minutissime bilobo, 
ult™° elongato. 

A ^€vlos, falaus, et Stenoscelis. 

Obs. — Genus prima facie Stenoscelidi simillimum, sed differt 
funiculo 5-, nee 7-articulato, rostro paululum minus triangulari, 
oculis minus demissis, scapo paulo minus brevi, elytrisque antice 
minus grosse plicato-asperatis. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the extreme resemblance of the 
members of this most important St. -Helen a group to those (from the 
Cape of Good Hope and Japan) which I described a few years ago 
under the generic name of Stenoscelis should have hitherto so com- 
pletely deceived me that I had no hesitation whatever in referring 
the whole of them to the latter assemblage. Perhaps, however, this 
is not altogether inexplicable, seeing that it is only now that I have 
overhauled my recently acquired material from St. Helena with 
sufficient precision to perceive that the species which have as yet 
been brought to light differ so essentially from the South-African 
and Japanese ones as to possess a funiculus which is composed of 
only five joints instead of seven. Yet, although scarcely differing 
prima facie from the rest (except, of course, specifically), one at any 
rate of these ITylastes-like forms is a veritable Stenoscelis (having a 
7-jointed funiculus, and sundry other small distinctive characters to 
which I have already called attention) ; and this one, the S. hylas- 
toides, was acknowledged by myself {vide 'Ann. Xat. Hist.' iv. 322, 
1869) as occurring in St. Helena, no less than at the Cape of Good 
Hope, — the only marvel being, at any rate to my mind, that six 
closely resembling species which are due to our late explorations in 
the island should by any possibility be generically distinct from the 
South- African one. Yet this certainly appears to be the case ; and 
I have consequently cited them under a separate genus, as above 
enunciated. 

With this single radical exception of a 5-jointed funiculus (instead 
of 7-), the members of the present genus do not differ materially 
from those of Stenoscelis. Their rostrum is perhaps not quite so 
triangular, and (which is important, their eyes are less completely 
sunTcen or depressed ; and their scape, although short, is not quite 
so abnormally reduced ii' length ; added to which they have a rather 



86 COSSONID^. 

more distinct, though very abbreviated, scrobs (or fovea) for the 
reception of their antennae, and their elytra, although roughened, 
are less asperate (particularly at the base) ; but the same cylindrical 
contour and laterally-sinuated prothorax, and the same apically-desi- 
lient elytra, slender legs, and elongated feet obtain in both groups*. 

§ 1. Opaca ; protliorace antice fere integro. 
79. Pseudostenoscelis sculpturata, n. sp. 

P. breviter cylindrica, latiuscula, crassa, nigra, fere calva; capite 
prothoraceque opacis, sat profunde et densissime punctatis 
punctis subconfluentibus), illo (una cum rostro) late triangulari, 
in medio leviter canaliculato, hoc longiusculo, triangulari-ovato, 
postice subemarginato-truncato, ad latera in medio obsolete 
sinuato ; elytris antice singulatim arcuatis, vix minus opacis, pro- 
funde punctate- et tuberculato-striatis (punctis sc. remotis, grossis, 
et superne asperatis, tubercula efficientibus), interstitiis minutis- 

■ sime punctulatis ac elevatis ; antennis tarsisque (art" 3"° fere 
simplici) ferrugineis, femoribus tibiisque piceis. Sabtus parce 
subfulvescenti-pilosa, et profunde punctata. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2|. 

Habitat truncos Diclsonice arhorescentis, THerit., antiques emortuos 
putridos, in regionibus valde excelsis, rarissima. 

Evidently one of the rarest of the St.-Helena Coleoptera, three 
examples only having been brought to light during our sojourn in 
the island, — one of which (found by Mrs. AVollaston between Actaeon 
and Diana's Peak) was dead and imperfect, while another was taken 
by myself in the centre of a rotten stem of a tree fern, and the third 
from beneath a piece of damp decayed wood on the very summit of 
nearly the highest portion of the central ridge. It is clearly there- 
fore one of the aboriginal forms, and in all probability undergoes its 
transformations within the putrid trunks of the magnificent Dick- 
sonia arborescens. Although generically identical, it is totally unlike 

* Altbougl) possessing a 5-jointed funiculus, I cannot place the present genus 
and the following one (in a general arrangement of the Cossonidce) amongst the 
Pentarthrideous types (in which that organ is essentially 5-artioulate), inasmuch 
as the whole of their other features affiliate them most unmistakably with the 
somewhat osculant forms which terminate the entire family and serve to articu- 
late it on to the Hylastideous and Scolytideous groups. Indeed their manifestly 
close relationship (as already pointed out) with Stcnoscelis, in which the funiculus 
is 7-jointed, forbids altogether any attempt to locate them except injuxta-position 
with that genus; and they must consequently be looked upon (like Pentamimus 
from Australia, and Tomolips from Mexico) as exceptional members (in which 
the funiculus is composed of 5, instead of 7, articulations) of the particular sub- 
family in which I ha\e located them. 



COSSONIDiK. 87 

any of the other species of Fseudostenoscdis which have hitherto been 
discovered, — its large size, as compared with all of them except the 
P. asteriperda, and broad, thickened, shortly- cylindric body, in con- 
junction with its completely opake head and prothorax (the denselj-- 
set punctures of which have a tendency to be subconfluent), and very 
coarsely sculptured elytra, which have their interstices elevated and 
their striae very wide and deep, the punctures of the latter being 
large and remote and so completely asperate (or overhung by their 
raised anterior edge) as to appear, when viewed from above, more 
like sharp and isolated tubercles than any thing else, giving it a 
character which it is impossible to mistake. Its prothorax, too, is 
well-nigh simple anteriorly, being almost unconstricted. 

§ 2. Nitidida ; proiliorace antice plus minus constricto. 

80. Pseudostenoscelis asteriperda, n. sp, 

P. cylindrica, crassa, valde alata, teneo-nigra aut a^neo-picea, nitidi- 
uscula, in elytris sensim breviter subfulvescenti-pilosa ; capite 
prothoraceque sat profuude et dense punctatis, illo late subtrian- 
gulari, in medio leviter canaliculato, hoc triangulari-ovato, antice 
paulum constricto, ad latera in medio siuuato; elytris transversim 
rugulosis, confuse substriato-punctatis (punctis superue asperatis, 
tubercula, postice magna acuta, cfficientibus), interstitiis con- 
fuse uniseriatim punctulatis ; antennis tarsisque (elongatis, art" 
3''° distincte bilobo, ult™° elongato) ferrugineis, femoribus tar- 
sisque piceis. Sahttis parce fulveseenti-pilosa, et grosse sed hand 
profunde punctata. 

Long. corj). lin. -3-8. 

Habitat in editioribias, truncos ramulosque Asteris gummiferi et Bur- 
chellii, Hk. f., antiques emortuos perforans. 

With the exception of the P. sculpturata (which about equals it 
in bulk), the present Pseudostenoscelis is very much the largest 
member of this genus which has hitherto been brought to light ; and 
it seems to be peculiar, so far as I have observed, to the rotten wood 
of the two rare arborescent Asters — the A. gummiferus, Hk. f. (or 
"Little Bastard Gumwood"), and the A. Burchellii, Hk. f. It is 
consequently a species of a high elevation, as regards its range ; 
indeed the only locality in which I have met with it (though there 
in tolerable profusion) is on the almost inaccessible and windy sides 
of the great Sandy-Bay crater just beyond West Lodge, near to iho 
old Picquet House and overlooking Lufkins. In size and general 



88 COSSOMD.E. 

outline it is at first sight a little suggestive of the common Hylurgus 
ligmjperda ; but this, of course, is the merest superficial analogj'. 

Apart from its comparatively large bulk, this thick an(J cylindrical 
Pseiidostenuscelis may be known by its cenescent, or brassy, tinge, by 
its confusedly sculptured elytra (the hinder asperities of which are 
exceedingly acute and prominent), and by (like the P. longitnrsis) 
its greatly elongated feet — the third joint of which is more deeply 
and distinctly bilobed than is the case in any of the other species. 

81. Pseudostenoscelis longitarsis, n. sp, 

P. cylindrica, angustula, nigra aut piceo-nigra, nitidiuscula, ubique 
(sed praisertim in clytris) fulvescenti-pilosa ; capite prothoraceque 
sat profunde et dense punctatis, illo lato crasso, quadrato-trian- 
gulari, in medio leviter canaliculato, oculis promiuulis, hoc lon- 
giusculo, cj'lindrico-ovato, pone apicem distiucte constricto, ad 
latera in medio obsolete sinuato, in disco linea laevi instructo ; 
elytris stepius antice evidentius picescentibus, transversim rugu- 
losis, substriato-punclatis (punctis superne asperatis, autice plica- 
turas trans vcrsas sed postice tubercula acuta efiicientibus), iuter- 
stitiis minutissime uniseriatim punctulatis ; antennis tarsisque 
(elongatis, art" 3"" minutissime bilobo, ult™° elongate ) ferrugiueis, 
femoribus tibiisqiie piceis. Suhtus dense sed vix grosse punctata. 

Long. corp. lin. l|-2. 

Hahitat prsecipue in intermediis insulse, Commidendron rohustum^ 
DC. ( angHce " Gumwood "), et Asterem glutinosum, Eoxb. (anglice 
'•Scrubwood") destruens; ad Plantation, Thompson's Wood, 
Peak Gut, necnon ad et juxta promontorium "the Barn"' 
dictum, lecta. 

This is a species which, so far as I have observed, is more 
particularly attached to the rotten trunks and branches of the 
gumwood (^Commidendron rohustum, DC.), and also to those of the 
scrubwood (Aster glutinosus, Eoxb.), — Mr. P. Whitehead having 
lately communicated a large number of examples which he appears 
to have taken out of the decayed stems of the latter on, and in 
the vicinity of, " the Barn." Those that I have myself met with 
were broken out of dried sticks of the true gumwoods which are 
still left in the grounds at Plantation ; and I also obtained it, from 
similar trees, in Thompson's Wood and Peak Gut ; but it does not 
seem to ascend, so far as I am aware, into the extremely elevated 
parts of the great central ridge. 

The P. longitarsis is a rather narrow species in proportion to its 
bulk (which ranges next in order after the P. sculpturata and 



COSSONID^. 89 

usteriperda) ; and it is also more pilose than any of the others, — its 
elytra especially being studded with exceedingly fine and suberect 
cinereo-fulvescent hairs. Its head is convex; and its prothorax 
(which is normally rather elongate, and which is only ohsoletely 
sinuated at the sides, although conspicuously constricted anteriorly) 
has a bright unpunctured line or space (not always equally distinct) 
on the centre of its disk ; and its elytra are nearly as much trans- 
vei-sely-plicate or asperated, at their base, as in the Stenoscelis hylas- 
toides. Its feet, too, are considerably lengthened, particularly the 
terminal joint — indeed quite as much so (relatively) as in the 
P. asteriperda, though their third one is much less bilobed than in 
that insect. 

82. Pseudostenoscelis alutaceicoUis, n. sp, 

P. praecedenti similis, sed minor, angustior, antice paulo minus 
pilosa ; prothorace (antice vix minus constricto) alutaceo, nee 
nitido, et levins punctato, lined discali laeviore vix (etiam obsolete) 
instructo, sed utrinque in disco postico obsoletissime (vix per- 
spicue) subnoduloso ; elytris subopacioribus, et multo minus rugose 
sed magis confuse scul[)turatis ; tarsorum art° 3*^° paulum minus 
elongato. 

Long. corp. lin. I5-I3. 

Habitat locos editiores. juxta Diana's Peak et mox supra "West Lodge 
parcissime deprehensa. 

This is a rather obscure species, of which I possess only five 
examples, all of which I took on the central ridge, — four of them 
in the direction of Diana's Peak, and the other on the somewhat 
less elevated portion towards the south-west immediately above 
West Lodge. Its nearest ally is clearly the P. longitarsis ; never- 
theless it is considerably smaller and relatively narrower than that 
insect, and anteriorly it is less pilose (indeed almost free from 
pubescence); its prothorax (which is a trifle less constricted in 
front) is alutaceous, and therefore less shining, as well as more finely 
and lightly punctured ; and it has no traces (or scarcely any) of an 
unpunctured discal line, though there are very obscure indications 
on either side of its posterior disk of a small rounded (often quite 
inappreciable) subtuberculiform space ; its elytra (which are likewise 
somewhat less shining than in the P. longitarsis) are both much less 
roughly and more confusedly sculptured ; and the last joint of its 
feet is not quite so elongate. 



90 COSSONIDiE. 



83. Pseudostenoscelis compositarum, n. sp. 

P. cylindrica, nigra aut sajpius fusco-nigra (interdum obsoletissime, 
vix perspicue, subaenescens), nitidiuscula, fere calva ; capite pro- 
thoraceque sat profunde et dense punctatis, illo subtriangulari, 
fere integro, hoc breviusculo, triangulari-quadrato, ad apicem 
leviter constricto, ad latera in medio distincte sinuato ; elytris 
interdum antice obsolete picescentioribus, regvdariter punctato- 
striatis (punctis antice vix, et etiam postice paulo solum, aspe- 
ratis), interstitiis convexis et minute uniseriatim punctulatis ; 
antennis tarsisque (art° 3"° minutissime bilobo) ferrugineis, femo- 
ribus- tibiisque piceis. Suhtus parce et leviter punctata. 

Long. corp. lin. lj|-l|. 

Habitat lignum antiquum, et sub cortice laxo emortuo, Compositai'um 
arborescentium (prsesertim Petrohii arborei, E.. Br., et Melano- 
dendronis integnfolii, DC); in locis valde elevatis degens. 

The present Pseudostenoscelis is essentially a species of the highest 
elevations, — occupying the districts characterized by the various 
cabbage-trees, to which it would seem to be attached. Along the 
great central ridge I have taken it at times in considerable profu- 
sion, particularly after the early summer rains (about the beginning 
of February), — not only towards Diana's Peak and Actseon, but 
likewise at Cason's and (still more abundantly) at High Peak ; 
indeed on one occasion I met with it at the latter, beneath the dead 
and loosened bark of the " whitewood cabbage-tree " {Petrobium 
arboreum, R. Br.), in countless numbers. It has also been found by 
Mr. P. Whitehead along what is called the " Cabbage-tree Eoad." 

The P. compositarum is, on the average, a little smaller than the 
hngitarsis, and (except on the hinder part of the elytra) it is well- 
nigh free from pile ; its head is not quite so broad : its prothorax 
(which is almost, or even entirely, devoid of all appearance of a 
bright discal line) is relatively shorter, and much more sinuated on 
either side, with its transverse constriction more decidedly apical, 
and its punctures not quite so coarse ; and its elytra (which are 
much less rugulose, being almost free from asperities except pos- 
teriorly, whilst even there they are somewhat minute) are more 
regularly punctate-striate, — the strite being deeper and better 
marked, and the interstices more convex. Its tarsi, likewise, 
although long, are not quite so lengthened as in that species ; and 
there is occasionally a brownish, as well as an obsolete suboenescent 
tinge, over the entire surface. 



COSSONID^. 91 

84. Pseudostenoscelis minima, n. sp. 

P. prascedenti subsimilis, sed minor et subrugosius sculpturata, 
elytris praesertim magis asperatis necnon ad basin- ipsam saepius 
picescentioribus, antenuarum capitulo sensim minore, tarsorumque 
art" 3''° fere simpliei (vix etiam minute bilobo). 

Long. Corp. lin. l-lj. 

Habitat in intermediis insulae,' lignum antiquum Commidendronis 
robusti, DC, (anglice " Gumwood ") praecipue destruens. 

This is the smallest member of the present genus which has 
hitherto been found ; and I am inclined to suspect that it subsists 
normally on the true gumwood {Commidendron 7'obustnm, DC), 
though the disappearance of that tree in so many of its former 
quarters has compelled the insect to adopt a different mode of life. 
At any rate I have taken it amongst the gumwoods at Thompson's 
Wood and in Peak Gut ; whilst its occurrence at Plantation and 
Oakbank, in a region where there can be little doubt that the gum- 
wood was once supreme, even though now attached to other trees 
(as, for instance, the " Port-Jackson willow " or Acacia longifoUa, 
WUld., and the " Cape coral-tree " or Erytlirina caffra, Thunb.), is 
quite in accordance with my s^upposition as to its original habitat. 
As a necessary consequence of this h}^othesis (if correct), the species 
should be essentially one of intermediate altitudes ; and this certainly 
appears to be the case, as I am not sure that I have ever met with 
it in the strictly cabbage-tree region of the high central ridge, — 
where the F. compositanan frequently swarms. 

Judging from about 2o examples which are now before me, the 
P. minima may be known from the P. compositarum, apart from its 
diminished bulk, by being altogether (in proportion to its size) a 
little more roughly sculptured (the elytra especially being more 
asperate, as well as usuaUi/ more picescent at their extreme base), 
by its antennal club being relatively smaller, and by the third joint 
of its feet being almost simple (or scarcely even minutely bilobed). 

Genus 46. PACHYMASTAX (nov. gen.) 

Corpus fere ut in Pseudostenoscelis., sed majus, multo erassius, minus 
cylindricum (sc. magis elongato-ovatum), magis opacum, setulisque 
brevissimis suberectis ubique obsitum ; rostro sublongiore (tamen 
brevissimo), oculis minus lateralibus, sc. magis superioribus, superne 
sensim magis approximatis, scrohe longiore (tamen brevi), valde 
profunda, recta, argute determinata, et infra oculos breviter ducta ; 



9.2 COSSONID.'E. 

2)rothorace magis ovali (antiee et postice eequaliter angustiore), 
antice vis constricto, ad latera integro (nee in medio sinuato) ; 
sciitello nullo ; elytris ubique sequaliter (nee antice et postice 
magis) granulato-asperatis, apice regulariter rotundatis (nullo 
modo subito desilientibus) ; metasterno breviore, sc, brevissimo. 
Antennce panlo longiores, scapo prsesertim multo longiore, faniculi 
(laxi) art" 1™" antice minus recte truncate. 

A Tra^Os, crassus, et fxaaral,, OS. 

The rare and most extraordinary insect for which the present 
genus is proposed is still more unlike the normal members of the 
Cossonidce than even Stenoscelis and Pseicdostenoscelis ; yet, at the 
same time, its someiuhat less ^breviated (though equally thickened) 
rostrum, its longer scape, its less cylindrical (although extremely 
convex and incrassated) body, and the fact of its elytra not being 
more asperated behind than elsewhere, nor more apically-desilient 
than in the ordinary Curculionids, combine, in reality, to remove it 
a little further than those two genera from the sub-Hylastideous, 
osculant (but nevertheless strictly Ehyuchophorous) forms which 
connect this family with the preceding one. 

From Pseudostenoscelis proper, Fachymastax recedes in the com- 
paratively large, incrassated, and less parallel (and therefore less 
cylindric) form of the curious species which hitherto represents it, 
which is sparingly studded all over with very short, erect setae, — 
those on the elytra being beautifully golden or fulvescent. Its 
rostrum (although very thick and abbreviated) is not quite so 
reduced in length as is the case in that genus ; the eyes are more 
superior in position, or less lateral ; and the antennal scrobs, although 
short, is very much deeper, more decidedly expressed, and very 
sharply defined, — being directed, moreover, considerably heloio the 
eye, instead of towards the middle of it. Its prothorax is more 
oval (being about equally narrowed before and behind), as well as 
less constricted anteriorlj' and not sinuated at the sides. Its scutellum 
is altogether untraceable ; its metasternum is considerably more 
abbreviated ; its elytra are weU-nigh unstriate, but uniformly 
roughened all over with small and well-defined tubercles or granules 
(not being more asperated before and behind than elsewhere, nor at 
all unusually desilient, or suddenly sloped oflP, at their extremity) ; 
and its antenn® have their scape conspicuously longer. 



COSSONIDiE. 93 

85. Pachymastax crassus, n. sp. 

P. eloiigato-ovatus, crassus, convexus, niger ; capite nitido, calvo, 
profunde punctato, rostro brevi subtriangulari-quadrato postice 
convexo, oculis subsuperioribus, demissis ; prothorace elytrisque 
opacis, illo subovali, valde profunde donsissimequo punctato setu- 
lisque brevissimis erectis hilvo-nigris obsito, bis sensim longius 
grossiusque erecte setulosis ■ (setulis laete aureo-fulvescentibus), 
ubique et aequaliter granulato- aut tuberculato-asperatis, sed vix 
(aut etiam obsoletissime) lougitudinaliter striatis ; antennis tar- 
sisque rufo-piceis ; femoribus tibiisque nigro-piceis. Subtus antice 
opacus, postice nitidus, ubique (pra^sertim in metasterno abdo- 
minisque art'^ 1""° et 2'^°) profunde et grosse punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3— i|-. 

Habitat truncos ramulosque Compositarum arborescentium antiquos 
emortuos (prsesertim Asteris gummiferi, Hk. f.), in editioribus, 
rarissimus. 

I have already pointed out what the principal characters are by 
which this thickened and coarsely (though evenly) sculptured insect 
may be recognized ; and I will merely add that its somewhat shining 
head, whilst the prothorax and elytra are opake, and uniformly dark 
surface, which, however, is relieved on the elytra by the fulvo-golden 
hue of the short and erect setae with which they are studded, will serve 
additionally to distinguish it. 

The P. crassus is one of the rarest, and most unmistakably indi- 
genous, of the St.-Helena Coleoptera ; and if I am right in suspecting 
that it is more particularly attached to the decayed trunks and 
branches of the Aster gummiferus or " little bastard gumwood," 
there is a fair chance of its becoming before long totally extinct. 
At any rate I have captured it from out of rotten sticks of that 
singular shrub at the extreme edge of the tremendous precipice 
immediately above "West Lodge which forms the side of the great 
Sandy-Bay crater, as well as from the interior of dead stems of the 
same species a little further along the ridge and overlooking Lufkins. 
And I also met with it on the well-nigh perpendicular and almost 
inaccessible slopes behind High Peak, overlooking Peak Gut ; but I 
am not quite sure that the pieces of wood which produced it in that 
particular instance were those of the Aster gummiferus, as they may 
possibly have belonged to the Petrobiurn arboreicm, R. Br., or 
" whitewood cabbage-tree.'' 



94 COSSONlDiE. 

(Subfam. 2. COSSONIDES.) 

Genus 47. PHLffiOPHAGUS. 
Schonherr, Ge7u et Sp. Cure. iv. 1047 (1838). 

86. Phlceophagus aeneopiceus. 

P. cylindrico-oblongns, piceo-seneus, nitidus, ealvus ; capite (cum 
rostro) dense punctulato ; prothorace subovato, grosse et profunda 
punctato, ad basin ipsam filo-marginato necnon in medio obsolete 
foveolato-impresso ; elytris (prothorace paulo latioribus) basi recte 
truncatis ac distincte filo-margiuatis profunde striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis minutissime parceque puuctulatis ; antennis (gracilibus, 
funiculi art" 2^" sequentibus sensim longiore) tarsisque ferrugineis, 
femoribus tibiisque rufo-piceis. 

Mas rostro sensim breviorc, crassiore, et vix densius punctato quam 
in foemineo. 

Long. corp. lin. circa 1|. 

Phlceophagus feneopiceus, Bohem., in Schan. Gen. Cure. viii. 2. 278. 

, Bmal, Gen. Col. Cure. t. 30. f. 143 (1854). 

, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 654 (1873). 

Hahitat in cultis intermediis ; sub ligno Pini recenter secato tria 
specimina collegi. 

This is the only Cossonid out of the fifty-six which have hitherto 
been detected at St. Helena which is certainly and without doubt 
naturalized, — the Stenoscelis liylastoides being merely questionable on 
account of its occurring likewise at the Cape of Good Hope. It is 
singular, however, that hotli of these species (although as widely re- 
moved from each other, in affinity, as it is possible to be) offer the 
only exceptions in the subfamily as regards their funiculus — which 
is 7-jointed, instead of being composed (as in the whole of the other 
St.-Helena members except the Hexaeoptusferrugineus, the funiculus 
of which is 6-articulate) of only five articulations. But, whatever be 
the case as regards the original introduction (or not) of the Stenoscelis 
hylastoides, there can be no question whatever that at any rate the 
common European P. ceneopiceus must have been accidentally 
imported into the island, — in all probability along with trees and 
shrubs. It would appear, however, to be of the greatest rarity in 
the island, the only examples which I have as yet seen being three 
which were found by myself at the Hermitage (near Plantation) 
beneath a solid block of feUed pine. Most likely, therefore, it is the 
fir trees to which the species is attached. 



COSSONID.E. 95 

The St.-Helena exponents of this Phloeophagus are a little more 
brassy, and just perceptibly more coarsely punctured, than English 
ones which are now before me ; but in every thing essential they are 
inseparable from their more northern representatives. 

Genus 48. HEXACOPTUS (nov. gen). 

Corpus cylindrico-fusiforme, subopacum, fere calvum, et fere esculp- 
turatum ; rostro longiusculo, sublineari sed postice subconstricto- 
angustiore, in medio convexo, oculis parvis, scrobe infra oculos 
ducta ; protliorace subovato, antice integro ; scutello obsolete ; 
elytris elongato-subovatis basi recte truncatis ; metasterno brevi- 
usculo, et (una cum abdominis segment© 1™°) paululum longitudi- 
naliter concave ; abdomims segm"'' 1™° et 2^° inter se arctissime 
connatis (linea vix distincta divisis). Ante7ince mox ante medium 
rostri insertae, crassiusculse : funicido 6-articulato, crasso subcom- 
pacto, art" 2"^° brevi minuto, 3''° magno crasso subquadrato, reli- 
quis tribus latiusculis transversis ; capituh ovali et baud abrupto. 
Pedes crassi, antici fere omnino contigui, intermedil paululum et 
postici magis (tamen baud remote) distantes ; tibiis ad angulum 
internum in spinulam minutissimam produetis ; tarsis crassiuscu- 
lis, art" 3''° latiusculo et distincte bilobo. 

Ab tl, sex, et kotttcj, seco. 

Even at first sight the Cossonid for which the present genus is 
erected may be known by its cylindric-fusiform outline, its opake, 
ferruginous, almost unsculptured, and nearly bald surface, its small 
eyes, incrassated limbs, and by its rather long and posteriorly- 
narrowed rostrum, — which appears, consequently, to be a little 
widened about the middle (particularly, however, in the male sex), 
and slightly gibbose, or convex, in that particular part. Neverthe- 
less its most salient feature consists in the construction of its funi- 
culus, which is not only considerably thickened and someivlmt compact 
but is composed of six articulations, — of which the second is extremely 
reduced in bulk (it being short and small), whilst the third one is 
anomalously increased, broad, and subquadrate. This modification 
of the funiculus-joints is most eccentric ; and I am acquainted with 
no other Cossonid in which the third one is thus abnormally deve- 
loped at the expense of the (usually more elongated) second. Amongst 
other points worth noting, the anterior coxae of Hexacoptiis are as 
nearly as possible contiguous, whilst even the intermediate ones are 
not far apart, and the third articulation of its feet is rather distinctly 
widened and bilobed. 



96 COSSONID^. 

87. Hexacoptus ferrugineus, n, sp. 

U. cylindrico-fusiformis, subopacus, fere calvus, ferruginous ; rostro 
(a capite linea subdiviso) longiusculo, sublineari sed postice sub- 
constricto-angustiore, in medio (praesertim in J ) paulo ampliatim 
subconvexo, minute et dense punctulato, oculis parvis ; prothorace 
elytrisque (basi filo-marginatis) fere esculpturatis, his obsoletissime 
longitudinaliter substriatis ; antennis pedibusque crassis, bis 
capituloque paulo clarioribus ; tarsorum art° 3''" latiusculo et 
distincte bilobo. 

Long. Corp. lin. Ij-lf. 

Habitat editiores insulse, inter F'dices praecipue deprebensus. 

It is unnecessary to point out afresh what the characters are 
which serve to distinguish this Cossonid, even at first sight, from 
the others with which we have here to do, — its generic and specific 
characters being alike referred to in the observations which I have 
giveu above. It is an inhabitant essentially of the higher altitudes, 
and (althoiigh occurring at intervals along the whole central ridge) 
one which is decidedly scarce, — about thirty-six examples being all 
that I was able to obtain. Although many of them were captured 
accidentally in the sweeping-net, I am inclined to suspect that it is 
not the arborescent Compositm to which the insect is normally 
attached, nor yet the tree ferns (for I have taken it at West Lodge 
and at Cason's, which are rather below the region of the Dieksonias), 
but perhaps one of the other large ferns, — such as the Diplazium 
nigro-paleaceum, Kunze, the thick masses of which cluster almost 
everywhere from about 2500 feet above the sea to the extreme 
summits of the peaks. This, however, is merely a conjecture ; 
though it is certain that I have frequently beaten the H. ferru- 
gineus out of the dead and blackened plants of the Dij)laziiim in 
various localities. My examples are principally from the vicinity 
of Diana's Peak and Actseon ; but a few were captured at Cason's, 
High Peak, and West Lodge. 

(Subfam. 3. PENTARTHRIDES.) 

Genus 49. PENTARTHEODES (nov. gen.). 

Corpus cylindrico-subfusiforme, nitidum, calvum, aut nigrum aut 
piceo-nigrum, angustulum ; rostro vel sublineari, vel breviore 
crassiore subtriangulari, oculis minutissimis, rotundatis, tuberculi- 
formibus, sed baud obsoletis, scrobe infra oculos dueta ; prothorace 
magno, elongate, subtriangulari (sc. versus basin latiore), antice 



COSSONID;E. 97 

leviter suhconstricto ; scuteUo obsoleto ; elytris cylindrlco-sub- 
elliptieis, ad basin conjunctim subarcuato-triincatis ; metasterno 
breviusculo, vel simplici, vel (in specie typica) una cum abdomine 
ad basin (distincte in cJ ) minus evidenter in $ ) late longitudi- 
naliter concavo ; abdominis segmentis 1™° et 2*^° inter se arete 
connatis (linea vix distincta divisis), segm'" ult™" vel simplici, vel 
(ut in specie typica) fovea media rotundata (distincte in d , minus 
evidenter in 2 ) impresso. Antennce ante medium rostri insertae ; 
funiculo 5-articiilato. Pedes robusti, anteriores paulo, sed postici 
magis distantes ; tihiis ad angulum internum in spinulam minu- 
tissimam productis ; tarsis brevissimis, crassiusculis, art" 3''° prae- 
cedentibus paulo latiore et minute sub-bilobo. 

A Pe)itdrthruni, et flSos, aspeetus. [Typus Pentarthrodes dicksonice.'] 

In their general contour and aspect, particularly as regards their 
suhtriangular prothorax, the two members of this genus which have 
hitherto been detected, and both of which seem to be peculiar to the 
rotten stems of the old tree ferns, are very suggestive at first sight 
of Pentarthnim ; nevertheless the obsoleteness of their scutellum 
and the excessive minuteness of their eyes, in conjiinction with their 
somewhat differently shaped rostrum, will at once separate them 
from that group. In reality they have far more in common with 
Pseadomesoxenus, the scutellum of which is likewise absent ; but the 
decided presence of eyes, however diminutive, added to their more 
triangular (or posteriorly wider) prothorax, their basally-subarcuated 
elytra, their more robust legs, and their thicker feet (the third joint 
of which is appreciably a little broader than the preceding ones, and 
minutely sub-bilobed instead of being simple), will separate it 
equally from the exponents of that genus. Moreover, in at all 
events one of the species (the P. dicksonice) there is a longitudinal 
concavity (particularh-^however, in the male sex) extending down 
the (much shorter) metasternum and abdominal base, as well as a 
large rounded fovea on the terminal segment. 

§1. Rostrum longiuscidtim, suhparaUelum. Metasternum et abdomen 
ad basin (prcesipue in S ) longitudinaliter impressa, necnon ab- 
dominis segm. idtimum (prcecipue in S) rotundate foveolatum. 

88. Pentarthrodes dicksoniae, n. sp. 

P. cylindrico-fusiformis, niger (interdum piceo-niger), nitidus ; 
rostro minutissime sed vix dense punctulato ; prothorace magno, 
elongate, subtriangulari, postice lato, argute et dense sed hand 
profunde punctato ; elytris subellipticis, basi conjunctim sub- 



1)8 COSSOMD.E. 

arcuato-truncatis, subcouvexis (aut subarcuatim deciirvis), siriato- 
punctatis, interstitiis depressis et minute iiniseriatim punctulatis ; 
antennis pedibusque lougiusculis, crassis, rufo-piceis. iSubtus vix 
subalutaceus, punctatus. 

Mas rostro subbreviore et paulo crassiore quam fcemineum, antennis 
sensira magis versus apiccm insertis ; subtus paulo levius puncta- 
tus ac profuudius impressus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Habitat intra truncos DicTcsonue arhorescentis, I'Herit., antiques 
emortuos putridos, in locis humidis valde elevatis. 

This is essentially an insect of the highest altitudes, and one 
which is quite peculiar to the interior of the fibrous stems of the old 
and putrid tree ferns, — where it is often exceedingly common, though 
unless searched for under those particular circumstances it would 
undoubtedly be altogether overlooked. Its comparatively elongated 
and more parallel rostrum and larger size give it more the prima 
facie appearance than the following species of a true Pentarthrum ; 
nevertheless, apart from its blacker hi;e, I have already mentioned 
what the particular characters are which immediately separate it 
from the members of that genus. 

We met with the P. diclsonice (which was first captured by Mr. 
Gray) on the high central ridge, about Actseon and Diana's Peak, — 
usuailj' by bringing home portions of the dead trunks of the tree 
ferns, and breaking them up carefully over a white cloth. By this 
method I obtained it both in the imago and larva states ; and it has 
been found in the same manner by Mr. P. Whitehead. 

§ 2, Rostrum sensim brevins ac magis triangulare. Corpus subtus 
integrum (nee in S nee in 5 impressum). 

89. Pentarthrodes filicum, n. sp. 

P. fusiformi-cylindricus, piceo-niger, subnitidus ; rostro minutissime 
et dense punctulato ; prothorace magno, elongato, subtriangulari, 
convexo, postice lato, argute, densissime, et profunde punctato, ad 
basin ipsam in medio subito desiliente, foveam parvam subtrian- 
gidarem (aut concavitatem obsoletam) cfiiciente ; elytris sub- 
eliiptico-cylindricis, basi conjunctim subarcuato-truncatis, pro- 
funde punctato-striatis, interstitiis paulo convexis ac minutissime 
uniseriatim punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque breviusculis, crassis, 
rufo-piceis. Subtus vix subalutaceus, profunde deuseque punctatus. 

Mas rostro subbreviore et paulo crassiore quam fcemineum, antennis 
sensim magis versus apicem insertis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1 1- 



COSSONIDvE. 99 

Habitat in locis similibus ac praecedens, una cum illo degens, sed 
multo rarior. 

The P. filicum is a very much rarer species than the dicksonice ; 
nevertheless its mode of life is precisely similar, — occurring as 
it does within the damp putrid stems of the old tree ferns. This is 
most unmistakably its normal' habited,, as has been proved to a 
demonstration both by Mr. P. Whitehead and myself on the high 
central ridge, where we have taken it sparingly, on several occasions, 
towards Diana's Peak and Actaeon. Yet this exclusiveness in its 
modus vivendl has a slight doubt cast upon it by the fact that, unless 
I am greatly mistaken, I certainly met with a single example at 
Thompson's Wood, — a locality which is far below the region of the 
Dicksonias, and which belongs in reality to the zone which is cha- 
racterized by the Gumwoods. I merely mention this as a point 
which demands further inquiry ; for there can be no question 
whatever that the P. filicum is as essentially attached to the tree 
ferns as the P. dicJcsonice is, and I feel it just possible therefore that 
my sweeping-net, which was in constant operation on the central 
ridge and elsewhere, may have harboured the specimen (unknown to 
me) to which I have just called attention, and that I may perhaps 
have simply found it therein while collecting at Thompson's Wood. 
At least some such explanation as this seems to me to be not alto- 
gether improbable. 

Although the largest examples of it almost equal in dimensions 
the most stunted ones of the P. dicJcsonice, the present species is 
nevertheless on the average very much smaller than the latter ; and 
it is also less black (or a little more picescent), as well as less 
shining and more deeply sculptured. Both its rostrum and its limbs 
are relatively less elongated, the former being also more triangular 
(or less linear) in outline ; and there is no appearance beneath the 
body, in either sex, of the longitudinal concavity which is so conspi- 
cuous in the males (and which is slightly traceable even in the 
females) of the P. dicksonice ; added to which, its elytra have their 
striae very much deeper, and their interstices more convex. But one 
of its most constant characters (though by no means very conspicuous 
unless the insect be viewed obliquehj under a strong lens, and in a 
favourable light) consists in the fact that the centre of the extreme 
base of its prothorax is somewhat desilient, — so as to shape out a 
small, rounded, or subtriangular, foveiform concavity, or obsolete 

h2 



100 COSSONID.K. 

impression, which, although obscure, will be found (wheu rightly 
looked for) never to be absent. 

Genus 50. PSEUDOMESOXENUS. 

WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 453 (1873). 

Corpus cylindricum (rarius subfusiformi-cylindricum), nitidum, 
calvum, piceo-castaneum, angustum ; ro.s/ro breviusculo, crassius- 
culo, elongate subtriangulari, oculis omnino obsoletis (rarius 
minutissime subperspicuis ) ; prothorace magno, subovali, antice 
integro (vix constricto) ; scutello obsoleto ; eh/tris plus minus 
cylindricis, ad basin recte truncatis ; metasterno longiusculo, et, 
una cum abdomine, simplici (nee longitudinaliter concave) : 
ahdominis segm*'' 1"° et 2''° inter se arete connatis (lineti vix 
distincta divisis). Antennce ante medium rostri insertse, brevius- 
culas ; funiculo 5-articulato. Pedes breves, anterio>rs paulo sed, 
p)Ostici sat late distantes ; tihiis ad angulum internum in spinulam 
minutissimam productis ; tarsis brevibus, art" 3"° parvo, simplici. 

The minute Cossonid for the reception of which I proposed the 
present genus four years ago was described by myself in 1869 {vide 
'Ann. Nat. Hist.' iv, 410) as an aberrant Pentarthrum, in which 
the eyes and scutellum are obsolete ; and inasmuch as the original 
example (taken by Mr. Melliss) was miique, it was not until our late 
visit to the island that I was enabled to perceive that the group is in 
reality aboriginal, and an extremely significant one in the Coleopte- 
rous fauna of St. Helena. Indeed two additional exponents have 
already been brought to light ; and we may confidently expect that 
others will yet occur. 

Apart from the diminished bulk of the species which compose it, 
and their obsolete scutellum and eyes, the present genus may be 
known from Pentarthrum by its rostrum being more triangular (or 
less parallel), and by its prothorax being more oval, or less widened 
posteriorly ; and it is further remarkable for the shortness of its 
feet, the third joint of which is small and simple. 

A word or two perhaps may be necessary concerning the eyes of 
this singular little genus, which I have defined as strictly " obsolete." 
In the P. suhccBCus indeed they might well-nigh be cited as totally 
absent ; for even beneath a high mag-nifying-power I cannot satisfy 
myself that I am able to detect for certain even the smallest trace of 
organs of sight ; and indeed the same might be said of the majority of 
the exam-plesoiihe P.minutissirnus. Nevertheless in a few of the latter 
a very diminutive speck, or rounded granuliform tubercle, is decidedly 



COSSONID^. 101 

present to represent the eye, though clearly quite useless for the pur- 
poses of vision ; and a similar structure is distinguishable (perhaps 
a trifle, more evidently) in my unique example of the P. scrobicidatus. 
Under these circumstances I think that it would be rash to speak of 
the eyes, at all events in the generic diagnosis, as positively absent; 
though it is certainly true that, if they can be said to be present, 
they are so abortive and rudimentary as to come under the exact 
definition of what is technically termed " obsolete." 

90. Pseudomesoxenus minutissimus, n. sp. 

p. minutissimus, breviter cylindricus, piceus, nitidulus ; rostro 
crasso, triangulari-conico, minutissime parceque puuctulato ; 
prothorace magno, ovali, convexo, profunde sed baud dense 
punctato ; elytris profunde striate- pun ctatis, interstitiis minu- 
tissime uniseriatim punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque brevibus, 
ferrugineis. Sahtus in medio profimde sed parce puuctatus. 

Long. corp. lin, |-1. 

Ohs. — Oculi interdum siibperspicui (tamen aegerrime), sc. minu- 
tissimi, punctiformes, valde rudimentarii. 

Habitat in editioribus insuhe, Compositas arborescentes Pinosque 
destruens. Etiara in ligno anti(]uo emortuo putrido longe sub 
terra sito frequenter degit. 

Of all the St.-Helena Cossonids which have hitherto been disco- 
vered, this is the most minute, and it is an insect which is confined 
essentially to the higher elevations, — occurring along the whole 
central ridge, from Diana's Peak and Actseon to Cason's, and thenco 
to High Peak and above West Lodge. It is, however, at Cason's 
that 1 met with it more abundantly than elsewhere, where it has 
attached itself to the Pinasters which have been planted amongst 
the native cabbage- trees, and where it was met with by Mrs. Wol- 
laston and myself swarming in the interior of the decayed roots 
which extended deep into the soil. It was in company with the P. 
subccBcus, which is also practically blind (the eyes of both species being 
usually quite untraceable, though in occasional examples just to be 
distinguished as a minute punctiform granule which must be quite 
useless for the purposes of vision) ; so that the structure of the two 
members of the genus may be said to be somewhat in accordance 
with their modus vivendi, — organs of sight being scarcely required 
for creatures which reside mainly in the interior of rotten wood and 
very frequently at a considerable depth beneath the ground. Nor- 



102 COSSONIDiE. 

mally the P. minutlssimus is dependent, I believe, on the arborescent 
Conipositce, it having been met with abundantly by Mr. P. White- 
head and myself, on the ascent of Actaeon, within the damp putrid 
trunks of dead cabbage-trees ; and it was under similar circumstances 
that I found it at High Peak ; but, like so many of the aboriginal 
Cossonids, it seems able to adapt itself to the firs which have been 
extensively planted of late years in the less elevated parts of the 
great central ridge, — in some instances appearing even to desert the 
cabbage-trees in order to attack the latter. 

Apart from its diminutive bulk, the P. miniitissimits may be 
recognized by its shortly-cylindrie contour, and its oval, considerably 
developed, convex prothorax, by its thick, conical rostrum, by the 
sculpture of its upper surface being rather distinct and coarse, by 
the central portion of its underside being deeply but sparingly 
punctured, and by its limbs being somewhat abbreviated. 



91. Pseudomesoxenus sutcsBCUs. 

P. angustus, elongate cylindricus, piceus aut rufo-piceus, nitidus ; 
rostro elongate triangulari-conico, miuutissime et leviter punctu- 
lato ; prothorace magno, ovali, sat profunde et dense punctulato ; 
elytris parallelis, parum profunde striato-punctatis, interstitiis 
minutissime uniseriatim punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque ferru- 
gineis. Suhtus profunde et parum dense punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1|. 

Pentarthrum subesecum, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 410 (1869). 
Pseudomesoxenus siibcsecus. Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Limd. (554 (1873). 
Pentarthrum subcsecum, Melliss, St. Hel. 152 (1875). 

Habitat in ligno Pinorum emortuo antique marcido, in intermediis 
ac subeditioribus praedominans. 

As regards its range, the present Pseudomesoxenus does not usually 
ascend quite so high as the last species, — the lower portions of the 
central ridge (as, for instance, at Cason's, and immediately above, as 
well as at. West Lodge) being, so far as I have observed, its upper 
limits; whilst, below, it descends into strictly intermediate spots, 
such as Plantation (which possesses an average altitude of about 
1800 feet). At Cason's, however, which must be quite 2300 feet 
above the sea, we obtained it very abundantly, in company with the 
P. minutissimus, within the rotten wood of dead fir trees, — particu- 
larly the roots, at some appreciable depth underground ; and it was 
also mthin the damp but tinder-like masses of old pines that I met 



COSSONID^. 103 

with it (in considerable numbers) at Plantation. But at the edge of 
the precipice above West Lodge my examples were nearly all obtained 
from the decayed sticks of the Aster c/timmiferus and the common 
gorse, I conclude therefore that the insect was attached originally 
to the native arborescent Compositce ; but that, as these have 
gradually disappeared, it has changed its mode of life and attacked 
the firs. 

The comparatively linear outline of this species, added to its 
slightly thinner and less abbreviated rostrum, its extremely parallel 
and more elongated elytra, its rather more shining surface, and its 
appreciably larger bulk (even though relatively more narrowed), 
will at once distinguish it from the P. minutissimus. 

92. Pseudomesoxenus scrobiculatus, n. sp. 

P. proecedenti similis, sed elytris sensim minus parallelis aut paulo 
magis fusiformibus, subopacis ac ihulto levins sculpturatis, sc. 
solum subpunctato-substriatis (punctis striisquc fere obsoletis), 
sed parce transversim submgatis aut irregulariter et obsolete scro- 
biculatis ; rostro subbreviore et subcrassiore, oculis quidem discer- 
neudis (tamen minutissimis, granuliformibus, valde rudimcntariis), 
antennis paulo brevioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Habitat in subeditioribus ; exemplar unicum, in ligno arido antiquo 
Mellissice hegonicefolice, Hk. f., collegit Dom. P. Whitehead. 

The only example of this Pseudomesoxenus which 1 have yet seen 
has been communicated lately by Mr. P. Whitehead, who found it 
in the rotten wood of the Mellissia hegonicefolia on Rock-Eose Hill. 
Although nearly allied to the P suhco'cus^ there can be no question 
that it represents a species which is in reahty quite distinct, — its 
elytra being not only less decidedly parallel (or a little more fusiform 
in outline), but likewise suho2)aJce and mitch more lightly sculptured 
(both the punctures and the striae being well-nigh obsolete) ; and 
they are further remarkable for the irregular transverse scratches, or 
obsolete rugae, with which they are sparingly marked, — a peculiarity 
of surface which somewhat recalls the otherwise pei'fectly dissimilar, 
and hitherto unique, Microxylohius Westwoodii. In other respects 
the P. scrohiculatus recedes from the suhcceciis in having its rostrum 
relatively a trifle shorter and broader, in its limbs bemg a little 
more abbreviated, and (which is important), in the fact of its eyes, 
although excessively minute, punctiform, and rudimentary, being at 
any rate traceahle. 



104 COSSONID^. 

Genus 51. ISOTORNUS (nov. gen.). 

Corpus elongate subovato-fusiforme, angustulum, supra arcuato- 
convexum (sc. prothorace elytrisque inter se arctissime applicatis 
necnon exacte continuis), nitidum, calvum, nigrum, dense sculp- 
turatum ; rostro brevi, crasso, subtriangulari, oculis valde demissis, 
scrobe profunda, infra oculos subcurvate ducta ; j^^othorace elon- 
gate, conico (basi rccte truncato), antice vel omiiino vel fere 
integro ; sciitello obsolete ; eJytris fusiformibus basi recte trun- 
catis ; metasterno vel breviusculo vel longiusculo ; ahdominis 
segm''^ 1™° et 2**° inter se arete connatis (linea vix distincta 
divisis), illo paulum longitudinaliter concavo. Antennce mox 
ante medium (fere in medio) rostri rnsertee, breviusculse ; funicuJo 
5-articulato, subcompacto, a basi usque ad apicem gradatim paulo 
latiore, art° 1™° obconico, in specie typica subelongato et nullo 
modo incrassato ; capitulo baud abrupto. Pedes valde contractiles, 
antici sensim, intermedii paulo magis, sed postici parum late dis- 
tantes ; tlbiis ad angulum internum in spinulam (in anticis sub- 
robustam, sed in posterioribus minutissimam) prodi;ctis ; tarsis 
art" 3"° vel distincte vel indistincte bilobo. 

Ab "laos, aequalis, et -opveuw, efFormo. [Typus : Isotornus retractilis.^ 

It seems scarcely possible to admit the two curious Cossonids for 
■which the present genus is proposed amongst the Microxylohii 
(however dissimilar from each other some of the members of that 
assemblage may be), — their arcuated upi^er surface (the elongate, 
conical prothorax being not onlj- very closely applied against the 
elytra, but likewise, both above and laterally, in the same continuous 
curve), added to their shorter, thicker, and more triangular rostrum, 
their extremely depressed eyes, their more compact, graduaUy- 
widened funiculus (the first joint of which is scarcely, if at aU, 
increased in breadth), and their unusually contractile legs, giving 
them a character which is essentially their own. In outline they 
are somewhat narrow, elongate, and ovato-fusiform (being a little 
widened behind the middle of the elytra, and gradually taj)ering in 
front) ; their surface is black, shining, perfectly bald, and very 
densely sculptured; their scutellum (as in the whole of these 
genera) is altogether obsolete ; and their prothorax is either almost 
or entirely unconstricted anteriorly. 

In one of the species described below, and which I have regarded 
as the type, the metasternum is rather short, and the third tarsal 
joint is distinctly, though minutely, bilobed ; whilst in the other (the 
/. aterrimus) the metasternum is somewhat elongated, and the feet 
have their third articulation well-nigh unexpanded and simple. 



COSSONID.-E. 105 



§ 1. Metasternum hrevmseulum. Faniculi art^ 1""** longiusculus , 
nullo modo mcrassatus. Tarsorum arf^ 3''«* evidenter sed 
minute bilobus. 

93. Isotornus retractilis, n. sp. 

/. elongate siiboyato-fusiformis,. angustiilus, supra arcuato-convexus, 
nitidus, calvus, niger ; rostro brevi, crasso, triaugulari, minute et 
leviter punctulato, oculis valde demissis ; prothorace elongate, 
conico, tequali, autice omnino integro, densissime et profunde 
punctato : elytris dense et sensim grossius punctatis, punctis in 
striis longitudinalibus irregularibus obsolete dispositis ; antennis 
pedibusque rufo-piceis. >SubtHS in medio profunde punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2i. 

Habitat in ligno arido antiquo Commidendri robusti, DC; (anglice 
" Gumwood"), in intermediis ad Peak Gut et Thompson's Wood 
deprehensus. 

This most singular Cossonid was detected by Mrs. Wollaston 
amongst the old gumwoods ( Commidendron robustum, DC.) in Peak 
Gut, at an elevation (probably) of about 1600 feet above the sea; 
and I afterwards met with it abundantly in the same spot (always 
in the dry and perforated portions of the broken-up wood, within the 
cavities of which it would lie concealed), and more sparingly at 
Thompson's Wood. The curious habit which it possesses of retracting 
its limbs most completely, and applying them against the body, 
causes the specimens (when shaken out of the hollows) to appear 
like dead and imperfect ones in which the trunk only remained ; and 
so thoroughly is this the case, that until I had seen one of them 
produce its legs and absolutely crawl, I could scarcely persuade 
myself that they were in reality alive. 

There can be no fear of confounding this insect with any thing 
else, except perhaps the following one (the exact distinctions of 
which will be pointed out shortly), — its elongated ovato-fusiform 
outline, which is gradually attenuated anteriorly from behind the 
middle of the elytra (which last are at their base of exactly the same 
breadth as the hinder portion of the prothorax, the two segments 
being precisely in the same continuous curve), added to its short, 
triangular rostrum, extremely sunken eyes, and densely sculptured 
surface, being even of themselves more than sufficient to charac- 
terize it. Its metasternum is shorter than in the following species ; 
the basal joint of its funiculus is both longer and slenderer (it being 



106 COSSONID^. 

scarcely, if at all, broader than than the succeeding one, — a very 
unusual structure in the Cossonidce) ; and the third articulation of 
its feet is more evidently widened and bilobed. 



§ 2, Metasternum longiusculum. Funiculi art^ 1'""* hrevhtseulus, 
sequente subcrassior. Tarsormn art"^ 3''"*/ertJ simplex (i. e. vix 
latior et vix bilobus). 

94. Isotomus aterrimus, n. sp. 

/. prfccedenti similis, sed subangustior ac paululum raagis cylin- 
dricus (sc. postice vix minus ampliatus, et antice vix minus regu- 
lariter attenuatus) ; rostro sublongiore et paulo minus triangulari, 
sensim magis arcuato, nitidiore (sc. nitidissimo), et etiam minutius 
parciusque punctulato, oculis minoribus et vix omnino deraissis ; 
prothorace elj'trisque subnitidioribus, necnon rugosius ae subminus 
dense punctatis, iUo antice vix omnino integro (sc. levissime sub- 
constricto). 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2|. 

Habitat in locis parum elevatis ; a Dom. P. Whitehead, in ligno 
Mellissice begonio'folice, Hk. f., antique juxta Rock-Rose nuper 
detectus. 

The present Isotomus is due to the researches of Mr. P. White- 
head, who has lately communicated to me an interesting series of 
examples which he captured, within the dead wood of the MelUssia 
begonicefolla (or native " Boxwood "), on Rock-Rose Hill. Although 
unmistakably congeneric with the preceding one, which at first 
sight it greatly resembles, it is nevertheless specifically quite distinct, 
— possessing, as it does, many characters, some of them even struc- 
tural ones, which combine to remove it entirely from the /. retrac- 
tilis. Thus, not only has it a longer metasternum, an almost simple 
third tarsal joint, and a less lengthened and less slender basal 
articulation to its funiculus, but it is also a trifle narrower and more 
cylindrical in outline (it being rather less widened behind the middle 
of the elytra, and a little less regularly tapering anteriorly), its 
rostrum is not quite so short and triangular, as well as more arcuated, 
more shining, and still more minutely punctulate, its eyes are smaller 
though not quite so completely sunken or depressed, and its prothorax 
and elytra (the former of which is obsoletely constricted in front) 
are both somewhat more shining, as well as more coarsely (and 
perhaps not quite so closely) sculptured. 



COSSONID.E. 107 

Genus 52. MICROXYLOBIUS. 

Chevrolat, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. i. 98 (1836). 

Corpus plus minus elongato-fusiforme, aut subnitidum calvum, aut 
subopacum et (saltern in elytris) minutissime subpubescens, ple- 
rumque nigrum (rarius picescens, et rarissime obsolete submetal- 
lico tinctum) ; -rostro plerumque breviusculo (rarius longiusculo, 
et nunquam elongato), plus minus elongate triangulari (rarius 
subparallelo), ocnlis plus minus conspicuis (rariss. segre discer- 
nendis), scrobe profunda, infra oculos subcurvate ducta ; protliorace 
subovali, basi triincato (so. ad latera subaequaliter rotundato), 
antice vel omnino vel fere integro ; scuteJlo obsolete : ehjtris plus 
minus ellipticis basi recte truncatis (rarius subparallelis) ; meta- 
sterno brevi, et (una cum abdominis segmento l™") ssepius longi- 
tudinaliter concavo ; abdominis scgm*'* 1™° et 2*^° inter se arete 
connatis (linea vix distinctil divisis). Antennae ante medium 
rostri inserta) ; funicido 5-articulato. Pedes saepius robusti, antici 
sensim, intermedii paulo magis, sed postici parum late distantes ; 
tibiis ad angulum internum in spinulam minutissimam (rarius sub- 
robustam)productis; tarsis art° 3*'° distincte sed minute bilobo. 

The genus Microxylobius, whicli includes many species of very 
different aspect, is perhaps less easy to define rigidly than the other 
immediately allied groups with which we are here concerned : 
nevertheless it may be said generally to embrace the smaller St.- 
Helena Cossonids in which the funiculus is 5-articulate, the meta- 
sternum short, the eyes are more or less distinct, and in which the 
rostrum is never very long or slender, but more or less thick and of 
an elongated-triangular (sometimes slightly parallel) outUne. They 
are almost invariably black (or nearly so), a metallic tinge (which is 
so conspicuous in four of the following genera) being quite untrace- 
able except (and very faintly so) in a single species ; and although 
usually quite bald, some of the members are (at any rate on the 
elytra) very minutely and sparingly pubescent. Their third tarsal 
joint, although not much widened, is appreciably bilobed ; and in 
two of the exponents (which I have placed at the commencement, 
and which well-nigh require generic separation) the elytra are 
aperated towards the apex by a few anomalously large punctures 
which are arranged (on each elytra) in two deep but abbreviated 
grooves, — there being, additionally, in one of them (the M. tritu- 
ratus) a lateral sulcus of a similar character (but less coarsely 
expressed) behind the middle, but anteriorly and posteriorly evanes- 
cent. The following tabulation of the species will serve to render 
the determination of them practically easy : — 



108 COSSONID^. 

A. Corptts nuUo modo metulliciim. 

a. plus mivus nitidum (omnino aid fere calnwi), 
j3. oculis minutis, ntdimentariis, (Byre observandis, 
trituratus. 
^fi. oculis plus minus distinctis. 

y. 7'ostro utrinque ad apicejn oblique subfoveolato-desiliente. 
AVhiteheadii. 
yy. rostra simplici. 

6. oculis valde prominentibus. 
ociilatus. 
88. oculis nunquam valde promine)dihus. 

e. tibiis aiKjulum internum spinvld valde distinctd in (^ armatis. 
f. oculis maynis, subsuperioribus. 

liicifugus. 
^f. ocidis minoribus, lateralibtis. 
calcaratus. 
ee. tibiis ad anyulu7n internum hand cmispicue armatis, 
dimidiatus, 
bisectus. 
aa. plus minus opacum (minutissime, interdum viv peispicue, pubescens). 
7], yrosse sculpturatum ; rostro postice lonyitudinuliter 
inciso. 

sculpturatus, 
bicaudatus. 
TjT). levius ( vel dense velparce) sculpturatmn ; rostro postice 
inteyro. 
6. rostro ad apicem {inter antennas) minute impresso, 

grauulosus. 
66. rostro omnino inteyro. 

I. rostro crasso, elongate triaiiyulari, 

lacertosus. 
t(. rostro yraciliore. 
opacus, 
vestitus. 
AA. Corpxis obsolete submetallicxim. 

Westwoodii. 



95. MicroxyloMus trituratus, n. sp, 

M. angustus, elongato-fusiformis, nitidus, calvus, ater ; rostro longi- 
usculo, vix elongato-subtriangiilari (sc. postice leviter et etiam 
antice levissime latiore), minutissime punctulato, oculis minutis, 
rudimentariis, segre discernendis ; prothorace angustulo-ovali, 
convexo, antice integro, dense et profunde punctato ; elytris 
multo grossius sed parcius punctatis, baud striatis sed punctis 
sublongitudinaliter (alternatim majoribus ac minoribus) dispositis, 
— punctis perpaucis pone medium in linea sublaterali, necnon aliis 
versus apicem in sulcis duobus abbreviatis, gradatim majoribus et 
asperatis, apicem asperatum conjunctim efficientibus, notatis. 
Subtus in medio grossissime et profunde sed parce punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Habitat ad promontorium prasruptum aridum " the Barn " dictum, 



COSSONID^,. 109 

a Dom. P. Whitehead inter arbusculas Asteris ghittnosi, Rosb. 
(anglice " Scrubwood "), semel tantum (emortuum) lectus. 

The only example of this very distinct Micro.vt/lohrus which I have 
yet seen was taken by Mr. P. Whitehead on the remote and arid 
headland, or promontory, in the extreme north-east of the island, 
known as "the Barn," — amongst shrubs of the Aster r/lntinosus, 
Roxb., or " Scrubwood." Unfortunately it was dead and without 
limbs, so that I have not been able to examine its antennae and 
legs ; but its other characters are so remarkably well defined that 
the species which it represents could not by any possibility be con- 
founded with any other which has hitherto been broiight to light. 
In the singular structure at the apex of its elytra to which I have 
already called attention, as well as in its large size, general aspect, 
and deep-black hue, it has much in common with the 31. White- 
headii (which occurs likewise upon the Barn and in its immediate 
vicinity, and which is equally attached to the scrubwood) ; but it 
nevertheless wants the very curious oblique impression which that 
species possesses on either side of its rostrum at the tip, and it has 
also a sublateral coarsely-punctured groove (to which I have above 
alluded) behind the middle of each elytron, in addition to the two 
short and deep ones at the apex. Besides which, the entire outline 
of the insect is much narrower, its eyes are smaller and extremely 
rudimentary (the species, in fact, being the only one of the genus in 
which those organs are somewhat difficult of observation) ; and its 
surface (both above and below) is not only more coarsely punctured 
and more shining, but there is no appearance on the elytra of the 
obsolete transverse rugse, or scratches, which, although few in 
number, are nearly always faintly traceable in the M. Whlteheadii. 



96, Microxylobius Whlteheadii, n. sp. 

1/. elongato-subfusiformis, subnitidus (stepe in prothorace subopacus), 
calvus, ater : rostro longiusculo, subparallelo, utrinque ad apicem 
oblique declivi (quasi late sed oblique foveolato), minute (in $ 
minutissime) punctulato : oculis parvis, subdemissis, sed parum 
conspicuis ; prothorace subovali, antice fere iutegro, paulo dis- 
tinctius (tamen leviter) punctulato ; elytris confuse, leviter, ac 
minutissime punctulatis, hand striatis sed obsoletissirae parceque 
transversim subscrobiculato-rugulosis, et ad apicem punctis per- 
paucis maximis asperatis (in sulcis duobus abbreviatis dispositis), 
apicem asperulum conjunctim efficientibus, notatis ; antennis pedi- 



110 COSSONIDjE. 

busque crassis, vix picescentioribus ; illis ad basin clare piceo- 
nifis ; funiculi articulis ulterioribus valde transversis ; tibiis 
anticis intus versus apicem leviter excavatis : tarsorum art" 3"° 
distincte bilobo. Suhtus alutaceus, subopacus, in medio sat grosse 
sed baud profunda puuctatus. 
Long. Corp. lin. l|-2g. 

Habitat lignum emortuum antiquum Asteni^ f/luti)iosi, Roxb. (anglice 
" Scrubwood ") ; ad ct juxta promontorium pra3ruptum aridum, 
" the Barn " dictum, a Dom. P. AVhitebead captus, cujus in 
honorem nomen triviale stabilivi. 

It is to Mr. P. Whitehead that the discovery of this most interesting 
Microxylohius is due, — he having first obtained it (like the pre- 
ceding one) on the Earn, and afterwards in the immediate vicinity 
of that bluff and almost inaccessible headland. In every instance it 
was attached to the " scrubwood " {Aster glutinosus, Eoxb.), and it 
may without doubt therefore be looked upon as a strictly scrubwood 
species. I am glad to be able to name it after its captor, whose 
careful observations in so many distant and difficult localities at 
St. Helena have rendered me the greatest assistance in investigating 
the Coleopterous fauna of the island. 

As already stated, the M. Whiteliead'd has the same curious 
arrangement of enormous asperated punctures aud abbreviated 
sulci at the apex of its elytra which exists in the M. trituratus ; 
nevertheless it entirely wants the lateral row which is so con- 
spicuous in that insect. On the average, too, it is larger, broader, 
and thicker ; its entire surface is much more finely sculptured and 
less shining, its prothorax being often subopake; and its eyes, 
although rather small and by no means prominent, are at any rate 
quite conspicuous, — being both larger and more perfectly developed. 

How far the limbs of the M. WMteheadii may agree with those ' 
of the trituratus I have no means of judging, seeing that the unique 
example of the latter is limbless ; but in the former the antennse and 
legs are a good deal incrassated, and the funiculus is remarkable for 
having all the joints except the basal one exceedingly (though gra- 
dually more and more) transverse, — the club being, in consequence, 
not very abrupt. 

97. Microxylohius oculatus, n. sp. 

M. breviter cylindricus, subopacus, calvus, niger ; rostro parallelo, 
dense punctulato, ocnlis valde prominentibus ; prothorace ovali 
basi truncato, antice leviter constricto, convexo, dense sed vix 



COSSONID^. Ill 

grossius piinctulato ; elytris parallelis, vix punctatis sed levissime 
substriatis et graniilis minutis (saltern antice et versus humeros) 
parce irroratis ; antennis pedibusque brevibus, crassis, piceis, 
tarsorum art" 3"° distincte bilobo, Suhtus in medio dense et pro- 
funde punctatus. 
Long, corp, lin. 1|. 

Habitat in regionibus intermediis, ad Thompson's Wood inter arbores 
vestustas Commidendri rohusti, DC. (anglice " Gumwood "), a 
meipso semel deprehensus. 

A single example of this Microxijlohius, which was captured by 
myself amongst the old gumwoods at Thompson's Wood, is all that 
I have hitherto seen ; but it is so distinct from every thing else with 
which we are here concerned that additional material is quite un- 
necessary in order to complete its diagnosis. As compared with the 
immediate species with which I have associated it, the M. ocidatus 
is small in stature and more parallel in outline (it being shortly- 
subcylindric) : and its rostrum, although tolerably broad, is like- 
wise more straight and linear ; its limbs are abbreviated and thick- 
ened, its entire surface (which is black and bald) is somewhat opake, 
and (which is one of its most salient features) its eyes are exceed- 
ingly prominent. Its rostrum and prothorax are finely and lightly 
punctulated ; but the punctures of its elytra (which are very indi- 
stinctly striate) are obsolete, — being replaced, at any rate towards 
the base and shoulders, by diminutive granules. 

98. Microxylobius lucifugus. (Fig. 2.) 

M. magnus, crassus, elliptico-fusiformis (in medio latiusculus), sub- 
nitidus, calvus, ater ; rostro crassiusculo, elongate triangulari, 
densissime et rugose punctate, ad apicem canaliculato et impresso, 
oculis sat magnis sed demissis et subsuperioi'ibus ; prothorace 
ovali basi truncato, antice integro, densissime et vix minus grosse 
punctate ; elytris ellipticis basi truncatis, densissime rugoseque 
punctatis et plus minus obsolete substriatis, necnon (prossertim 
postice et versus humeros) grauulato-asperatis ; antennis pedi- 
busque elongatis, crassis, illis tarsisque piceo-ferrugineis, femori- 
bus tibiisque nigro-piceis ; tibiis ad angulum internum robuste 
calcaratis ; tarsorum art" 3"° latiusculo et conspicue bilobo. 
Subtus in medio dense et sat j)rofunde punctatus. 

Long. corp. lin. 2-vix 3. 

Microxylobius lucifugus, WolL, Tram. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 382, pi. 18. 
f. G (18G1). 

, Id., Ann. Nut. Hid. iv. 405 (1869). 

, Mellins, St. Hel. 151 (1875). 



112 



COSSONID^I!:. 



Habitat editiores insula), inter Composltas arborescentes proprie 
degens. Sed quoque in regiones intermedias descendit, — ad 
Plantation, Oakbank, et cset., ctiara Quercus, Acacias, Pinos, 
Eri/thrinam caffram, Thunb., et Psoralcam jiinnatam, Linn., 
destruens. 

This is the largest of the true Microxylohii which have yet been 
detected ; and it is also thick and mesially -widened in outline, of a 
deep-black, densely punctured, and totally bald but not very shining 
surface, and with its limbs a good deal lengthened and incrassate. 
Its rostrum is elongate-triangular, with the extreme apex channelled 
and impressed ; and the eyes are rather large, but sunken and a little 
more superior in position than is the case in the other members of 
the group ; its prothorax is unconstricted in front ; its elytra (which 
are well-nigh unstriate, or very obsoletely so) have a certain amount 
of asperated granules, particularly towards the shoulders and apex, 
mixed up with their closely-set punctures ; its tibia) are produced 
into a slightly more robust spinule than is usual at their apical 
angle ; and the third joint of its feet is comparatively widened and 
conspicuously bilobed. 

The M. lucifiirjus (which was first met with by the late Mr. 
Bewicke, during a day's collecting at St. Helena, in 1860) is one of 
the most general and widely-spread of all the Microxylohii^ and one 
which seems (although without doubt attached originally to the 
various arborescent Composito}) to have been able to adapt its mode 
of life to the altered conditions of the island, — -occurring often 
beneath the loosened bark of oaks, acacias, pines, and the Cape 
coral-tree (Erythrina caffra, Thunb.), and descending into strictly 
the intermediate districts, such as Plantation, Oakbank, and below 
the ridge towards Sandy Bay (where it was found in the decayed 
trunk of an old Erythrina by the Rev. H. Whitehead). It is, how- 
ever, far more at home in the higher regions, where it abounds 
beneath the loose outer fibre of the Compositce along the whole 
length of the great central ridge, — from Diana's Peak and Actoeon 
to Cason's, High Peak, and West Lodge ; and I have also obtained 
it amongst the gumwoods in Thompson's Wood. In one of the few 
spots which are at all accessible on the precipitous slopes behind 
High Peak I met with it in countless numbers, — under the dead and 
loosely-hanging bark of a Petrobium arboreum, R. Br,, or " White- 
wood Cabbage-tree." 

The M. lucifugiLS was captured likewise by Mr. Gray. 



C0SSONID.B. 113 



99. Microxylobius calcaratus, n. sp. 

M. elliptico-fusiformis, nitidus, fere calvus (oculo fortissime armato 
in elytris minutissime et parcissime pubescens), ater ; rostro sub- 
lineari (vix elongate subtriangulari), minute et leviter punctulato, 
in medio subconvexo, oculis paiTis sed distinctis (vix prominulis) ; 
prothorace magno, convexo, subovato, antice leviter constricto, 
paulo distinctius (tamen leviter) punctate ; elytris breviusculis, 
convexis, ellipticis basi truncatis, confuse substriato-punctatis, 
interstitiis sub-uniseriatim punctulatis, leviter transversim rugu- 
losis, necnon ad humeros incrassate marginato-porrectis ; antennis 
clare piceo-ferrugineis ; pedibus nigro-piceis, tarsis dilutioribus ; 
tibiis subcurvatis, ad angulum internum in S valde robuste cal- 
caratis ; tarsorum art° 3*'° distincte sed minute bilobo. Subtus in 
metasterno valde profunde et grosse sed vix dense punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-2. 

Habitat in locis elevatis, Compositas arborescentes et interdum etiam 
Finos erodens. 

This is rather a small, but deep-black and shining little species, 
in which the pro thorax is very convex and largely developed (in 
proportion to the size of the insect), and in which the elytra appear 
consequently to be rather more abbreviated and elliptical than usual, 
and one in which the male tibiae (which are slightly curved) are 
produced at their inner angle into a proportionally more robust 
spinule than in the other members of the genus. Its rostrum is 
moderately long and thick, but hardly at all triangular — it being 
well-nigh linear or parallel ; its elytra are convex, with the margin 
at the shoulders thickened and porrected ; and the surface of the 
latter, although practically bald, will be seen, when viewed beneath 
a high magnifying-power, to be very sparingly studded with a few 
exceedingly short and diminutive hairs, — which, however, are often 
barely traceable. 

The M. calcaratus is essentially a cabbage-tree species, and one of 
a high elevation ; nevertheless it has attached itself also to the pines, 
when planted (as at Cason's) amongst the native arborescent Com- 
positce. Indeed at Cason's we met with it in profusion, in company 
with the M. bisectus, granulosus, and lacertosus, and the Pseudo- 
mesoxeni, beneath the loosened bark of dead pines which lay rotting 
on the ground. It was likewise, however, as on the loftier parts 
of the great central ridge (in the vicinity of Diana's Peak), within 
the old wood of the decayed cabbage-trees. 



114 



cossoxiD-f:. 



100. Microxylobius dimidiatus. 

M. proecedenti similis, sed paululum minor, et subminus nitidus 
(etiam obsoletissime, vix perspicue, subceneo-tinotus) : rostro 
sensim crassiore, convexiore, et magis triangulari, paulo profundius 
puuctato, oculis sensim minoribns (tamen subprominulis) ; pro- 
thoraee paulo angaistius ovali (sc. ad latera minus ampliate rotun- 
dato), autice submagis constricto ; elytris paulo magis rugulosis, 
et vix magis perspicue (tamen minutissime) pubescentibus ; 
funiculo breviore, crassiore : tildis posterioribus nee in 6 robuste 
calcaratis ; metasternoque paulo minus grosse punctato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|-1|. 

MicroxTlobius dimidiatus, WoU.^ Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 402 (1871). 
^—, MelUss, St. Hel. 150 (1875). 

Habitat in editioribus, lignum antiquum marcidum Compositarum 
arborescentium parce destruens. 

Judging from the few examples (ten in number) which are now 
before me, the present AIicrox)jlohius approaches so closel^^ to the 
M. calcaratus that until the two species have been accurately com- 
pared they might well be confounded with each other ; and yet I 
feel quite satisfied that they are truly distinct. Thus, not only is 
the M. dimidiatus a little smaller (on the average) than the calca- 
ratus, and not q^iite so shining or of so intense a black (there being 
generally very obscure traces of adjust appreciable subaenescent tinge), 
but its rostrum is relatively broader, thicker, convexer, and more tri- 
angular, as well as a trifle more coarsely punctured ; its eyes, although 
somewhat prominent, are a little smaller ; its prothorax is perceptibly 
narrower or less rounded-outwards at the sides (being, in fact, oval, 
rather than ovate), and more constricted in front : its elytra are 
more nigulose, and with their very diminutive and remote pubescence 
a trifle more traceable ; its metasternum is not qiiite so coarsely 
punctured ; its funiculus is proportionally somewhat shorter and 
thicker ; and the inner angle of its male tibiae (at any rate the four 
posterior ones) are not more powerfully spurred than is the case in 
the ordinary species. 

So far as I have observed, the M. dimidiatus is found only on the 
higher parts of the great central ridge, about Diana's Peak and 
Actseon, — where I met with it beneath damp rotting pieces of the 
wood of the old cabbage-trees ; whereas the M. calcaratus (although 
occurring sparingly in the same locality) was more particularly 
abundant at Cason's, which is appreciably lower in elevation, — where 



COSSONIDJ!. 115 

it seemed to have attached itself quite as much to the pines as to the 
native arborescent Conipositce. 

101, MicroxylobiTis bisectus, n. sp. 

21. minutus, breviter subovato-fusiformis, nitidus, fere calvus (oculo 
fortissime armato in elytris minutissime et parcissime pubescens), 
niger ; rostro breviter sublineari ( postice atque etiam antice paululum 
latiore), minus convexo, minutissime et levissime punctulato, oculis 
minutis sed prominulis ; prothorace magno, subovato, antice fere 
integro, argute punctulato ; elj'tris breviusculis, rugulosis, profunde 
punctate- striatis, interstitiis subconvexis ac minutissime uniseria- 
tim punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque (brevibus) piceo-ferrugineis ; 
tarsis brevissimis, art" 3''" fere simplici (sc. vix latiore et vix etiam 
minutissime subbilobo). Siibtics in metastemo parcissime sed 
rugose punetatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. i-1. 

Habitat lignum emortuum antiquum in editioribus insulse, inter 
Compositas arborescentes et Pinos. 

This is the most minute of the true Microxylobii which have 
hitherto been detected, and one which is confined to the high central 
ridge,^ — where I have taken it both in the vicinity of Diana's Peak 
and at Cason's. Indeed at the latter it was extremely abundant ; 
and, like so many of the species in that somewhat less-elevated 
region, it occurred quite as much beneath the old pines which were 
lying dead upon the ground as in the rotten wood of the cabbage- 
trees ; nevertheless there can, of course, be no question that it is the 
latter to which it was originally attached. It has also been met 
with by Mr. P. Whitehead in decayed firs at Eock Cottage, on the 
eastern side of the ridge. 

In proportion to its size the M. bisectus (which is short and rather 
broad in outline) has its prothorax (which, like that of the calcaratus, 
is rather more ovate than oval) quite as largely developed as in the last 
two species — indeed se much so as to cause the two anterior segments 
of its body to appear (conjointly) almost larger, if any thing, than its 
elytra ; at aU events it may be said to be about equally bisected by 
the central line of division. Its colour is black (or occasionally sub- 
picescent) ; and, beneath a high magnifying-power, there are indi- 
cations on the elytra of a few extremely diminutive and very abbre- 
viated scattered cinereous hairs (often barely traceable). Its rostrum 
(which is not very convex, and most minutely and indistinctly 
punctulated) is rather more linear than triangular (being, however, 

i2 



116 COSSOMD<E. 

a tt'ijie widened both before and behind) ; its eyes are small but 
slightly prominent ; its elytra are more deeply striated than is the 
case '\n most of these immediately-allied forms ; and its feet, which 
are very short, have their third joint scarcely at all expanded 
or bilobed. 

102, Microxylobius sculpturatus, n. sp. 

M. angustulus, subcylindricus, subopacns, oculo fortissimo armato in 
elytris miuutissime et parce cinereo-piibescens, niger aut piceo- 
niger sed plus minus fusco-lutosus ; rostro sublineari (aut in S 
anguste elongato-subtriangulari), nitido, miuutissime punctulato, 
postice profunde arguteque longitudinaliter ' excavato-inciso ; 
capite profundius dense punctate, oculis prominulis ; prothorace 
subovali, dense et grosse punctate ; elytris profunde punctato- 
striatis (punctis maximis), interstitiis subcostato- (2"^° a sutura 
postice paulo magis) elevatis ; antennis pedibusque piceo-ferrugi- 
neis ; tarsis brevibus, art" 3''° miuutissime subbilobo. Suhtus in 
medio dense et grosse punctatus. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Habitat in ligno antique Comjoositarum arborescentium, in locis 
insulae valde elevatis. 

The present species and the following one (which may possibly be 
extreme modifications of a single t}-pe) are both of them found on 
the high central ridge (the latter occurring also a little below it) ; 
and they are both remarkable for their rather narrow and subcylin- 
drical outline, and for their nearly opake and extremely coai'sely 
sculptured surface, — the punctures of the prothorax being large and 
closely packed, and those of the elytral striae enormous ; and (although 
black, or piceous-black, in hue) they are usually more or less coated 
with a pale brownish mud-like deposit, which is apt to fill up the 
inequalities and is not always easy to remove. Their rostrum, which 
is brighter than the rest of the body (particularly in the female sex), 
is longitudinally cut into, or gashed, beJiind, the excavation being deep 
and sharply expressed ; and their interstices are more or less elevated, 
or costate. In the M. sculpturatus the latter are not very much, 
and about evenly raised, — the second one only from the suture being 
a trifle more conspicuous than the rest, particularly towards the 



The M. sculpturatus occurs along the whole central ridge, from 
Diana's Peak and Actseon to High Peak, and thence to West Lodge. 
It is attached to the rotten wood of the various arborescent Compo- 



COSSUNID.E. 117 

sitce ; and 1 have usually found it rare, except on one occasion on the 
almost inaccessible slope behind High Peak, — where I met with it in 
the utmost profusion beneath the bark, and in the decayed branches, 
of a Petrohium arboreum, R. Br., or " Whitewood Cabbage-Tree." 

103. Microxylohius bicaudatus, n. sp. 

M. prsecedenti similis, sed vix (nisi tailor) ejus varietas. Differ t 
elytrorum interstitiis alternis magis elevatis, interstitio 2'*° postice 
gradatim valde elevato (coleopteris sc. quasi exstanter bicaudatis). 

Long. Corp. lin. l-l-y. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens ; tamen fere in intermedios 
descendit. 

As already mentioned, this Microxylobms may possibly be an 
extreme modification of the preceding one, though I have not been 
able to obtain connecting links between the two. It seems to differ 
from it merely, so far at least as I can detect, in the alternate inter- 
stices of its elytra being more elevated than the rest, and (more par- 
ticularly) in the second one from the suture being gradually raised 
behind in a most extraordinary manner, — so as to shape out two 
prominent tail-Vike appendages, or costiform prominences, towards 
the apex. 

Like the M. sculpturatus, the present Microxylobius is attached 
normally to the rotten wood of the old cabbage-trees, and (as in the 
neighbourhood of Actseon and Diana's Peak) in the highest eleva- 
tions ; but it has adapted itself also to the pines, and descends occa- 
sionally rather below the great central ridge, — under which circum- 
stances I have met with it abundantly at Hock Rose ; and it was 
likewise captured amongst the firs, by Mr. P. Whitehead, at Rock 
Cottage. 

104. Microxylobius granulosus, n. sp. 

M. parvus, elongato-ovatus, opacus, oculo fortissimo armato in 
elytris minutissime et parce cinereo-pubescens, niger aut piceo- 
niger, ubique minutissime granulosus (vix puuctulatus); rostro sub- 
lineari (sed postice atque etiam antice paululum latiore), depresso, 
ad apicem ipsissimum (inter antennas) leviter subrotundate im- 
.presso, oculis subprominentibus ; prothorace ovali ; elytris (vix 
subpunctato-) striatis, ad humeros marginato-porrectis, interstitiis 
subcostato- (2*^° a sutura saepius paululum magis) elevatis ; antennis 
(paulo magis versus apicem rostri insertis) longiusculis, crassiusculis, 
pallide ferrugineis ; pedibus piceo-ferrugineis, tarsorum art" .3*'" 



118 cossonidjE. 

evidenter sed minute bilobo. Subius in medio confuse subpunctato- 

rugosus. 
Long, coi-p. lin. ^-1|. 

Habitat in insulae editioribus, inter Compositas arborescentes et (prae- 
cipue quidem) Pinos. Ad Cason's sub truncis Pinorum prolapsis 
emortuis.copiosissime collegi. 

This is one of the smallest of the Microxyhbii ; and it is a species 
which has attached itself to the pines more than most of the others, 
though it occurs normally (as on the higher parts, towards Diana's 
Peak, of the great central ridge) within the rotten wood of the old 
cabbage -trees, However, at Cason's we met with it in the utmost 
profusion beneath the dead trunks of the firs which were lying 
scattered on the ground, — in company with the M. bisectus, calcaratus, 
and lacertosus ; but I did not observe it anywhere at a lower ele- 
vation . 

There can be no fear of confounding the present diminutive 
Microxylobius with any thing else with which we are here con- 
cerned, — its subovate outline and opake densely-granulated surface, 
added to its slightly flattened rostrum (the extreme apex of which 
is minutely foveolated, or impressed, between the antennje), its 
somewhat prominent eyes, porrected shoulders, and the rather 
distinctly-raised interstices of its elytra, giving it a character which 
it is impossible to mistake. Its antennae, which are rather long and 
thick (in proportion to the size of the insect), are implanted a trifle 
nearer to the apex of the rostrum than is the case in the other 
members of the genus. 

105. Microxylobius lacertosus. (Fig. 3.) 

M, elongate ovato-cylindricus, opacus, in elytris minute sed distincte 
cinereo-pubescens, niger (iuterdum subpicescens) ; rostro crasso, 
elongate triangulari, convexo, dense punctulato, oculis prominen- 
tibus ; prothorfl.ee ovali, antice paululum constricto, densissime 
ruguloso-punctnlato ; elytris vix punctatis sed obsolete striatis 
granulisque minutis parce irroratis, interstitiis paululum. convexis ; 
antennis ferrugineis ; pedibus piceis, tarsorum art" 3''° distincte 
bilobo. Subtus in metasterno dense sed confuse subpunctato- 
asperatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-1|. 

Microxylobius lacertosus, WoIL, Trans. Ent. Soe. Land. v. 381, pi. 18. 
f. 5 (1861). 

— , Id., Atm. Nat. Hi^t. iv. 405 (1869). 

, Melli^s, St. Hel loO (187o). 



cossoNiD^:. 119 

Habitat in editioribus atque etiam intermediis insalse, Compositas 
Pinosque prassertim destruens. 

According to my experience, this is the most common and general 
of the MicroxyJohii ; for although the M. vestitus exists still more 
abundantly in the places where it occurs, that species does not 
descend normally into districts so strictly " intermediate" as the pre- 
sent one. Moreover the M. lacertosus has attached itself to the pines 
almost as much as it ever could have done to the native arborescent 
Compositce ; whereas the 31. vestitus is scarcely ever found except 
amongst the cabbage-trees. Although it is on the central ridge that 
the 31, lacertosus principally swarms (it being universal about Diana's 
Peak and Actoeon, as well as at Cason's, High Peak, and above West 
Lodge), I have nevertheless taten it in almost equal profusion in 
spots of an appreciably lower altitude — such as Eock Pose, Planta- 
tion, Oakbank, Vine-Tree Gut, &c., — it being often found about old 
palings and gates (particularly when made of rough pine), as well as 
under the bark of various naturalized trees. 

There is no species more distinct, or more readily detei-minable, 
than the present one, — its ovato-cylindric outline and thick, convex, 
subtriangular rostrum, in conjunction with its rather prominent 
eyes, and its opake and densely (though somewhat minutely) 
sculptured surface (the elytra, on which the short cinereous 
pubescence is comparatively easy to be traced, being free from 
punctures, but sparingly studded with very diminutive granules), 
being more than sufficient to characterize it. 



106. Microxylobius opacus, n. sp. 

31. elongato-subovatus, opacus, fere calvus (oculo fortissime armato 
in elytris miuutissime et parcissime cinereo-pubescens), vel piceus 
vel nigro-piceus ; rostro longiusculo, subgracili (tameu graciliter 
elongato-subtriangulari), tereti, minute punctulato, antice (prae- 
sertim in 5 ) nitido, oculis parvis, subdemissis ; prothorace magno, 
convexo, ovali, antice atque etiam postice ol solete constricto, basi 
evidentius marginato, leviter et baud densissime punctulato ; 
elytris ellipticis basi (submarginatis) truneatis, obsolete substriato- 
subpunctatis (striis punctisque indistinctis, et postice omnino- 
evanescentibus), interstitiis latis depressis et obsolete vix sub- 
uniseriatim parce punctulatis, sutura antice canaliculato-impressa* 
antennis pedibusque crassis, illis clare piceo-ferrugiueis, his 
piceis ; tibiis in <S ad angulum internum robuste calcaratis ; 



120 COSSONIDiE. 

tarsorum art° 3"° latiusculo et distiucte bilobo. Subtus in medio 
leviter et parce punctatus. 
Long. Corp. lin. l|-vix 2. 

Habitat intra truncos BicJcsonice arborescentis antiques emortuos 
marcidos ; in editioribus juxta Diana's Peak lectus. 

It is exclusively within the damp and rotting stems of the old 
tree ferns that the present Microxylobius has been taken ; and it was 
only on the highest portions of the great central ridge that we met 
with it, and even there but sparingly, — about two dozen examples 
being all that I could secure during our constant researches amongst 
the Dicksonias. Still, of all the Cossonids attached to those plants, 
it certainly ranks next to the Pentarthrodes dicJcsonice as regards 
abundance. It was chiefly on the ascent, and at the summit, 
of Actaeon that we observed the M. opacus ; and it has been found 
also by Mr. P. Whitehead in the same locality. 

The opake but very lightly sculptured and nearly bald surface of 
this species, added to its piceous or piceous-black hue, its rather long 
and slender rostrum, small eyes, posteriorly-margined prothorax, and 
its someivliat anteriorly-margined elytra (the suture of which is 
grooved in front, whilst the punctures and strise are almost obsolete 
and quite untraceable behind), will at once separate it from the other 
species with which it is associated. As in the case of the M. calca- 
ratus and vestitus, the inner apical angle of its male tibiae is rather 
powerfully spurred. 

107. Microxylobius vestitus. 

31. elongato-fusiformis, subopacus, parce sed parum grosse fulvo- 
cinereo-sericatus, piceo-ferrugineus scd in rostro et prothorace 
saepius clarior ; rostro prothoraceque minute, leviter, et parce 
punctulatis, illo sublineari, antice (praesertim in § ) nitido, oculis 
sat magnis, prominulis, et subsuperioribus, hoc (prsecipue in d ) 
magno, subovali, antice couspicue constricto ; elytris ovali-cylin- 
dricis, dense trarisversim subasperato-rugulosis sed solum obsolete 
substriatis ; antennis pedibusque (pra3sertim in d ) longiusculis, 
crassis, rufo-testaceis ; tibiis in d" ad angulum internum robuste 
calcaratis ; tarsorum art" 3"" latiusculo et distincte bilobo. Subtus 
in medio leviter et parce (sed parum grosse) punctatus. 

Long. coip. lin. 1-vix 2. 

Microxylobius vestitus, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 404 (1869). 
, 3Ielliss, St. Hel. 150 (1875j. 

Habitat inter Comjjositas arborescentes, in editioribus insxxlae, vulga- 

tissimus. 



COSSONlDiE. 121 

Although perhaps not quite so widely spread over the island as the 
M. lacertosus (for it scarcely descends into the strictly " intermediate " 
districts), the present species is immeasurably the most abundant of 
all the Microxylohii in the places where it is found, — swarming under 
the loose outer fibre of the cabbage-trees almost everywhere through- 
out the higher altitudes. About Actseon and Diana's Peak, as well 
as at Cason's, I have frequently seen many hundred examples on a 
single dead trunk ; but it is not quite so common as we approach 
the south-western portion of the ridge, towards High Peak and 
West Lodge. On one occasion only have I taken a specimen so low 
down as Plantation (1800 feet above the sea) ; and that in aU pro- 
bability was an accidental one which had been brought from the 
mountains along Avith fuel. It is one of the Cossouids which was 
met with also by Mr. Gray, during the month that he remained with 
us in the island. 

The unique individual, taken by Melliss, from which I enunciated 
this species in 1869, afforded me no opportunity of perceiving the 
great variability of the latter as regards stature, — larger examples 
often doubling the smaller ones in bulk. But, apart from this fact, 
and the comparatively coarse fulvo-cinereous pubescence with which 
it is clothed or sericated, the M. vestitits may be known by its opake 
surface and its piceo-ferruginous colour (the rostrum and prothorax, 
which are most minutely and not very densely punctulated, being of 
a clearer tint than the rest of the body), by its elytra being con- 
fusedly and somewhat roughly transversely -rugulose (but scarcely 
punctured, and scarcely striate), and by its limbs (particularly in the 
male sex) being rather long and thick, and of a pale reddish-testa- 
ceous hue. The tibiae, also, in the males are (as is observable in the 
preceding species, as well as in the 31, calcaratus) a little more 
powerfully spurred than is usual at their inner apical angle ; and the 
prothorax, which is a good deal constricted anteriorly, is appreciably 
more rounded and enlarged in that sex than it is in the females. Its 
rostrum is nearly linear ; its eyes are rather large and prominent, as 
well as a trifle more superior in position than is the case in the 
generality of the other members of the group ; and the third joint 
of its feet is comparatively wide and bilobed. 

108. Microxylobius Westwoodii. 

M. angusto-elongatus, ovato-cylindricus, obscure subuigro-asneus 
(atque etiam obsoletissime subvirescens), alutaceus, subopacus, 



122 COSSONlDiE. 

calvus ; capite rostroque minute et leviter sed argute punctulatis, 
hocbreviusculo sed lincari et supra subgibboso ; prothorace angusto, 
cylindrico-subovato, punctulis minutissimis parce et leviter irro- 
rato ; el3'tris subcjliudricis sed pone medium paulo latioribus, 
confuse transversim rugatis (fere quasi subrimosis) sed baud 
sculpturatis (i. e. vix striatis et vix punctatis), sutura antice sub- 
carinata ; autennis pedibusque piceo-nigris, illis basi rufo-ferru- 
gineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Microxylobius Westwoodii, C7ievr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 98, 
pi. 10. f. 6 (1836). 

, Wull, ibid. V. (n. 8.) 381 (1861). 

, Id., Ami. Nat. Hist. iv. 403 (1869). 

, Id., ibid. viii. 412 (1871). 

, MeUiss, St. Hel. 149 (1375). 

Habitat " ins. St. Helena " [sec. Cheyrolat] ; mihi non obvius. 

Ohs. — Species inter reliquas distinctissima ; differt corpore angixs- 
tiore et multo magis cylindrico, ubique alutaceo, subopaco, calvo, 
protborace minutissime tantum parceque puiictulato, elytris 
transversim substriguloso-rugatis sed longitudinaliter vix sculptu- 
ratis, sutura antice acutiuscula subcariniformi. 

Not possessing, for re-comparison, tbe type of tbis obscure little 
Microxyhhins, whicb was lent to me by Mr. Saunders in 1872, I 
have simply transcribed the diagnosis which I then drew out with 
considerable care, — believing that even a fresh examination of it 
would not enable me to add to the characters any thing of sufficient 
importance to throw new light upon its affinities. Although we 
unfortunately failed in securing examples of the species which it 
represents, and which is still vouched for (after an interval of nearly 
fifty years) by a unique specimen in a Loudon cabinet, I have already 
expressed my suspicion that it is not to the cabbage-trees, nor yet 
to the tree ferns, that we must look for the reintroduction into the 
fauna of the Micro.vyJohius type, but (as I cannot but think is more 
probable) to the " scrubwood" (Aster glutinosus, Eoxb.), — one of the 
aboriginal arborescent Compositce which we had no opportunity of 
investigating, and which (although once so abundant that large 
tracts of a comparatively low altitude towards the coast were 
literally covered with it) is becoming, year by year, more rare. 
Still I only offer this as a conjecture, for it may possibly be to the 
MeUissia begonicpfoUa, Hk. f., or to some other native shrub now 
nearly extinct, that the M. Westivoodii is (or, rather, was) attached ; 
though the no distant relationship which it possesses with the 



COSSONIDiE. 123 

M. Whiteheadii (and to a certain extent, also, even with the Psert- 
domesoxenus scrohieulatus) inclines me to think that it more probably 
belongs to the fauna, now rapidly disappearing, of the scrubwood. 

Before I had inspected the actual type of the M. Westwoodii, 
Chevrolat's original diagnosis (which contains scarcely a reference 
to any character which is really distinctive) led me to believe that it 
might perhaps prove to be conspecitic with the common 31. vestitus ; 
but a single glance at the example itself was sufficient to dispel any 
such idea, Nevertheless, when contrasting it with that insect 
(which is well selected, from its extreme abundance, as a basis for 
comparison), I mentioned, in 1872, that it " is as small as even the 
vestitus, being only a line and a quarter in length. It is, however, 
relatively narrower and mvich more cylindrical (indeed more so than 
any of the Microxylohii which have hitherto been detected) ; and it 
is likewise darker in hue and perfectly free from even a trace of 
pubescence. Its rostrum is a little wider than in that species, and 
its tibiae are rather more curved, and the punctation of its head and 
prothorax (the latter of tvhich is comparatively unexpanded behind 
the middle) is even more delicate still ; and it is further remarkable 
for its elytra (which have their suture slightly raised, or somewhat 
keel-shaped in front) being transversely marked with remote, obscure 
scratches, or irregular strigse, but almost devoid of longitudinal 
sculpture ; whilst its entire surface is coarsely alutaceous, and 
therefore but very faintly shining." 

Genus 53. ACANTHOMERUS. 

Boheman, Res. Eugen. 141 (1858). 

Corpus vel fusiforme vel ovatum, calvum, nitidissimum, seneum ; 
rostro mediocri, vel graciliter elongato-triangulari vel (saepius) 
parallelo, oculis distinctis, scrobe infra oculos subcurvate ducta ; 
prothorace vel ovato vel (rarius) conico, antice integro ; scutello 
obsolete ; elytris plus minus obovatis basi truncatis ; metasterno 
brevissimo, et saepius (una cum abdominis segm''' 1"° et 2*^°) lon- 
gitudinaliter concavo ; abdominis segm''* 1™" et 2^° inter se arete 
connatis (linea tamen parum distincta divisis). Antennce ante 
medium rostri insertae ; fimiculo 5-articulato, art'^2'*'' vel elongato 
vel sequentibus vix longiore. Pedes robusti, antici fere contigui, 
intermedii paulo magis distantes, postici baud valde distantes ; 
femoribus posticis in speciebus typicis supra ad basin (in utroque 
sexu) spina magna acuta armatis, sed in speciebus aberrantibus 
muticis ; tarsis art" 3"° latiusculo el profunde bilobo. 



124 COSSONID^. 

As distinguished from the Microxylohii, the Acanthomeri may be 
said to be (on the average) rather larger in bulk, of a brilliant 
ceneous tinge (instead of being black, or piceous, and unmetallic), 
perfectly free (in at all events the majority of the species) from 
pubescence, with their rostra usually a trifle longer and more 
parallel (being seldom, even obsoletely, subtriangular), and with 
the third joint of their feet more appreciably widened and bilobed ; 
and in the typical members of the group the femora are armed at 
their base, on the upper or anterior edge, with an acute and powerful 
spine. This last character is, as I need scarcely add, extremely 
anomalous ; and it is one which does not appear to be in any degree 
sexual. The metasternum in Acanthomerus (the A. cylindricus 
alone excepted) is remarkably short ; and the antennae are generally 
implanted a little nearer to the apex of the rostrum than is the case 
in the true Microxylohii. 

As a slight aid to the practical determination of the 11 species 
which compose the present assemblage, I subjoin the following 
analytical table : — 

A. Femora postica supra, ad basin, spina annata .... [Acanthomebi 

typici.] 
a. corpus magnum ; funiculi art" 2''" ehnyato. 
armatus. 
aa. corpus breviter convexiwi ; funiculi art" V"" et 2^" longiusculis, sub- 
csqualibus. conicollis. 

aaa. funiculi art" 2^", 3''°, 4'°, et 5*" brevibus, subcequaKbus, monili- 
fonnibus. ellipticus, 

mouiliformis. 

AA. Femora mutica [Acanthomeri aberrantes.] 

/3. funictdi art" 2''", 3''°, 4'", et o*° brevibus, subcequalibus, monili- 
formibus. similis. 

0/3. funiculi art" 1"'" et 2^° plus minus elongatis. 
y. corpus elongate fusiformi-ovatum. 
debilis. 
yy. corpus angustissitnum, cylindrician (inetastertio longiore). 
cylindricus. 
yyy. c(npus plus minus fusiforme, vel elliptico-fusifcyrme. 
8. tibiis evidenter currMis. 

f, funiculi art" 2^" vix longiore quam primo. 

angustus. 

(f. funiculi ai't" 2^° multo longiore quam primo. 

asperatus. 



hb. tibiis subrectis. 



terebrans, 
obliteratus. 



COSSONID^. 125 



A. Femora postica supra ad basin (in utroque sexu) spina armata. 
[AcAifTHOMERi typici.] 

109. Acanthomerus armatus. (Fig. 5.) 

A. magnus, elongato-fusiformis, aeneus, nitidissimus, calvus ; rostro 
sublineari, crassiusculo, convexo, dense et rugose punctate, oculis 
magnis sed baud valde prominentibus ; protborace subovali, 
minutius leviusque punctulato, per basin ipsissimam opaculo et 
minute subgranulato ; elytris obsolete et remote substriato-punc- 
tatis, interstitiis latis et parum grosse denseque punctatis ; an- 
tennis pedibusque elongatis, illis tarsisque rufo-ferrugineis ; 
funiculi art" 2*^° elongate ; tarsis elongatis, art" 3''° latiusculo. et 
valde distincte bilobo, Suhtus in medio remote et leviter sub- 
granulatus, aut asperato-punctatus. 

Variat (rarius) colore nigro, baud metallico. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2|-3. 

Acanthomerus armatus, Bohem., Res. Eugen. 141 (1859). 
Microxylobius Cbevrolatii, Woll, Tram. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 388, 
pi. 18. f. 8 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 408 (1869). 

Acanthomerus armatus, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius Chevrolatii, Melliss, St. Hel. 152 (1875). 

Habitat sub cortice Compositaru7H arborescentium laxo emortuo ; in 
editioribus vulgaris. 

The present Acanthomerus is essentially a cabbage-tree species, 
and one which occurs abundantly towards the central ridge of the 
island, — often clustering under the loose fibrous bark of the old dead 
trunks in considerable numbers. I have met with it more particu- 
larly below Diana's Peak and Actaeon (along what is called the 
" Cabbage-Tree Koad "), as well as on Stitch's Eidge and at Cason's ; 
but it does not seem quite so common as we approach High Peak 
and West Lodge. It was obtained likewise by Mr. Gray, during his 
month's sojourn at St. Helena, as weU as by the late Mr. Bewicke in 
July of 1861. 

Apart from its large size, elongate-fusiform outline, and the 
powerful spine with which it is furnished on the upper edge of the 
extreme base of its two hinder femora, the A. armatus (which, like 
the other members of the present genus, is brightly polished, bald, 
and brassy) may be known by its very lightly and minutely punc- 
tulated prothorax, and more coarsely punctured rostrum and elytra, 
as well as by its elongate limbs (the feet and the second funiculus- 
joint being conspicuously lengthened), and by the comparatively wide 



126 COSSONlDiK. 

and deeply-bilobed third articulation of its tarsi. Like most of the 
seneous species, it has an occasional dark or blackish state. 



110. Acanthomerus conicollis. (Fig. 4.) 

A. breviter ovato-ellipticus, valde convexus, supra arcuatus, nigro- 
aeneus, nitidissimus, calvus ; rostro graciliter subtriaugulari, 
minute parceque punctulato, oculis subdcmissis ; prothorace 
conico (postice elytrorum latitudine), fere esculpturato (obsoletis- 
sime solum levissimeque punctate) ; elytris obsolete et remote 
subpunctato-substriatis, interstitiis latis et punctis magnis sed 
obsoletissimis notatis (puuctis striisque plus minus evanescenti- 
bus); antennis tarsisque rufo-ferrugineis, femoribus tibiisque 
piceis ; spina femorum posticorum maxima ; funiculi art" 1°"* et 
2^° longiusculis, subreijualibus ; capitulo oblongo, minus abrupto ; 
tarsorum art" 3''° distincte bilobo. Suhtus in medio punctis 
perpaucis obscuris levibus irroratus. 

Var'iat (rarius) colore nigro, vix submetallico. 

Long, Corp. lin. 1|-1|. 

Microxvlobius eouicollis, WolL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loncl. v. 384, pi. 18. 
f. 9 (1861). 

, 1(1, Ann. Nat. Hist. \m. 409 (1869). 

Acanthomerus conicollis, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius conicollis, Melliss, St. Hel. 152 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque insulae, arbores varias colons. 
In ligno antiquo emortuo Commidendri robusti, D.C., Asterisqae 
gununiferi, Hk. f., praecipue abundat. 

Of all the St.-Helena Cossonids which are unmistakably aboriginal 
this is perhaps the most generally diffused over the island ; and it is 
one -which occurs more at intermediate and rather lofty altitudes 
than in absolutely the highest spots. In other words, it woidd seem 
to me to be less attached to the cabbage-trees (although found 
amongst them occasionally) than to the asters and gumwoods, — 
which, on the average, range a little lower than the former as 
regards elevation ; and this perhaps is the reason why it appears to 
have adapted itself more than most of the other species to the trees 
which have been introduced, — the gumwoods, which covered so 
large an area in the intermediate districts, having been almost 
entirely destroyed, and oaks, pines, acacias, &c. planted in their 
stead. Thus at Plantation and at Oakbank, where the gumwoods 
must have once reigned supreme, the A. conicollis has now (since 
the well-nigh total disappearance of those interesting trees) attached 
itself mainly to the various kinds of oak ; and in Vine- Tree Gut 



COSSONID^. 127 

(beloAv Halley s Mount) it is common amongst the willows. But in 
places where the gumwoods still remain — as, for instance, in Peak 
Gut and at Thompson's Wood — it absolutely swarms ; and this is 
equally the case amongst the " Little Gumwoods " (or arborescent 
asters) above West Lodge and towards Lufkins. Amongst the 
cabbage-trees (as just stated), which ascend into the highest parts 
of the island, it is not quite so universal ; nevertheless I have met 
with it towards Diana's Peak and Actteon, as well as at Cason's and 
High Peak, — at the former of which it was taken likewise by 
Mr. Gray. 

There can be no fear of confounding this singular Cossonid with 
any thing else which concerns us here, — its short, ovate-elliptic, 
and extremely convex body, added to its brassy, highly -polished, 
and but very slightly sculptured surface, its conical prothorax (which 
is of precisely the same width behind as the base of the elytra, 
the two segments being in one continuous curve), the largeness of 
its femoral spine, and the rather long and subequal first and second 
joints of its funiculus giving it a character which it is impossible to 
mistake. 

111. Acanthomerus ellipticus, n. sp. 

A. elliptico-fusiformis, nigro-aeneus, nitidus, calvus ; rostro breviter 
sublineari, postice (saltem in c? ) obsolete subangustiore, et (prae- 
sertim in c? ) supra arcuatim convexo (a fronte subdiviso), 
distincte punctulato, oculis prominulis ; prothorace vel (in typicis) 
profunde, vel (in aberrantibus) levius minutiusque punctato ; 
elytris postice attenuatis, substriato- (interdum tantum sub- 
seriatim) punctatis, in interstitiis punctis minoribus subuniseri- 
atim notatis ; antennis pedibusque crassis, piceis, illis ad basin 
rufescentibus, tarsis ferrugineis ; scapo brevi et gradatim valde 
clavato ; funiculi articulis (1"° obtriangulari excepto) brevibus, 
subsequalibus, latis (praesertim in cJ ), transversis, moniliformi- 
bus ; tarsorum art" 3"° parum distincte bilobo. Siihtus in medio 
parcissime punctatus. 

Variat (rarius) colore fere nigro, subcyanescente. 

Var. j3 (in formam typicam gradatim transiens). — Submajor, omnino 
minus grosse sculpturatus ; funiculi articulis paululum minus 
transversis. . 

Long. corp. lin. l|-vix 2. 

Habitat (saltem in statu typico) in ligno antiquo Asteris glutinosi, 
Eoxb. (anglice " Scrubwood "), in aridis ad et juxta "the 
Bam." 



128 cossonidjE. 

Sed quoque lignum Commidendri rohusti, D.C. (anglice " Gum- 
wood "), "var. /3" aequaliter destruit, — ad " Thompson's Wood," 
necnon in ascensu montis " FlagstaflP," abundans. 

Owing to the instability of its sculpture, and its slight primd 
facie resemblance to the following one, the present Acanihomerus is 
somewhat less easy to define than most of the others ; and yet it 
certainly cannot be confounded with the moniUconiis, however 
closely the two may be allied. In what I have regarded as its 
normal phasis (under which circumstances the prothorax is deeply 
punctured, and the funiculus-articulations are very broad and trans- 
verse), it appears to be more especially attached to the scrubwood 
(Aster glutinosus, E.oxb.), — within the dead branches of which it 
was taken by Mr. P. Whitehead on the Barn, and in that immediate 
vicinity ; but it is also equally common amongst the true gumwoods 
(Commidendron i'obustum, D.C), — as at Thompson's Wood, and 
sparingly even at Plantation, — where the sculpture is usually much 
finer, and the joints of the funiculus are not quite so wide. In this 
latter aspect I have met with it likewise, in profusion, on the slopes 
of HagstaflF Hill, in the direction of the Barn, within the cavities of 
the dried stems of the common gorse ; but I imagine that in that 
particular locality (although so near to the Barn) it must be looked 
upon as pertaining to the quondam fauna of the gumwoods (which 
are said to have covered the plains beneath), rather than to the 
scrubwood, — which reigns supreme, even still, upon the Barn. 
I have tried in vain to detect any thing like a constant character to 
separate these two states, their distinctive features seeming to me to 
be so variable that they pass imperceptibly into each other. Occa- 
sionally perhaps the points of discrepancy are more apparent than 
real, — for it is certain that in the male sex the rostrum is shorter, 
convexer, and more coarsely sculptured, and the antennae are appre- 
ciably thicker ; nevertheless, in spite of this, the gumwood specimens 
are, on the average, unless indeed I am much mistaken, a trifle larger 
and less strongly sculptured than those from the scrubwood, and 
their antennae are not quite so incrassated. 

Apart from its brightly brassy surface, which is common to the 
whole genus, the present AcantJiomerus is principally remarkable, in 
its typical condition, for its very deeply and coarsely punctured 
prothorax ; though, as just mentioned, the punctures in some 
examples (as, for instance, those from the gumwoods, which I have 



cossoxiDJ!:. 129 

cited above as the " var. /3 ") are comparatively so small and faintly 
impressed (unless indeed an additional, proximate species is indicated, 
the distinctions of which I have failed to recognize) that this particular 
character can hardly be said to obtain. But, apart from the punc- 
tation, there is a peculiarity about its rostrum and antonnse (at aU 
events in the males), — the former, which is short and parallel, being 
convex and curved, and somewhat divided from the forehead by an 
indentation or line ; whilst the latter have their scape abbreviated 
and much incrassated anteriorly, and their funiculus also (at any 
rate in the normal examples) extremely thickened, the joints being 
broad and transverse. Its general outline is fusiform, the elytra 
being rather narrowed towards their apex. 

112. Acanthomerus monilicornis. 

A. oblongo-fusiformis, nigro-oeneus, nitidiusculus, calvus ; rostro 
breviter subKneari, crassiusculo, profunde, rugose et dense punc- 
tate, necnon (prcesertim in c? ) subopaco, oeulis magnis, promi- 
nulis ; prothorace minus grosse sed densissime, fequaliter, argu- 
teque punctulato ; elytris (basi recte truncatis) dense ruguloso 
sed insequaliter punctatis ac plus minus obsolete striatis (punctis 
subconfusis, et dense sublongitudinaliter dispositis) ; antennis (in 
(5 sublongioribus) brunneo-piceis, ad basin rufescentioribus ; 
pedibus loiigiusculis, crassis, piceis, tarsis ferrugineis ; funiculi 
art'* (1"° obtriangulari excepto) brevibus (praecipue in 5 ), sub- 
sequalibus, submoniliformibus ; tarsorum art° 3"° latiusculo, et 
valde conspicue bilobo. Subtns in metasterno grosse sed baud 
dense punctatus. 

Varied (rarius) colore fere nigro, subcj^anescente. 

Long. corp. lin. If- 2. 

Microxylobius luomlicornis, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hid. iy. 410 (1869). 
Acanthomerus monilicornis, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius monilicornis, Melliss, St. Hel. 152 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis insulae, arbores varias, prsecipue Quercus, 
colens, ad Plantation abundans. In ligno antiquo Commi- 
dendri robusti, DC, seque invenitur. 

This is the common Acanthomerus at Plantation, — where it swarms 
in the dead branches and trunks of the various species of oak, as 
weU as in the crevices of old posts &c. ; and I am inclined to think 
that it be should looked upon as having been attached originally to 
the gumwoods, which must once have been dominant throughout 
that district ; and I have taken it amongst the gumwoods at Thomp- 
son's "Wood, where, however, it is less abundant than the A. eUipticus. 

E 



130 COSSONID^. 

At any rate it is more particularly a species of intermediate alti- 
tudes ; though I believe that on one occasion I met with a single 
example of it towards the central ridge. 

The A. monilicorms agrees with the ellipticits in the shortened 
joints of its funiculus, which, however, are rather less decidedly 
transverse ; nevertheless it is (on the average) a trifle larger and 
more oblong than that species, it being less distinctly narrowed 
posteriorly ; its rostrum is a little thicker, and (in both sexes) less 
shining (indeed nearly opake), and very much more coarsely and 
thickly punctured ; its prothorax (although less roughly sculptured 
than the rostrum) is also more densely and uniformly punctulated all 
over ; its elytra, too (which are more straightly truncate at their 
base), are more closely, as well as more confusedly, punctured ; its 
eyes are appreciably larger ; its whole surface is not quite so polished ; 
and the third joint of its feet is more conspicuously widened and 
bilobed. 



AA. Femora mvtica. [Acanthomeei aberrantes,] 

(Subgenus Chrysotrogus, Woll.) 

113. Acanthomerus similis, n. sp. 

A. prsecedenti prima facie similis, sed femoribus simplicibus (omnino 
inarmatis) ; rostro paululum minus lineari, sc. postice obsolete 
latiore crassiore (ergo submagis triangulari), sensim minus opaco 
minusque rugose j^uuctato ; prothorace vix subconvexiore aut 
magis globoso, paululum minus densissime punctulato ; elytris 
postice paulo magis attenuatis, ac subminus dense et subminus 
confuse jmnetatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|-2|. 

Habitat in ligno arido antique Commidendri rohusti, DC. (anglice 
" Gumwood "), atque Asteris glutinosi, Roxb. (anglice " Scrub- 
wood"), in intermediis insulae. 

In size and general aspect this Acanthomeriis bears so strong a 
prima facie resemblance to the A. monilicornis that, before accurately 
examined, it might well be confounded with that species. It will 
be seen, however, to differ from it essentially in having its femora 
unarmed {a, fact which removes it into another section of the genus); 
and it further recedes in its rostrum being a trifle less linear, or 
more triangular (it being just appreciably more widened behind), as 
well as a little more shining and less coarsely punctured ; in its 



COSSONID^. 13t 

prothorax being, if any thing, somewliat convexer or more globose, 
and not quite so closely punctulated ; and in its elytra, wbich are 
perceptibly more attenuated behind (though not quite so much so as 
in the A. ellipticus), being a little less densely and less confusedly 
punctured. 

Like the A. elliptims, the similis appears to be attached mainly 
to the gumwoods and the scrub'wood, though especially perhaps the 
former. I have taken it amongst the old gumwoods in Peak Gut, as 
well as amongst those towards Lufkins and in Thompson's Wood ; 
and 1 also met with it sparingly at Plantation, and on the ascent of 
Flagstaff Hill. By Mr. P. Whitehead it was captured on the Barn, 
amongst the shrubs of the Aster glutinosus, Roxb., or scrubwood. 

114. Acanthomerus debilis. 

A. elongate fusiformi-ovatus (antice attenuatus, pone medium 
rotundate ampliatus), angustulus, nigro-aeneus, nitidissimus, 
calvus ; rostro sublineari, argute et distincte punctulato, oculis 
sat maguis sed baud prominentibus ; prothorace angustulo, ovali, 
fere impunctato (punctis sc. levissimis ac plus minus evanescenti- 
bus) ; elytris elongato-ovatis basi recte truncatis, levissime sub- 
striato-subpunctatis, per basin ipsissimam granulis perpaucis 
asperatis ; antennis pedibusque longiusculis, piceis, illarum 
capitulo tarsisque clarioribus ; funiculi art° 2^° quam primus pau- 
lulum lougiore : tarsorum art" 3"° valde distincte bilobo, Subtus 
in medio parcissime et levissime subasperato-punetatus. 

Variat (rarius) colore nigro, subcyanescente. 

Long. Corp. lin. l5-vix2. 

Microxylobius debilis, Wall, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 407 (1869). 
Acanthomerus debilis, Id., Trcms. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius debilis, Melliss, St. Hel. 151 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis insulte, ad Plantation, Thompson's Wood, 
West Lodge, et caet., abundans ; rarior in locis valde excelsis. 

It is more in the intermediate districts than in the highest ones 
that the present species occurs ; for while it is comparatively rare 
in the loftiest parts of the great central ridge (though I have met 
with it sparingly towards Diana's Peak and High Peak), it abso- 
lutely swarms at Plantation, as well as in such spots as Vine-Tree 
Gut, Thompson's Wood, and the Aster-groxe beyond West Lodge 
overlooking Lufkins. From which I infer that it is the gumwoods 
and arborescent asters (or "little gumwoods") to which it was 
originally attached, rather than the cabbage-trees. Nevertheless, in 
the regions from which the gumwoods have gradually disappeared 

k2 



132 COSSONIDiE. 

(or nearly so), it has adapted itself most completely to many of the 
introduced trees, particularly the oaks ; and at Plantation it often 
clusters within the crevices of old gates and posts, — from which it 
may he seen to crawl (especially after showers), adhering to them, 
however, with great tenacity. At Plantation it was taken also by 
Mr. Gray, during the first few days of our sojourn at St. Helena. 

The A. debilis is rather peculiar in outline, — it being narrow, but 
nevertheless a good deal rounded-outwards behind the middle (causing 
it to appear much attenuated in front) ; it is also extremely briUiant, 
or highly polished, though often of a darJcIy-hTnasy tint ; and its 
striae and punctures, except the minute ones on the rostrum (which 
is nearly linear), are generally so lightly impressed that the surface 
at first sight seems to be well-nigh unsculptured. Its prothorax is 
oval and narrowish, its third tarsal joint is conspicuously bilobed ; 
and its elytra have usually a few smaU asperated granules, or points, 
along their extreme basal edge. 



115. Acanthomerus cylindricus, n.sp. 

A. cylindricus, angustissimus, nigro-seneus, nitidissimus, fere calvus 
(oculo fortissime armato minutissime parcissimeque cinereo- 
pubescens) ; rostro (a fronte impressione subdiviso) lineari, di- 
stincte (in (S distinctius) punctate, oculis parvis sed prominenti- 
bus ; prothorace elongato-ovali, levissime sed hand minute 
punctato (punctis interdum evanescentibus); elj^tris longissimis, 
subfusiformi-cylindricis, grosse sed levissime substriato-punctatis ; 
antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis ; funiculi art"' 1"° et 2^° longi- 
tudine a-qualibus ; tarsis brevibus, art" 3"" distincte bilobo. 
Subtus in medio grosse sed levissime punctatus ; metasterno 
longiore. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Habitat inter ramulos fractos desiccates emortuos Commidendri 
robiisti, DC. (anglice " Gumwood "), necnon etiam humi sub 
foliis dejectis, in intermediis ad Thompson's Wood parce lectus. 

This is one of the rarest and most peculiar of the Acanthomeri 
which have hitherto been detected : and it is one which, from its 
comparatively elongated metasternum and the fact of its being very 
minutely but sparingly studded with a short microscopic pubescence, 
well-nigh merits generic separation. Yet, if it must be assigned to 
any of the acknowledged groups, there is not one that will receive it 
80 readily (barring the length of its metasternum) as that section of 



COSSONID^. 133 

the present genus in which the exponents are free from the spine on 
the two hinder femora which constitutes so anomalous a feature in 
AcantJwmerus proper. The A. cylindricus, however, is a very 
remarkable insect, — its more than usually brightly-polished, brassy 
surface (the punctures of which, although somewhat large, are most 
faintly impressed), in conjunction with its extremely narrow and 
cylindrical outline, its rather short but linear rostrum, its small but 
prominent ejes, and its greatly elongated elytra, giving it a character 
which is essentially its own. 

It appears to be the gum wood {Commidendron rohustum, DC.) to 
which the present Acanthomerus is attached. At any rate the only 
spot in which I met with it was Thompson's AYood, — where I 
obtained about twenty examples, by sifting fallen leaves and the 
broken -up sticks of the old gum woods for which that particular 
locality is so famous, ^ 



116. Acanthomerns angustus. 

A. fusiformis, nigro-aeneus, nitidiusculus, fere calvus (oculo fortis- 
sime armato in elytris minutissime parceque cinereo-pubescens) ; 
rostro longiusculo, lineari, minutissime (postice distinctius) 
punetulato, oculis magnis, subprominulis ; prothorace densissime 
punctato ; el}-tris fusiformibus basi truncatis, dense et subconfuse 
substriato-punctatis, versus humeros et apieem minute granulato- 
asperatis ; aatennis pedibusque subgracilibus, uigro-piceis, ilia- 
rum capitulo abrupto, rotundato, clariore ; funiculi (sublaxi) 
art" 2*^° paulum longiore quam prime ; tibiis (praesertim in J ) 
subcurvatis ; tarsorum art" 3"° distincte bilobo, ult"" elongate. 
Subtus in medio grosse, dense, et profunde punctatus ; metasterno 
mediocri (nee brevissimo). 

Variat (rarius) colore obscuriore, fere nigro. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-2. 

Microxylobius angustus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist, viii, 403 (1871). 
Acanthomerus angustus, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius angustus, Melliss, St. Hel. 151 (1875). 

Habitat ad arbores antiquas Commldendri robusti., DC, et Asteris 
glutinosi, Hk. f.,in aridis intermediis (e.g. the Barn et Thomp- 
son's Wood), rarior. 

It is to the gumwood and scrubwood that the A. angustus is 
attached, particularly perhaps the latter. I have taken it very 
sparingly amongst the old gumwoods in Thompson's Wood ; and it 
was met with by Colonel Warren, adhering to the foliage of the 



134 COSSONIDiE. 

scrubwood, on the Barn, — a locality in which it has likewise been 
captured, as well as in the immediate vicinity, by Mr. P. White- 
head. So far, however, as my own experience is concerned, it is 
decidedly scarce ; though in all probability it will be ascertained to 
be not uncommon amongst the scrubwood, Avhen the fauna of that 
remarkable shrub has beeu fully investigated. 

Next to the armatus (which, however, is comparatively gigantic), 
the A. angustus is the largest of the Acantliomeri which have yet 
been brought to light ; nevertheless, as regards bulk, it is a variable 
species, — the most highly developed examples almost doubling the 
smallest ones. It is fusiform in outline (much after the pattern of 
the Lamprochrus cossonoides) ; and its tibiie, particularly in the male 
sex, are more curved than in any other members of the genus except 
the A. asjjeratus. Its rostrum is parallel, its prothorax is very 
densely punctured, its eyes are large (but not particularly promi- 
nent), its elytra are rather thickly and confusedly sculptured, as 
well as slightly asperated with raised granules towards the shoulders 
and apex, and its limbs (which are darkish in hue) are somewhat 
thin and wiry. Its antennae have their capitulum, which is rounded 
and abrupt, a little paler ; and the funiculus has the first and second 
joints (the former of which is, perhaps, a trifle shorter than the 
latter) slightly elongated. 



117. Acanthomerus asperatus, u. sp. 

A. breviter elliptico-fusiformis (in medio latiusculus, antice et postice 
attenuatus), Isete seneus, nitidissimus, fere calvus (oculo fortissimo 
armato minutissime cinereo-pubescens) : rostro lineari, crassius- 
culo, distincte punctate, ad apicem obsolete canaliculate, oculis 
magnis sed baud valde prominentibus ; prothorace pauIo minutius 
sed densissime punctulato ; elytris eUipticis basi subbiarcuatim 
truncatis, in disco antico convexis, levitcr punctato-striatis, inter- 
stitiis latis et subruguloso-puuctatis, exterioribus convexis et (una 
cum apice) dense grauulato-asperatis : antennis pedibusque elon- 
gatis, illis rufo-ferrugineis ; funiculi (laxi) art° 2^° multo longiore 
quam prime ; capitulo magno, elongato, oblonge, sed baud valde 
abrupto ; pedibus crassis, femoribus (grosse granulato-asperatis) 
tibiisque (subcurvatis, pra^cipue intermediis) piceis, tarsis ferru- 
gineis, art" 3"° distincte bilobo. Siibtus in medio leviter asperato- 
])unetatus (fere granulatus). 

Long. corp. lin. vix 21. 

Hnhifnt inter arbusculas Asteris (jlutinosi, Eoxb. ;ai]glice " Scrul;- 



COSSONID^. 135 

wood ") ; ad promontorium prseruptum aridum boreale " the 
Barn " dictum a Dom. P. Wliitehead semel repertus. 

I have seen hitherto but a single example of this curious and 
well-marked Acanthomerus, — which was taken by Mr. P. White- 
head, amongst the viscous shrubs of the scrubwood (or Aster gluti- 
nosm, Hk. f.), on the Bam. It must be regarded therefore as a 
scrubwood species ; and I may add that there are few members of 
the scrubwood fauna (as yet brought to light) which are more 
interesting than the A. asperatus. 

Apart from its very brightly brassy hue and elliptic-fusiform 
outline (which is much widened in the centre, and almost equally 
attenuated both before and behind, — the posterior region appearing, 
consequently, to be unusually pointed or narrowed), the present 
Acanthomerus may be recognized by its robust, thickened legs 
(which have their femora very coarsely asperated, their tibiae, parti- 
cularly the intermediate ones, appreciably curved, and their third 
tarsal joint conspicuously bilobed), by its large but not very promi- 
nent eyes, its closely but rather finely punctulated prothorax, and 
by its elytra being very densely covered towards their sides and apex 
with sharp but minute granules. Its surface, moreover, is not 
quite bald, but will be seen, when viewed beneath a high magnifying- 
power, to be studded, especially on the elytra (which are slightly 
hiarcuatecl anteriorly), with a diminutive cinereous irabescence. 
Its antennae are rather long, with the second joint of their funiculus 
considerahhj lengthened, and their capitulum large and oblong. 



118. Acanthomerus terebrans. (Fig. 6.) 

A. breviter ovato-fusiformis, a^neus aut nigro-seueus (interdum 
obsoletissime subviridi tinctus), nitidus, calvus ; rostro lincari, 
distincte punctate,. oculis baud valde prominentibus ; prothoraoe 
(elj^tris sensim angustiore) subtriangulari-ovato, vix minutius 
dense punctate ; elytris ovalibus basi subemarginato-truncatis, 
leviter substriato-punctatis. per basin ipsissimam grannlis pei- 
paucis asperato-terminatis, striis antice breviter profundioribus, 
interstitiis latis et distincte punctatis ; antennis tarsisque rufo- 
ferrugineis, funiculi (laxi) art'' l""" et 2'^" subsequalibus ; feraori- 
bus tibiisque a?neo-piceis ; tarsorum art" 3''° valde distincte bilobo. 
Subtiis in medio parce punctatus. 

Variat (rarius) colore fere nigro, subcyanescente. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-2|. 



136 cossonidjE. 

Microxvlobiiis terebrans, WolL, Trans. Ent. Soc. v. 382, pi. 18. f. 7 
(1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 400 (1869). 

Acanthomerus terebrans, Id., Trans. Ent. Sue. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius terebrans, Melliss, St. Hel. 151 (1875). 

Habitat in editioribus insulae, Compositas arborescentes varias copiose 
destruens. 

This is one of the most abundant, and widely spread, of all the 
Acanthomeriyv\ii(ih.\i3i\e hitherto been detected,— occurring particu- 
larly, however, amongst the cabbage-trees and arborescent asters of 
a lofty altitude. Along the whole central heights, from Diana's 
Peak and Actaeon to Stitch's Ridge, Cason's, High Peak, and West 
Lodge, it is universal, — congregating beneath the loose fibrous bark 
of the Pladaroxylon leucodendi-on, Hk. f., and the Melanodendron 
integrifolium, DC; and in the aster-grove beyond West Lodge, 
overlooking Lnfkins, it literally swarms. But it scarcely descends 
into the strictly "intermediate" districts, — the least-elevated point 
at which I observed it being Yine-Tree Gut, below Halley's Mount, 
It was captured likewise by Mr. Gray ; and it is a species which was 
first placed on record by myself, on the evidence of two examples 
which were found by the late Mr. Bewicke, during a day's collecting 
in the island in 1860, 

The rather short and ovate-fusiform outline of the A. terebrans 
(the brightly brassy surface of which varies occasionally into a 
subcyaneous-black), added to its densely (but not very coarsely) 
punetulated prothorax, and the deepened anterior portions of its 
striae, which cause the base of the elytra to appear at first sight to 
be somewhat impressed with a series of abbreviated longitudinal 
furrows, will serve sufficiently to distinguish it. 



119. Acanthomerus obliteratus. 

A. praecedenti similis, sed paulum crassior ac magis ovatus, in medio 
sublatior (prothorace subconvexiore, elytrisque sensim convexiori- 
bus ac magis rotundatis), etiam nitidior, sc. nitidissimus ; rostro 
praesertim in 5 ) paululum longiore ; sculptura omnino (sed 
praecipue in elytris) submagis grossa, tamen multo leviore (sc. 
punctis striisque subobliteratis, his hand profundioribus ad basin 
elytrorum) ; antennarum capitulo minus abrupto, pedibusque 
sensim crassioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 2. 



COSSOMD.E. 137 

Microxylobius obliteratus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 407 (1869). 
Acanthomerus obliteratus, /(/., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius obliteratus, Jlelliss, Si. Hel. 151 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis aut subelevatis iusulae, rarior. 

I think it is scarcely likely that this Acantliomerus can be any 
local state, or phasis, of the A. terebrans, peculiar perhaps to the 
gumwoods (instead of the cahbage-trees), though the two have 
undoubtedly a good deal in common. Judging from the few 
examples to which I have access (for it is clearly one of the rarer 
members of the genus), it is altogether a little thicker and more 
ovate than that species, and more mesi ally-widened (the prothorax 
and elytra being, each of them, more convex, and the latter more 
rounded) ; and it is even still more shining (being very highly 
polished) ; its rostrum is appreciably longer ; its antennal club is 
less abrupt ; its legs are more incrassated ; and its entire sculpture 
(except on the rostrum), although coarser or less fine, is \Qxy much 
more lightly impressed, — the punctures and striae of the elytra, the 
latter of which are not more deeply grooved at their base than else- 
where, being well-nigh obliterated. 

I have taken this Acanthomerus amongst the old gumwoods in 
Peak Gut ; and it was met with by llr. P. Whitehead on likewise 
the eastern side of the great central ridge, though further to the 
northward, — beyond (and below) Cason's. Where Mr. Melliss's 
original examples, from which I enunciated the species, were pro- 
cured I have no means of ascertaining. 

Genus 54. EUCOPTODESUS (nov. gen.). 
Corpus elongate fusiformi-ovatum, calvum, semipolitum (sc. in parte 
nitidum et in parte opacum), in rostro prothoraceque densissime 
et grossissime rugoso-sculpturatum, sed in elytris subnoduloso- 
insequale ; rostro longiusculo, subgraciliter elongato-subtriangu- 
lari, oculis parvis sed subprominulis, scrobe infra oculos subcurvate 
ducta ; prothorace subovato, antice leviter constricto ; scutello 
obsolete ; elytris elongato-subovatis, hinc inde gibbulosis ; meta- 
sterno brevi ; abdominis segm'" 1™° et 2^° inter se arctissime con- 
natis (linea valde indistincta divisis). Antennce mox ante medium 
rostri insertae, subgraciles ; scapo longiusculo ; funiculo 5-articu- 
lato, laxo, art" 2'''' elongato (sc. 1™° sensim lougiore). Pedes antici 
parum, intermedii paululum magis, et postici latins (tamen hand 
remote) distantes ; tarsis longiusculis, art" 3"° latiusculo et 
distincte bilobo. 

Ab (V, bene, kotttw, seco, et leprj, collum. 



138 COSSONID^. 

The anomalous sculpture of the two singular Cossonids which 
constitute the present genus, the prothorax and rostrum of which 
are most coarsely, roughly, and densely tvrinJded (rather than 
punctured) with subconfluent, fold-like flexuosities, or confused 
vermiform subreti dilating ridges, in conjunction with their slightly 
nodulose, uneven elytra, their rather slender, elongate-subtriangular 
rostnim, piceo-reneoifs hue, and the lengthened second joint of their 
funiculus, seem to refer them to a totally different type from 
Microxylobius ; whilst the same characters, with the exception of 
the brassy tinge of their surface and their somewhat produced 
second funiculus-articulation, almost equally prevent their associa- 
tion with the aberrant Acant.homeri, in which the femora are unarmed 
with a basal spine. Their anterior coxiE are more appreciably 
removed from each other than is usual in these immediate groups, 
being by no means even SH^contiguous : and their general surface, 
although quite bald, has, from the tendency to inequalities which it 
possesses, and the fact of its being partially bright and partially 
opake (as though sejHz-polished), a somewhat sericeous or silken 
appearance. 

120. Eucoptoderus vermicnlatus, n. sp. 

E. elongate fusiformi-ovatus, calvus, vel a^neo-piceus vel piceo-seneus ; 
rostro longiusculo, subgraciliter elongato-subtriangulari, postice 
rugose et subcontlu enter costulato-striguloso et indistincte punc- 
tato, subopaco sed versus apicem nitido, et ibidem minute jjunc- 
tulato, oculis par\'is ; prothorace densissime grossissimeque con- 
fluenter vermiculato-plicato, subopaco ; elytris subnodulosis, in- 
sequalibus, grosse subundulatim striatis (striis latis sed indistincte 
punctatis), subopacis sed versus suturam plus minus aeneo-mican- 
tibus (quasi sc. semipolitis), interstitiis convexis ; antennis pedi- 
busque piceo-testaceis. Subtus in medio grosse et profunde, sed 
vix densissime, punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2i. 

Habitat in insulse editioribus, sub ligno antique late sed parce dif- 
fusus. 

I have already called attention to the prima facie characters of 
this curious Cossonid, the marvellously sculptured prothorax and 
rostrum of which give it such a peculiar appearance. It seems 
somewhat scarce, and to be confined to the higher parts of the 
island, — though descending as low as about 2300 feet above the sea. 
My examples are principally from the neighbourhood of Diana's 



COSSONID^. 139 

Peak and Actseon ; but I also met with it at Cason's, where it has 
attached itself partially to the dead pines, and at West Lodge. 

121. Eucoptoderus affinis, n, sp. 

E. prsecedenti similis, sed prothorace multo minus grosse sculptu- 
rato ; elytris vix magis rotundatis et utrinque vix magis alutaceis, 
multo minus profunde striatis (striis minus grossis tamen eviden- 
tius punctatis), interstitiisque latioribus ac depressis (nee convexis). 
Subtus minus grosse piinctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-2^. 

Habitat sub ligno antique ramulisque fractis emortuis ; in editioribus 
supra, West Lodge, Februario ineunte, a meipso repertus. 

It is not altogether impossible that this may represent in reality 
but a permanent state, or modification, of the last species ; never- 
theless I was not able to meet with any intermediate links. It seems 
to differ from the E. vermicidatus in having its prothorax very much 
less coarsely sculptured, and in its elytra (which are just appreciably 
rounder in outHne) being not only more alutaceous on either side, 
but with their striae finer and more lightly impressed (though rather 
more evidently js^oictaie), and with their interstices wider and less 
convex. Its underside also is less coarsely punctured. 

The few examples which I have seen of this Eucoptoderus (seven 
in number) were captured by myself, after the early summer rains 
at the beginning of February, on the extreme and precipitous edge 
of the central ridge immediately above West Lodge and overlooking 
the great Sandy-Bay crater. They were adhering to small pieces of 
wood and old sticks, in the vicinity of the Aster gummiferus, Hk. fil., 
or " Little Bastard Gumwood." 

Genus bo. CHALCOTEOGUS (nov. gen.). 

Corpus elliptico- aut potius bieUiptico-fusiforme, fere calvum, semi- 
politum (sc. in parte nitidum et in parte opacum), minus sculptu- 
ratum ; rostro elongato, gracili, lineari sed in S ad apicem (?'. e. 
ad antennan;m insertionem) leviter dilatato- ampliato, in $ aut 
fere aut omnino simplici ; ocidis minutis sed subprominulis ; scrohe 
infra oculos oblique ducta ; protliorace ovali aut elliptico, interdum 
rotundate ampliato, antice vix constricto, postice linea marginato ; 
scutello obsoleto ; elytris vol obovato- vel elongato-ellipticis, 
utrinque pone medium gibbulosis aut inaequalibus, fere quasi sub- 
nodulosis ; metasterno vel brevissimo (ut in typicis), vel mediocri ; 
abdominis segm*'' 1"° et 2**° inter se arctissime connatis (linea 
valde indistincta divisis), et, una cum metasterno, longitudinaliter 



140 COSSONIDiE. 

sat concavis. Antennce ante medium rostri insertae ; funiculo 
5-articulato, laxo, art'' 1™° et 2'^° lougiusculis, subasqualibus. Pedes 
antici fere contigui, intermedii paululum magis distantes, atque 
etiam postici baud late remoti ; tarsis breviusciilis, crassiusculis, 
art° 3''" minute bilobo. 

' A y(^n\Kus, aes (sc. jeneus), et rpuiyw, edo. [Typus : Chakotrogus apio- 
nides.j 

Although unwilling to multiply genera unnecessarily amongst 
these numerous forms of the Cossonidce, I nevertheless cannot but 
consider that the three singular insects which I have regarded as 
representing the present group cannot by any possibility be assigned 
to even the "aberrant" (or spineless) Acanthomeri, — from which 
they altogether recede in their long, narrow rostrum (which in the 
male sex is slightly expanded anteriorli/, at the insertion of the 
antennae), their extremely minute but rather prominent eyes, their 
subcontiguous fore coxae, the less dilated third joint of their more 
abbreviated feet, in their somewhat 6i-elliptical outline (the pro- 
thorax and elytra being more than usually siparately-eWi'ptic, and 
the former liable in one of the species to considerable development), 
and in their very anomalous sculpture. This last indeed is on a 
most unusual type, — the surface being partly brilliant and partly 
alutaceous and opake (a peculiarity which, to a certain extent, is 
shadowed forth likewise in Eucoptoderus), as though A«Z/^-polished ; 
it having much the appearance, in consequence, although practically 
bald, of what we may be permitted to express as (etiescent satin. 
Their prothorax is margined behind, the margin being formed by a 
very regular subbasal line ; and their elytra are more or less uneven 
on either side beyond the middle, — the inequalities taking the prima 
facie appearance of either very obsolete nodules (as in Eucoptoderus), 
or else of irregular scabrous spaces. 

a. Metasternum brevissimiim. 

122. Chalcotrogus apionides, n. sp. 

C, breviter elliptico-fusiformis (in medio latiusculus, antice et postice 
attenuatus), vel nigro- vel piceo-seneus, semipolitus (sc. hinc inde 
nitidus, et hinc inde alutaceo-opacus), oculo fortissimo armato 
minutissime parcissimeque cinereo-pubescens (prscipue in elytris) ; 
rostro longiusculo, gracili, ad antennarum insertionem (in 6 
distincte, in $ obsolete) subquadrato-latiore, subopaco, minu- 
tissime et parce punctulato ; oculis minutis sed subprominulis ; 



COSSONID.B. 141 

prothorace (elytris sensim angustiore) ovali, punctulis minu- 
tissimis parce irrorato, ad basin anguste marginato, intequaliter 
alutaceo-opaco sed antice ritido ; elytris ellipticis (aut obovatis) 
basi truncatis, convexis, fere non scnlpturatis (sc. obsoletissime 
substriato-subpunctatis), utrinque pone medium inaequalibus aut 
obsolete subnodulosis, antice et postice alutaceo-opacis sed in 
medio gradatim politissimis ; antennis pedibusque rufo-ferru- 
gineis ; funiculi art'" 1™° et 2.'^" suba^qualibus ; tibiis posticis in S 
paulo curvatis ; tarsorum art" 3''° minutissime subbilobo. Subtus 
in medio nitidulus, leviter et parcissime punctulatus. 
Long. Corp. lin. l^-lg. 

Habitat in ligno Compositarum arborescentium emortuo antique 
marcido, necnon interdum etiam sub truncis Pinormn in 
editioribus ; parce occurrens. 

The short, elliptico-fusiform, mesially-widened, A^nonAiVe outline 
of this remarkable little Cossonid would, of itself, almost suffice to 
distinguish it from every thing else with -which we are here con- 
cerned. Its rostrum is rather long and slender, and appreciably 
widened towards the tip (at the point of insertion of the antennae ), 
particularly, however, in the male sex ; and the first and second 
joints of its funiculus are about equal, and only slightly elongated. 
Its surface is well-nigh unsculptured, — the rostrum and prothorax 
(which are nearly opake, though tmevenhj so, except the anterior 
edge of the latter which is brilliant) being but very sparingly 
sprinkled with most diminutive punctules, whilst the punctures and 
striae of the elj'tra (which last are alutaceous and opake before and 
behind, but gradually highly polished across the central region) are 
nearly obsolete. The legs are a little longer in the males than in 
the females ; and in the former sex the two posterior tibiae are 
perceptibly curved. In colour it is either of a blackish brass, or 
else of a dark aeneo-piceous. 

The C. apionides is extremely scarce, and confined to the high 
central ridge, — where normally it is, without doubt, attached to the 
damp and decayed wood of the old cabbage-trees. In such situations 
I have met with it along the " Cabbage-Tree Road," immediately 
below Diana's Peak and Actaeon ; but at Cason's, like so many of the 
Cossonids in that particular locality, it has adapted itself almost 
equally to the pines, — beneath the dead trunks of which I captured 
it, not uncommonly, particularly about February, in company with 
the Pseudomesoxeni and varies species of Microxylobius, after the 
early summer rains. 



14.2 COSSONID^. 

123. Chalcotrogus oblongior, n. sp. 

C. proccedenti similis, sed paulo major et oblongior (in medio minus 
rotundato-ampliatus) ; rostro longiore et graciliore, ab apice usque 
ad basin gradatim pauhalum subangustiore, in § [ J adhuc latet] 
nuUo modo ad antennarum insertionem dilatato, postice rugosius 
densiusque punctulato (etiam fronte dense et rugose punctulata) ; 
prothorace elytrisque vis evidentius punctulatis, bis minus con- 
vexis ; antennis sublongioribus, funiculi art" 2^° quam primus 
sublongiore. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 1|. 

Habitat in editioribus insulse, rarissimus ; a meipso bis lectus. 

Of tbis species I bave seen hitberto but two examples, which were 
taken hy myself on the high central ridge. Unfortunately they are 
both of them females ; so that I am not able to decide whether the 
rostrum is at all apically-dilated (at the insertion of the antennae) in 
the males. In the female, however (in which sex of the 0. apionides 
there is at all events a faint widening), there is no trace whatever of 
any thing like an expansion, — it being perfectly slender throughout, 
though, if any thing, r/raducdh/ narrowed from the extreme tip to 
the base. This greater length and thinness of the rostrum, added 
to its perfect freedom (at any rate in the female sex) from a 
dilatation, or thickening, at the implantation of the antennae, and 
the fact of its being much more densely and roughly punctulated 
(the punctules extending moreover, between the eyes, onto the 
forehead, which is comparatively free from sculpture in that species), 
constitute its main points of divergence from the 0. apionides. It 
is, however, in addition to this, a little larger and more oblong (or 
less mesially- widened) than that insect ; its elytra are less convex ; 
and its antennae (which are a trifle longer) have the second j6int of 
their funiculus just appreciably more lengthened than the first one 
(instead of being equal to it). 



aa. Metasternum mediocre. 

124. Chalcotrogus semipolitus, n. sp. 

. angustulus, elongate bieUiptico-fusiformis (sc. prothorace elytris- 
que singulatim ellipticis, inter se bene divisis), a^neus, semipolitus 
(sc. bine inde nitidus, et hinc inde alutaceo-opacus), fere calvus ; 
rostro elongato, gracili, ad antennarum insertionem in S paululum 
subquadrato-latiore, in $ fere simplici (sed a basi usque ad 



COSSONIDvE. 143 

apicem gradatim obsolete latiore), in d subopaco et distincte 
punctulato sed in 5 paulum longiore graciliore minutius punctu- 
lato et antice nitido ; oculis minutis sed subprominulis ; protho- 
race elliptico, vol ad latera valde rotundato-ampliato (elytris 
multo latiore) vel angustiore, minntissime et parce (sed interdum 
distinctius) punctulato, ad basin marginato, insequaliter alutaceo- 
(et substriguloso-) opaco sed antice paululum nitidiore et ibidem 
rugosius transversim striguloso ; elytris elongato-ellipticis basi 
truncatis, plerumque vix striatis et vix punetatis sed interdum 
interrupte substriato-punctatis, irregulariter transversim rugatis 
et utrinque pone medium ingequalibus, aut obsolete scabroso- 
subnodulosis, hinc inde (prcesertim ad apicem et iitrinque pone 
medium) alutaceo-opacis et hinc inde nitidioribus ; antennis tar- 
sisque rufo-ferrugineis. Subtus in medio subopacus, leviter sed 
parum grosse punctatus. 
Long. corp. lin. l|-2j. 

Habitat sub ligno antiquo in editioribus insulae, late difFusus. 

Obs. — Species forma sculpturaque variabilis,— prothorace ad 
latera plus minus rotundato-ampliato atque intei'dum evidentius 
punctulato, elytrisque plus minus transversim rugatis ac punetatis. 
Colore rarius nigrescenti- aut virescenti-cyaneo. 

Although widely spread along the whole central ridge — where I 
have taken it about Diana's Peak and Actteon, as well as at Cason's, 
High Peak, and AVest Lodge (and on one occasion even below 
Halley's Mount) — the present singular Cossonid does not appear to 
descend into the " intermediate " districts, it being attached to the 
old wood of the various arborescent Compositce. At Cason's, how- 
ever, it has adapted itself a good deal to the pines, like so many of 
the cabbage-tree species in that particular locality ; and I also 
observed a similar tendency in it at Eock Rose. 

The C. semipolitus is one of the most beautiful of the St.-Helena 
Cossonids; and yet, owing to its variability both in stature and 
outline, it is certainly one of the most difficult ones to describe. 
From the great development of the prothorax in the larger indivi- 
duals and its comparative narrowness in the smaller ones, as well as 
from the fact that the latter are very frequently a little more 
decidedly punctured (neither of which characters appear to be 
in any way sexual), I felt it probable at first that two distinct 
species would be indicated ; nevertheless, after overhauling very 
carefully 117 examples which are now before me, I have been forced 
to the conclusion that they are all of them specifically identical, and 



144 cossoniDjE. 

that a certain inconstancy in bulk, contour, and sculpture is the 
utmost that can safely be inferred. 

It is but very seldom that the brightly senescent hue of the 
C. semijiolitns becomes (as in so many of the Acanthomeri) darker, 
or of a somewhat metallic black ; but its curious surface (which has 
already been alluded to) is perhaps on the whole a little less opake, 
yet at the same time in parts less brilliant, than in the C. apionides. 
In size, however, it is very much larger and more elongated than in 
that insect, — its prothorax being proportionally more developed 
{sometimes very conspicuously so), and its elytra (which are more 
uneven and transversely wrinkled) less shortened and more regu- 
larhj elliptical ; its rostrum is relatively longer, and less widened in 
the males (in which sex it is opake and coarsely punctured) at the 
insertion of the antennae, whilst in the female there is no appearance 
whatever of any dilatation at all (the rostrum being merely a little 
gradually narrowed, as in the C. oblongior, from the apex to the 
base) ; and its metasternum is much less abbreviated. 



Genus 56. LAMPROCHRUS. 

Wollaston, Trans. Ent. Soe. Land. 450 et 520 (1873). 

Corpus magnum, fusiforme, in elytris distinete (tamen minute) 
pubescens, nitidum ; rostro (praesertim in $ ) elongato, gracili, 
lineari, in S paulo robustiore et breviore necnon ante medium 
(ad antennarum insertionem) conspicue et elongate dilatato- 
ampliato ; oculis subprominulis ; scrohe longe ante oculos oblique 
ducta ; prothorace breviter subovali, antice vix constricto ; scuteUo 
obsolete ; elytris elongato-fusiformibus basi truneatis, postice 
dense granulato-asperatis ; metasterno brevi ; abdominis segm"* 
1™° et 2"^" inter se arctissime connatis (lined valde indistincta 
divisis) et, una cum metasterno, longitudinaliter concavis. An- 
tennae elongatae, graciles, in $ ante medium sed in S paulo 
magis versus apicem rostri insertae ; scapo elongato, gracili ; funiculo 
5-articulato, gracili, laxo, art" 2^° valde elongato (quam primus 
multo longiore) ; capitido magno, oblongo. Pedes longissimi, antici 
fere contigui, intermedii paululum magis distantes, atque etiam 
postici baud late remoti ; tarsis longissimis, art" 1"° elongato, 
3''° lato et valde distinete profundeque bilobo, ult"° longissimo. 

The magnificent Cossonid for which I proposed the present genus, 
in 1873, is altogether one of the largest and finest members of the 
family with which I am acquainted, — not merely in St. Helena but 
elsewhere ; and although evidently akin to Chalcotrogus and the 



COSSONID^. 145 

aberrant Acantliomeri, there cannot be a doubt that it well deserves 
(indeed positively requires) generic separation. Apart from its 
somewhat gigantic stature (for an exponent of the Pentarthrideous 
section of the Cossonidce) and its brassy surface (which it possesses 
in common with so many of the immediately allied forms), it is at 
once remarkable for the structure of its rostrum (which in the 
females is extremely elongated, narrow, and filiform, but a little 
robuster and shorter in the males, and conspicuously widened before 
the middle at the insertion of the antennas), as well as for the 
unusual length of its limbs — the scape, the second joint of the 
funiculus, and the first and last ones of the feet being (as compared 
with what one observes in the allied genera) greatly elongated, — and 
for its conspicuously and deeply bilobed third tarsal articulation. 
As in Chalcotrogus, its anterior coxae are well-nigh contiguous ; and 
even the intermediate ones are but slightly separated ; its elytra 
(which, like the femora, are much roughened behind with asperated 
granules) are very decidedly sprinkled with a short cinereous 
pubescence ; and its antennae are (not merely long, but also) 
remarkably slender. 



125. Lamprochrus cossonoides, 

L. magnus, fusiformis, nigro-aeneus, nitidulus, in elytris conspicue 
sed breviter cinereo-pubescens ; rostro in $ longissimo, gracili, 
lineari, polito, minutissime punctulato, sed in d paulum robustiore, 
breviore, vix minus nitido evidentiusque punctulato, necnon ante 
medium (ad antenuarum insertionem) elongate ampliato ; capite 
dense punctulato ; prothorace dense (praesertim versus latera) et 
sat profunde punctate ; elytris elongato-ellipticis aut fusiformibus, 
convexis, profunde substriato-punctatis, interstitiis latis et 
distincte irregulariter punctatis, postice transversim rugatis et 
dense granulato-asperatis ; antennis tarsisque longissimis, ferru- 
gineis, illis gracilibus, funiculi art° 2^° longissimo, femoribus 
grosse granulato-asperatis, his art" 3''" valde conspicue et pro- 
funde bilobo. SubtHs in medio dense et grosse punctatus. 

Variat (rarius) colore piceo atque etiam subcyanescenti-nigro. 

Long. corp. lin. 2|-4. 

Microxylobius cossonoides, JVolI., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 403 (1871). 
Lamprochrus cossonoides, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. 653 (1873). 
Microxylobius cossonoides, Melliss, St. Hel. 151 (1875). 

Habitat in editioribus insulae (rarissime in regionibus intermediis), 
ad folia Astens gummiferi, Hk. f., praecipue adhaerens. Inter 
Commidendron robustum, DC, muito rarius occurrit. 



146 COSSONID.T.. 

By Mr. Melliss this beautiful Cossonicl was taken on the highest 
part of -the central ridge, in the vicinity of Diana's Peak ; and it 
was found sparingly by Mr. Gray in the same locality during the 
first month of our sojourn at St. Helena. Subsequently I met with 
a few examples of it myself in the identical spot (Avhere it was like- 
wise captured by the Rev. H. and Mr. P. Whitehead), as well as 
upon an Aster gummiferus at Cason's ; and I may add that, if no 
other Jiabltat for the species had been observed, the L. cossonoides 
would have ranked amongst the rarest of the aboriginal Coleoptera. 
Fortunately, however, I happened to detect it in the Aster-grove 
beyond West Lodge and overlooking Lufkins, and which (although 
so small) occupies one of the few accessible areas on the precipitous 
ijiner wall of the great Sandj'-Bay crater, where the native arborescent 
Gompositce (represented there, entirely, by the two rare Asters — the 
gummiferus and Burchellii) have not been entirely destroyed ; and 
by constant visits to that particular spot I secured a considerable 
number of examples. In very few instances, however, could I 
obtain them from within the old trunks and sticks (the principal 
resort of the Cossonids), nearly the whole of my specimens having 
been beaten off the foliage into my sweeping-net. This is a 
peculiarity on which I would lay considerable stress ; and it is one 
which is all the more remarkable on account of the tearing wind 
which scarcely ever ceases to play (in consequence of the south-east 
trades) against those marvellously exposed slopes. So boisterous 
indeed was the breeze, on nearly every occasion when we succeeded 
in reaching that remote little copse, that it was with difiiculty that 
I could even open my net ; and yet, in spite of constant driving mist 
and every possible disadvantage, I never once failed to brush the L. 
cossonoides (sometimes eight or nine of it at a single beat) from 
the sticky leaves of the asters. But this modi(s vivendi is clearly its 
normal one, the unusually expanded third joint of its unusually 
elongated feet (as compared with the adjacent forms) giving it, in 
conjunction with the viscous foliage of the shrubs, a manifest power 
of adhesion, in the teeth of the most boisterous gales, which is 
neither possessed nor required by the species (even in the selfsame 
locality) which lie concealed within masses of rotting wood. 

Although so eminently attached to the Aster gummiferus (and the 
well-nigh extinct A. Burchellii), I nevertheless met with a single 
example of the L. cossonoides on the foliage of one of the true gum- 
woods {Commidendron rohustum, DC.) between Peak Dale and 



COSSONIDv^i. 147 

Lufkins, at a much lower elevation than the Aster-grove to which I 
have just called attention, but at the same time almost immediately 
beneath it ; and it is not impossible, therefore, that it may have been 
a chance one which had been conveyed accidentally from the (more 
or less) ^s<(?/--covered cliffs above. A.t any rate I did not obtain the 
species amongst any other genuine gumwoods, and I do not think 
that it belongs properly to the real gum wood fauna. As for the few 
individuals on the extreme summit of the high central ridge, I 
suspect that it must have been from an Aster gummiferus that they 
were brushed off, though I do not remember to have observed that 
shrub in the neighbourhood of Diana's Peak ; for I possess no 
evidence that the species is attached in any way to the cabbage- 
trees. 

Genus 57. XESTOPHASIS (nov. gen.). 

Corpus magnum, fusiforme, calvum, politum ; rostra longiusculo, 
robusto, ad basin subconstricto aut strangulato, dein supra alte 
gibboso, dein (usque ad apicem) subito et valde decurvo, in J ad 
antennarum insertionem (i. e. in medio) facile sed conspicuo 
incrassato, ad basin (in utroque sexu) lougitudinaliter obtriaugu- 
lariter excavato ; oculis parvis sed prominulis : scrobe valde pro- 
funda et argutissime determinata, angusta, longissima, sc. ab 
ajpice rostri ipso usque ad basin sub oculos curvate ducta ; 
prothorace ovali-subconico, antice leviter constricto ; scutello 
obsolete ; elytris elongato-fusiformibus, a3qualibus : metasterno 
mediocri ; abdominis segm"* 1™° et 2*^° inter se arctissime connatis 
(linea valde indistincta divisis). Antennce graciles, in c? in 
medio sed in $ mox pone medium rostri (et scrobis) insertae ; 
funiculo 5-articulato, laxo, art" 2'^° prime paululum longiore. 
Pedes subgraciles, antici panim, intermedii paululum magis, atque 
etiam ^os^ici baud latissime distantes ; tarsis art" 3"" sat minute 
sed distincte bilobo. 

A ^eiTTus, calvus, et (pricris, facies. 

Considering the very great similarity of their robust and anoma- 
lously formed rostra (which are somewhat narrowed, or strangulated, 
at the base, then much raised, or gibbose, to about the middle, from 
which point to the apex they are suddenly and most unusually 
deflected, while in the centre behind they are ohtriangularly branded 
or scooped out), I had at first imagined that the two curious insects 
for which the present genus and the following one are established 
might prove to be widely differing members of a single group. 
And even now indeed I cannot but feel that this is possible ; though 
a close examination has revealed so many discrepancies, which are 

l2 



1J8 COSSONID^. 

more or less structural, that I think it safer to treat them as expo- 
nents of independent but nearly allied assemblages, of which we 
may expect that others will yet occur. In their small but rather 
prominent eyes they are also on much the same pattern inter se, as 
well as in the proportions of their funiculus-joints ; nevertheless 
prima facie they are almost totally dissimilar, — Xestophasis having 
the body fusiform, bald, shining, and brassy, with the elytra even., 
the metasternum moderately elongated, and the third articulation of 
the feet decidedly bilobed ; whereas in Tapiromimus the body is 
large and oblong, conspicuously setose, opake, and nearly black (it 
being entirely unmetallic), with the metasternum short, and the 
third tarsal joint comparatively simple. Moreover, even as regards 
the rostrum (which embodies their main point of resemblance), the 
two species are by no means similar ; for whilst in Tapiromimus 
(unless indeed I am much mistaken) it is nearly alike in both sexes 
(it being robust but only very obsoletely widened mesially), in 
Xestoj)Jiasis, on the other hand, it is in the females equally simple 
(although longer, narrower, and less curved), but mesially-thickened 
to a most remarkable extent (in addition to being shorter) in the 
males. And, besides all this, the implantation of the antennae con- 
stitutes another item of divergence ; for while in Tapiromhmis they 
are ante-median (I believe) in both sexes, in XestopJiasis they are 
median in the males and ^os^-median in the females. And the 
scrobs, which in Xestophasis is narrow and groove-like, and most 
anomalously carried from the extreme apex of the rostrum to the 
extreme base (below the eye), the antennae being inserted in the 
middle of it and behind the middle, resjjectively, in Tapiromimus 
commences at some distance from the tiji and extends backwards 
(to below the eye) as a broad and open channel *. 

* Expressed concisely, the main distiuctive features which separate these two 

genera may be recorded thus : — 

Corpus calvum, politum, aeneum ; rostro in S in medio conspicue incrassato, in 
5 lougiore graciliore minus arcuato et fere simplici ; scrobe angusta, longia- 
sima, sc. ah a-pice rostri ipso usque ad (sed infra) oculos curvate ducta ; 
elyfris fusiformibus, sequahbus ; metasterno mediocri. AntenncB in S in 
medio, sed in 5 mox pone medium rostri (et scrobis) inserts. Pedes subgra- 
ciles ; ;;arsor2<m art" 3*'" auguste sed distincte bilobo Xestophasis. 

Corpus magnum, pubescens, opacum, niger ; rostro in utroque sexu quasi 
arcuatim distorto, tamen subsimili ; scrobe ab iiltra med'mm rostri usque ad 
(sed infra) oculos latissime curvate ducta ; elytris oblongis basi late subsinuato- 
truncatis, utrinque pone medium ohsoletissime subnoduloso-insequalibus ; 
metasfcrno brevi. Antenna in utroque sexu ante medium rostri insertffi. 
Pedes crassi; farsorum art" 3"° minutius ac minus evidenter bilobo (sc. 
fere simplici) Tapiromimus. 



COSSOxNID.t:. 149 



126. Xestophasis nasaUs, n, sp. 

X. elongato-fusiformis, angustula, nigro-senea, nitida, calva ; rostro 
robusto, ad basin substrangulato, supra in medio (praesertim 
in c? ) gibboso, dein usque ad apicem valde arcuato-deflexo, in $ 
longissimo arcuato-sublineari aut pone medium obsoletissime cras- 
siore minute punctulato, in J paulo breviore et multo crassiore 
(sc. gradatim pone medium valde incrassato) necnon rugosius 
punctato, in utroque sexu (sed prsesertim in cJ ) ad basin elongate 
obtriangulariter impresso aut exciso ; oculis subprominulis ; pro- 
thorace ovali-subconico, antice leviter constricto, grosse, profunde, 
et parum dense punctato ; elytris elougato-fusiformibus, grosse 
substriato-punctatis, interstitiis distincte subseriatim punctatis ; 
antennis pedibusque subgracilibus, ilHs tarsisque ferrugineis, 
funiculi art" 2"^" paululum longiore quam prime, tarsorum art" 3*'° 
anguste sed distincte bilobo. Suhtus in medio grosse sed vix den- 
sissime punctata. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-3|. 

Habitat ad folia, necnon in ligno anti(juo Commidendri robusti, DC. 
(anglice " Gumwood ") ; ut mihi videtur, rarissima. 

This singular Cossonid, so remarkable for the structure of its 
basally strangulate, superiorly gibbose, and anteriorly decurved ros- 
trum (which is comparatively long and narrow in the females, but 
mesiaUy thickened in the males to an extraordinary extent, and 
which has the antennae median in the latter sex, but j?osi-median in 
the former) is one of the rarest, so far as my experience is con- 
cerned, of aU the St. -Helena Coleoi^tera. It appears to be attached 
to the Commidendron robustum, DC, or gumwood, — amongst the 
old trees of which I have taken it sparingly in Thompson's Wood 
(where it was also met "with by Mrs. Wollaston), as well as in Peak 
Gut. 



Genus 58. TAPIROMIMUS (nov. gen.). 

Corpus magnum, fusiformi-oblongum, setulosum, opacum ; rostro 
(et cset.) fere ut in genere pra3cedente, sc. quasi distorto, tamen in 
utroque sexu (nisi fallor) subsimili (nee in J in medio distincte 
incrassato) ; scrobe breviore, postice latiore, tamen valde profunda, 
sc. ab idtra medium rostri usque ad (sed infra) oculos gradatim 
latiore ducta ; elytris suboblongis (nee fusiformibus) basi late sub- 
sinuato-truncatis, utrinque pone medium obsoletissime subnodu- 
loso-inaequalibus ; metasterno breviore. Antennce in utroque sexu 
(nisi faUor) ante medium (ncc in cT in medio, et in $ pone 



150 COSSONID^. 

medium) rostri insertae. Pecks crassi (nee subgraciles) ; tarsorum 
art" 3"" minutius ac minus evideuter bilobo. 

A Tapirus, et jjuixos, imitator. 

The large size of this curious insect (for a member of the Pentar- 
thrideous section of the Cossonida3), added to its opake setose surface 
and most extraordinary rostnim, would of themselves suffice for 
recognizing it. The short bristles with which it is everywhere 
studded (even on the very rostrum) become extremely fulvescent, or 
well-nigh golden, on the elytra, — where they are longitudinally 
disposed down the interstices, and gradually longer (as well as more 
erect) behind ; and its entire surface, which is often much coated 
with dirt, is either of a dull black or else somewhat picescent. Its 
elytra, on either side behind the middle, have a very faint tendency 
to inequalities or nodules, — which perhaps, however, is more appa- 
rent than real, from the fact of the setse being more conspicuous in 
those particular parts. 

127. Tapiromimus gibbirostris, n. sp. 

T. magnus, fusiformi-oblongus, niger aut piceo-niger, opacus, bre- 
viter fulvo-setosus ; rostro robusto, ad basin substrangulato, supra 
pone medium alte gibboso, dein usque ad apicem valde arcuato- 
deflexo, in utroque sexu (nisi fallor) fere simili, sc. arcuato-sub- 
lineari aut in medio obsolete subcrassiore, minutissime punctulato, 
ad basin elongate obtriangulariter impresso aut excise ; oculis 
prominentibus ; capite utrinque ad latera (fere subtus) dense 
asperato-punctato ; prothorace oblongo-ovali, autice vix constricto, 
leviter, parce, et inaequaliter punctate ; elytris oblongis basi late 
subsinuato-truncatis, leviter punctato-striatis, interstitiis latis, 
obsolete transversim rugatis ac minutissime subseriatim punctu- 
latis longitudinaliterque fulvo-setosis (setis postice gradatim longi- 
oribus), utrinque pone medium obsolctissime subnoduloso-inaequa- 
libus ; antennis tursisque ferrugineis, funiculi art" 2^" primo 
paululum longiore ; pedibus crassis, tarsorum art" 3''° minutius ac 
minus evideuter bilobo. Subtus in medio grossissime sed baud 
valde profunde punctatus. 

Long, Corp. lin. 3|-4^. 

Hahitat in ligno antique emortuo marcido Compositarum arbores- 
centium, in locis valde elevatis humidis ; rarissimus. 

This is one of the rarest of the Cossonids which have hitherto 
been found at St. Helena, — seven examples being all that I could 
obtain during our six months' sojourn in the island. They were 



COSSOMDvE. 151 

found on the high central ridge, in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Actaeon and Diana's Peak ; and as they were more or less in connexion 
with the damp decayed wood of the old cabbage-trees, the species in 
all probability belongs to the aboriginal cabbage-tree fauna. 

Genus 59. TYCHIORHINUS (uov. gen.). 

Corpus oblongum aut ovale, pubescens, opacum ; rostro longiusculo, 
gracili, vel omnino lineari vel postice gradatim obsolete sublatiore ; 
oculis vel parvis vel minutissimis ; scrohe infra oculos profunde 
ducta ; protliorace scepius subquadrato-ovali, autice vix constricto ; 
scutello obsoleto ; elytris vel oblongis vel ovalibus, basi plus minus 
emarginato- (rarius recte) truncatis, hinc inde (sed prffisertim 
utrinque pone medium) plus minus noduloso- aut costulato- 
iuaequalibus ; metasterao brevi : abdominis segm*'' 1"° et 2'^" inter 
se arctissime connatis (rarius distincte separati^i), linea valde 
indistinctci (rarius distincta) divisis. Antenncp ante medium rostri 
insertse ; funicalo 5-articulato, art*^ 1™° et 2^° longitudine subsequa- 
libus. Pedes antiei fere contigui, intermedii paululum magis, atque 
etiam jpostici hand latissime distantes ; tarsis brevibus, art" 3"° 
minute bilobo. 

A Tychius, et pi r, nasns. [Typus : Tiicliiorhinus por rectus.'] 

The five Cossonids for which I have proposed the present genus 
are rather small in stature, coarsely pubescent (but not very thickly 
so), and with their surface opake and more or less deeply sculptured 
and uneven, — the elytra having a tendency for obscure costiform 
nodules, occasioned by the greater or less breaking-up of the raised 
alternate interstices. Their rostinim is rather long and slender 
(sometimes gradually a tr^e widened behind) ; their eyes are minute 
(in one species extremely so) ; their first and second funiculus-joints 
are not much produced, and pretty nearly of equal length; and 
their feet are short, with the third articulation rather indistinctly 
bilobed. In one of the exponents (the T. variohsus) the first two 
segments of the abdomen are divided by a conspicuous line of sepa- 
ration (which is very unusual amongst these immediate Cossonideous 
forms) ; but in the others they are closely soldered together. The 
whole five species are peculiar to the high central ridge, and appear 
to be attached normally to the damp rotting wood of the old cabbage- 
trees. 

A. abdominis segm*" 1'"""' et 2''""' lined distincta divisa. 
variolosus. 
AA. abdominis segm*" l*"""* et 2'^"'" arctissime connata. 
a. scapus longiusciilus, faci/e cluvafns. 



152 COSSONIDiE. 

^. elytra inter stitio later ali valde costato, ad humeros valde por recto. 
porrectus. 
li^. elytra ubiqtie suhnoduloso-incequalia, ad humeros paidum porrecta. 
inaequalis, 
subocliraxjeus. 
aa. scapus breviitsculus, suhito clavatus. 
lineatus. 

128. TycMorhinus variolosus, n. sp. 

T. angusto-elongatus, parallelo-oblongus, opacus, niger, parce sed 
grosse (praDsertim in elytris) fiilvo-pubescens ; rostro longiiisculo, 
subgracili, postice gradatim obsolete latiore, rugose (saltern postice) 
pimctato, ocidis miuutissimis ; prothorace angustule subquadrato- 
ovali, ina^qiiali, dense et grossissime varioloso-punctato (punctis 
maximis, subconfluentibus) ; elytris elongate subparallelis, ante 
apicem obsolete sublatioribus, profunde et grossissime striato- 
variolosis aut -punctatis (punctis maximis), interstitiis alternis 
(praesertim sublaterali et prsesertim postice) elevatis, pone medium 
nodulos costiformes subetficientibus • aiitennis pedibusque piceis. 
Subtus in medio parce sed grossissime yarioloso-punctatus, abdo- 
minis segm"^ 1"° et 2*^° linea distincta divisis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^2. 

Habitat sub ligno ramulisque Compositarum arborescentium antiquis 
marcidis, in regionibus valde elevatis humidis juxta Diana's 
Peak ; parcissime deprehensus. 

The only examples which I have seen of this small and "well- 
marked Cossonid are five which were taken by myself on the high 
central ridge, in the neighbourhood of Actseon and Diana's Peak, — 
partly from amongst the damp decaying wood of the cabbage-trees, 
and partly by sifting the broken-up sticks' which were lying loosely 
beneath them ; and I think there can be no question that the species 
belongs essentially to the cabbage-tree fauna. Moreover there is 
but little doubt that it is of the greatest rarity ; thoixgh I suspect 
that the si f ting method of collecting would be more likely than any 
other to bring fresh material to light. 

The T. variolosus is at once remarkable for its narrow and almost 
parallel outline (it being merely a vert/ little widened midway 
between the middle and the apex of the elytra), and for its black 
and opake surface being most coarsely and deeply sculptured with 
enormous punctures or varioles. Its rostrum, although narrowish^ 
is gradually just appreciably thickened behind ; its eyes are extremely 
minute ; its elytra (on which the pubescence is distinct andyellowish, 
although sparing, and which arc more straightly truncated in front 



COSSONID^. • 153 

than in the other species) are rather more suhcostulate on either side 
than nodulose, — the sublateral interstice being more elevated than 
the remainder ; and the first and second segments of its abdomen 
are very unusually divided by a conspicuous transverse line. 



129. TycMorhinus porrectus, n. sp. 

T. oblongus, fere opacus, ferrugineus, parce et brevissime cinereo- 
pubescens ; rostro (praesertim in $ ) elongate, gracOi, lineari, 
minute (in c? distinctius) punctate, oculis minutis ; prothorace 
quadrato-ovali, densissime et grosse rugoso-punctato (punctis 
subconfluentibus) ; elytris parallelo-oblongis, profunde et dense 
striato-punctatis, interstitiis transversim rugatis, laterali valde 
elevate, humeros conspicue porrectos costamque exstantem late- 
ralem subapicalem efiiciente, utriuque intra humeros subconcavis ; 
antennis pedibusque (crassis) concoloribus. Subtus in medio 
grosse, dense, et confuse punctatus. 

Long. corp. lin. 2-2^. 

Habitat in editioribus, rarissimus ; ad Cason's intra lignum Comjpo- 
sitarum arborescentium antiquum, necnon etiam sub truncis 
Pinorian, lectus. 

Like the other members of this genus, the present one is confined 
apparently to the central ridge ; but, so far as my own experience 
is concerned, it descends a trifle lower than the T. variolosus and 
lineatus, — the whole of my examples (only eleven, however, in 
number) having been taken by myself at Cason's. Although 
without doubt attached normally to the cabbage-trees (from within 
the loose rotting masses of which some of my individuals were 
obtained), it would appear nevertheless, like so many of the 
Cossonids in that particular locality, to have adapted itself to the 
pines, — beneath the old fallen trunks of which the majority of my 
specimens were captured. 

The T. porrectus is easily recognized by its pale, ferruginous hue, 
and its straightened (though by no means particularly narrow) 
elytra, — which have the shoulders greatly porrected. This latter 
fact is due to the lateral interstice being unusually raised and con- 
tinuous (for it shapes -out likewise a very prominent lateral costa 
towards the apex), — the general surface of the elytra, although 
transversely rugate, being hardly at all nodulose. It rostrum is 
very slender and elongate (especially in the females) ; and the eyes, 
although small, are not quite so minute as in the T. variolosus. 



154 • COSSONlDiE. 

130, Tychiorhinus inaequalis, n. sp. 

T. subquadrato-oblongus, opacus, niger, paree sed distincte griseo- 
pubescens ; rostro (praesertim in $ ) elongate, gracili, lineari, 
rugose (in S etiam rugosius) punctato, oculis parvis ; prothorace 
quadrato-ovali, iutBquali, densissime et grosse rugoso-punctato 
(punctis subconfluentibus) ; elytris latiuscule subovato-qiiadratis, 
profunde tubercnlato- (vix punctate-) striatis, interstitiis (prae- 
sertim alternis) elevatis, interruptis, nodulos elongates plus minus 
efficientibus, ad humeros (tamen minus quam in specie prtecedente) 
porrectis ; antennis tarsisque rufo-piceis, pedib\is crassis. Subtas 
in medio grosse, dense, et confuse puuctatus. 

Long. corp. lin. 2-2g. 

Habitat ad lignum antiquum Compositaram arborescentium, in 
editioribus insulae ; rarissimus. 

This species is slightly broader than the T. porrectus, and it is 
therefore perhaps (on the average) somewhat the largest of the 
TychiorMai which have hitherto been brought to light. It is also 
abundantly distinct from the porrectxis in being black instead of 
ferruginous, and in having its elytra (which are more coarsely 
clothed with a sparing griseous pubescence) a Kttle less straiglitened 
at the sides, and more or less roughened with elongated nodules, — • 
and, therefore, more uneven. The prothorax, as in the T. porrectus, 
is rather large and oval-quadrate. 

Although of extreme rarity, I have nevertheless taken the T. 
incequalis in widely distant parts of the great central ridge (to which 
it seems to be peculiar), — namely amongst the sticks and wood of 
the old cabbage-trees about Diana's Peak and Actseon, as well as 
(under similar circumstances) at Cason's, and at the edge of the pre- 
cipice, or crater-wall, immediately above West Lodge. 



131. Tychiorhinus subochraceus, n. sp. 

T. ovali-oblongus aut subellipticus, fere opacus, piceus aut piceo- 
niger et obsolete subaeneo-tinctus, distincte subcinereo-pubescens ; 
rostro longiusculo, gracili, liueari, minute punetulato, oculis 
minutis; prothorace quadrato-ovali sed postice conspicue an- 
gustiore, insequali (sc. in disco profunde canaliculate, et utrinque 
fovea rotundata impresso), dense sed baud valde profunde subcen- 
fuse punctato ; elytris subovalibus basi subemarginato-truncatis, 
profunde punctato-striatis (punctis grossis, rarius obsoletis), inter- 
stitiis elevatis interruptis, nodulos elongates costiformes plus minus 



COSSONIDiE. 155 

efficientibus ; antennis rufo-piceis ; pedibiis piceo-testaceis. Saltus 

in medio grosse, dense, et confuse punctatus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1|-1|. 
Habitat in locis similibus ac proecedens ; sed paulo magis frequens. 

The present species is altogetlier a little smaller and more oval 
than the last one ; its prothorax (which is deeply channelled down 
the centre and has a rounded impression on either side of the disk) 
is conspicuously narrowed behind, as well as (Kke the rostrum) less 
coarsely punctured ; its legs are very much paler ; and its entire 
surface is less black, — being more or less of a brownish piceous, and 
with a faint ochreous tinge. 

Although scarce, the T. subocliraceiis is, next to the lineatus, the 
commonest of the Tycliiorhini which have hitherto been detected. 
It is emphatically a native of the loftiest altitudes ; for although I 
obtained a single example of it at Cason's (where the central ridge 
is somewhat less elevated than it is in certain other parts), the 
remainder of my specimens (37 in number) were captured either 
about Diana's Peak and Actseon, or else towards the summit of High 
Peak. There can be no question that it belongs to the aboriginal 
cabbage-tree fauna. 

132. TychiorMnus lineatus, n. sp. 

T. ovalis (aut fere subovatus), opacus, fusco-piceus, minute et par- 
cissune fulvo-pubescens ; rostro longiusculo, gracUi, lineari, minu- 
tissime punctulato, et fere ferrugineo, oculis minutis ; prothorace 
breviter quadrato-ovali sed postice sensim angustiore, aequali, fere 
impunctato ; elytris ovalibus basi subemarginato-truucatis, fere 
esculpturatis sed Hneis 4 angustissimis fulvo-pubescentibus (inter- 
dum fractis, rarius obsoletis) ornatis ; antennis piceo-ferrugineis, 
scapo breviusculo et abruj)te clavato ; pedibus piceo-testaceis. 
Subtus in medio minutissime, levissime, et parce punctatus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-l-g-. 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis ; sub cortice laxo emortuo Com- 
positarum arborescentium prsecipue latens. 

Although I have regarded this insect as a Tychiorhinus (on account, 
mainly, of its slender rostrum, minute eyes, and general appearance), 
it nevertheless belongs to a slightly different type from the four 
preceding species, — characterized by its more ovate outline, its well- 
nigh unscidptured and even surface, and by the fact of its scape being 
a little shorter and more suddenly clavate. In colour it is of a more 



156 • COSSONlDiE. 

or less pieeous brown, or even brownish ferruginous ; its prothorax 
and elytra (as just mentioned) are practically unpunctured and free 
from inequalities (the elytra being merely ornamented with fouf ex- 
tremely narrow, thread-like, occasionally broken-up, fulvo-pubescent 
lines) ; and its legs are nearly testaceous. 

The T. lineatus is excessively common beneath the loose and dead 
fibre-like bark, as well as under damp masses of the rotting wood, 
of the old cabbage-trees, on the highest portion of the central ridge, 
about Actaeon and Diana's Peak ; but I did not meet with it in any 
other locality. 

Genus 60. CRYPTOMMATA (nov. gen.). 

Corpvs elongate ovato-fusiforme, minute et parcissime pubescens, 
opacum ; I'ostro elongato, gracillimo, linear! sed in S ad anten- 
narum insertion em paulo ampliato ; oculis (in rostro ipso conspi- 
cuo sitis) minutis ; scrohe infra oculos subsinuate ducta ; capite 
parte prothoraeis antica omnino abscondito ; protlwrace valde 
elongato, subovali, antice obtuse producto, cucullum efficiente ; 
scutello obsoleto ; ehftris elongato-ovatis basi recte t-runcatis et 
filo-marginatis, ubique leviter et subregulariter subnoduloso- aut 
costulato-insequalibus ; metasterno brevissimo ; abdominis segm"' 
1"° et 2^° arctissime connatis (linea valde indistincta divisis). 
Antennce in c? ante medium sed in 2 magis versus apicem rostri 
insertse ; funiculo 5-articulato, laxo, art" 2^" conspicue longiore 
quam primo. Pedes breves (praesertim postici) et crassi, antici con- 
tigui, intermedii paululum distantes, postici parum separati ; tarsis 
brevibus, crassis, art° 3"" distincte bilobo. 

A K{)V!TTos, occultus, et ofxpa, oculus. 

The most curious insect from which I have drawn out the above 
generic diagnosis is one of the rarest of the St.-Helena Cossonids, 
three examples only (a male and two females) being all that I have 
yet seen. In its slender, filiform rostrum and minute eyes (which, 
however, are placed more than usually upon the rostrum itself) it 
has perhaps more in common with Tychiorliinus than with any 
thing else ; nevertheless it is totally dissimilar to the members of 
that group in its anteriorly much-produced prothorax, which com- 
pletely conceals the head (and almost the eyes), — forming a kind of 
obtusely rounded hood. This structure is exceedingly rare in the 
Cossonidce, the members of which nearly always have the head 
partially exposed and visible from above ; and it further recedes 
from Tychiorhinus in the more elongated second joint of its funi- 



COSSONID^. 157 

cuius, in the more bilobed third one of its feet, in its perfectly 
contiguous fore coxae, and in its rostrum (which, when the insect is 
in a state of repose, is much deflected, or bent downwards) being in 
the male sex appreciably widened, as in Chalcotrogns, at the insertion 
of the antennae. 

133. Cryptommata cucullata, n, sp. 

C elongate ovato-fusiformis, opaca, nigra, minutissime et parcissime 
cinereo-pubescens ; rostro elongate, gracillimo, in $ lineari sed in 
6 ad antennarum insertionem sensim incrassato, densissime 
rugoseque asperato-punctulato, oculis minutis ; prothorace magno, 
longissimo tamen subregulai-iter ovali (sc. antice obtuse producto, 
quasi cucullum efficiente, capita omnino tegente), ad latera gros- 
sissime et confuse corrugato-rugoso, in medio tenuiter carinulato 
et punctulis levissimis parce irrorato ; elytris ovalibus, convexis, 
late sed vix profunde striatis, interstitiis obtuse elevatis, inter- 
ruptis, nodulos elougatos aut costas breves efficientibus ; pedibus 
crassis, piceis, tarsis antennisque piceo-ferrugineis. Subtus pone 
medium dense, grosse, et confuse punctata. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 2|. 

Habitat in elevatis insulae, rarissima ; inter ramulos emortuos fractos 
(Asteris gummiferi, Hk, f. '?) in praeruptis supra West Lodge, 
Februario ineunte, reperta. 

I have already called attention to some of the more structural 
peculiarities of this remarkable Cossonid ; and 1 will merely there- 
fore add, that its deep-black hue and perfectly opake, almost 
unpunctured surface (which beneath a high magnifying-power will 
be seen to be very sparingly studded with a minute cinereous pubes- 
cence, and which on the elytra is somewhat longitudinally disposed), 
in conjunction with its anteriorly-produced, elongate-oval prothorax 
(the sides of which are coarsely wrinkled or corrugated), its densely 
and minutely roughened rostrum, and the fact of its elytral inter- 
stices being broken-up into but slightly raised elongated nodules, or 
abbreviated ridges, will serve still further to distinguish it. 

My three examples of the C. cucullata were captured by myself, 
after the early summer rains, about the beginning of February, 
amongst dead and broken-up sticks (1 believe of the Aster gummi- 
ferus, Hk. f.), at the extreme edge of the great precipice, or crater- 
wall, immediately above West Lodge. It is not unlikely, therefore, 
that they may represent one of the nearly extinct members of the 
now rapidly disappearing Aster fauna. 



158 RHYNCHOPHORID^. — TANYRHYNCHID^. 



Fam. 26. RHYNCHOPHOPJD^. 

Genus 61. CALANDRA. 

Clairville, Ent. Hclv. i. Gi! (1798). 
134. Calaiidra oryzae. 

C. elliptica, depressa, piceo-nigra (interdum picea), opaca, iu elytris 
minute longitudinaliter cinereo-setulosa ; rostro gracili, linear! sed 
postice (ad antennarum insertionem) subito ampliato, minute et 
parce puuctulato ; prothorace elongate, triangular!, antice pro- 
funde coustricto, grosse et profunde punctato ; elytris ovalibus 
bas! late tnmcatis, postice abbreviatis, deusissime striato-punc- 
tatis, interstitiis angustis ac paulo elevatis, maculis duabus (sc. 
una humeral! et altera longe pone medium) rufo-testaceis, inter- 
dum obscuris, ornatis ; antennis pedibusque piceo-ferrugineis. 

Variat interdum colore omnino dilutiore, maculis suifusis. 

Long. Corp. lin. lg-2|. 

Curculio orvzae, Linn., Amoen. Acad. vi. 395 (1763). 
Sitopliilus oryzffi, Woll, Col. Atl. 265 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 125 (1867). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 153 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus granariisque insulse, nimis vulgaris. Etiam sub 
cortice arborum laxo emortuo in cultis interdum latet. 

The common biscuit-weevil, which is so destructive to various 
kinds of food and stores, and the range of which has become well- 
nigh cosmopolitan (at any rate in tropical and subtropical countries), 
is only too abundant in the houses of St. Helena (particularly in 
Jamestown), — as it is in the Cape-Yerde, Canarian, Madeiran, and 
Azorean archipelagos. At Plantation I have met with it occasio- 
nally even beneath the dry and loosened bark of trees ; but the 
species has, of course, no kind of connexion with, the true fauna of 
the island. 

Fam. 27. TANYEHYNCHIDiE. 

(Subfam. STNAPTONYCHIDES.) 

Genus 62. NESIOTES. 

Wollaston, Jotirn. of Ent. i. 211 (1861). 

Corpus vel ovatum vel elongato-ovatum, plus minus grosse squamoso- 
pubescens, saepius opacum sed interdum nitidiusculum ; rostro 
breviusculo, sublineari, sed postice interdum gradatim suban- 



TANYRHYNCHID^. 159 

gustiore et interdum sublatiore ; oc»Z/s distinctis (rai'ius minutis 
et valde proininentibus), in specie typica nitidis et oijinino egra- 
nulatis, sad in reliquis opacis et grosse graniilatis ; protliorace 
subovali, antice vix (rarius profunde) constricto ; scutello obsolete ; 
elytris aut ovatis aut elongato-ovatis, basi truncatis, vel teqiialibus 
vel obsoletissime subcostulato-inaequalibus ; metasterno brevius- 
culo ; abdominis segm"' 1"° et 2*^" arctissime connatis (linea indi- 
stincta divisis). Antennce ante, medium rostri insertse ; scapo aut 
calvo, aut intus plus minus evidenter barbato ; funiculo 5-articu- 
lato, gracili, laxo, art° 2'^° vel conspicue vol vix longiore quam tertio, 
3''", 4'° et 5*° parvis, rotundatis, moniliformibus. Pedes vel crassi 
et dense squamosi, vel graciliores ac minus squamosi ; unt'wi 
parum, intermedii multo magis, et j^ostid sat late distantes ; tarsis 
saepius breviusculis, art" 3''° plus minus distincte bilobo. 

[Tj'pus : Nesiotes squamosus.'] 

According to the late Professor Lacordaire, the affinities of this 
curious genus are with Echinosoma from Madeira, Synaptonyx from 
Australia, and the European Trachodes ; and the four genera were 
consequently erected by him into a little subfamily (under the 
title of Synaptony chides) of his sixteenth tribe " Tanyrhynchides.'' 
Although I was perfectly content, without further evidence, with 
this conclusion, the shrewdness of Lacordaire's remarks has never- 
theless, since, been unexpectedly corroborated by the discovery of 
additional exponents which approach far nearer (than the original 
type) to the singular Echiiwsoma porcellus of the Madeiran archi- 
pelago ; for it was only the N. squamosus that I was enabled to 
communicate to him for inspection ; and in that species the scape is 
altogether bald, the eyes are shining and egranulate, and the whole 
surface is unpunctured though densely clothed with a thick decum- 
bent squamiform pubescence. But now that other members have 
been brought to light, in addition to the iV. squamosus, some of the 
most remarkable features of Ecliinosoma have presented themselves ; 
for not only arc the eyes on the ordinary, opake, coarsely granulated 
pattern, and the body and legs thickly beset with erect bristles, but 
in at any rate two of the species (the N. barbatus and Jimbriatus) 
the entire contour is in complete accordance with that of their more 
northern analogue, and (which is the most important of all) the 
inner edge of their scape is conspicuously furnished with a cluster of 
long, incrassated setae. The extreme rarity of this character (last- 
mentioned) in the Rhjnchophora, added to its presence in Echino- 
soma and in at any rate a portion of Nesiotes, suggests (to my mind) 



160 TANYRHYNCHID^. 

a point of connexion which is perhaps more significant and con- 
clusive thaa any other ; though the rather lax and slender 5-jointed 
funiculus of the two genera is another item in which they approach 
each other most unmistakably. 

The exponents of this genus are peculiar to intermediate and lofty 
altitudes ; and the majoritj' of them are certainly attached to the 
dead wood of the old cabbage-trees. One, however (the N. simplex)^ 
may perhaps be attendant on the tree ferns ; and the smallest and 
most abundant species of the whole (namely the N. asperatus) was 
in all probability, like the N. Jimbriafns, a member of the gumwood 
fauna, which has adapted its mode of life to the altered circumstances 
of the times. The 10 species which have hitherto been brought to 
light mav be thus tabulated : — 



A. oniU nitidi, omnino egramdati. 

squamosus. 
AA. oculi opaci, grosse granulati. 

a. oculi minutissimi sed valde jwominentes ; scapus intus longe et conspicue 
barbatus. barbatus, 

fimbriatus. 
aa. oculi majores. scapus velfere vel 07nnino calvus. 
(3. funiculi art" 2^' conspicue longiorC quatn tertio. 
breviusculus, 
hon-idus, 
gracilis, 
minor. 
/33, funiculi art* 2^ paultdum longiore quatn tertio. 
simplex, 
asperatus, 
asceudens. 



135. Nesiotes squamosus. (Fig. 7.) 

N. ovatus, nigro-piceus, opacus, alutaceus (sed baud aliter sculptu- 
ratus), squamis crassis demissis cinereo-fulvis (in femoribus tibiis- 
que densissime) vestitus ; rostro (postice gradatim paululum 
angustiore) interdum fere calvo, nitido, et minutissime parce 
punctulato, ocialis nitidis, omnino egranulatis ; prothorace con- 
vexo, postice gradatim angustiore ; elytris breviter ovatis basi 
truncatis, convexis, ventricosis : antennis tarsisque calvis, rufo- 
ferrugineis ; funiculi art° 2^° multo longiore quam tertio. 

Long. corp. lin. lj-l|. 

Nesiotes squamosus, Woll., I. c. 212, pi. 14. f. .3 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 41.3 (1869). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 154 (1875). 



TANYRHYNCHIDiE. 161 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis, lignum Compositarum arboreacentium 
emortuum antiquum destruens. 

Up to the date of our arrival at St. Helena, the only examples 
which I had seen of this singular little Curculionid were two which 
had been taken by the late Mr. Bewicke, during a day's collecting 
on the central ridge, in 1860 ; and it was on the evidence thus sup- 
plied that I enunciated the genus Nesiotes in 1861. It is an insect 
which is by no means common, though at the same time widely 
distributed over the highest altitudes, — it being evidently attached 
to the' dead wood of the old cabbage-trees. I have met with it on 
the ascent and extreme summit of Diana's Peak and Actseon, par- 
ticularly around the base of the latter, as well as beneath the loose 
fibrous bark of the various cabbage-trees along Stitch's Ridge ; and 
I also obtained it, though less abundantly, on High Peak. 

The shortly ovate, ventricose outline of the N. squamosus, added 
to its opake and simply alutaceous surface (which is free from sculp- 
ture, though densely clothed with a coarse decumbent fulvescent 
squamiform pubescence, which also thickly covers the femora and 
tibise, giving them a very incrassated appearance), would of them- 
selves sufiice to characterize it. In the fact, however, of its eyes 
being shilling and totally ungranulated it possesses an additional 
feature which completely separates it from every other member of 
the group which has hitherto been detected. 



136. Nesiotes barbatus, n. sp. 

N. ovatus, piceus, opacus, alutaceus sed vix aliter sculpturatus (sc. 
solum in elytris parce seriatim subasperato-punctulatus), squamis 
crassis, elongatis, plus minus curvatis et erectis, nigrescentibus (in 
femoribus tibiisque densissime ) vestitus ; rostro (postice gradatim 
paululum latiore) latiusculo ; oculis minutissimis sed prominenti- 
bus : j)rothorace postice angustiore, antice profuude constricto ; 
elytris breviter rotundato-ovatis basi truncatis, convexis, ventri- 
cosis : antennis pedibusque (prsBsertim femoribus et tibiis) brevi- 
bus, illis tarsisque calvis rufo-ferrugineis ; scapo intus ad apicem 
longe barbato ; funiculi art" 2^" paululum longiore quam tertio. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Habitat in elevatis insulae, rarissimus ; in praeruptis juxta High Peak 
parcissime lectus. 

The only three examples which I have yet seen of this very rare 
Nesiotes were taken by myself on a precipitous and barelv accessible 



162 TANYRHYXCHID.E. 

slope behind High Peak and overlooking Peak Gut ; and, in con- 
junction with the N.fimhriatus from Thompson's Wood, it possesses 
a peculiar interest through the fact of its scape being powerfully 
barbed towards the inner apex with a cluster of coarse, elongated, 
squamiform bristles. This latter character, which is only faintly 
traceable in some of the other members of the group (and which, 
indeed, in the N. squamosus and simplex appears to be altogether 
absent), is so conspicuous in the harhatus and fimhriatus that, when 
taken in connexion with their minute but very prominent eyes, the 
stronger and more erect setae of their entire surface, and their 
anteriorly much constricted prothorax, it is sufficient to place them 
in a diiferent section of the genus — the species of which make a 
more decided approach to the Ecldnosoma porcellus of Madeira than 
any of the remainder. 

In general contour the N. harhatus is shortly-ovate : and its sculp- 
ture is scarcely more than alataceous^ — in both of which respects it 
agrees a good deal with the squamosus ; nevertheless there are traces 
on the elytra (beneath the elongated, erect, and darkened setae) of a 
few longitudinally-disposed rows of small punctures ; its colour is 
rather piceous than black ; its legs (pai'ticularly the hinder pair, and 
particularly the tibiae) are abbreviated ; and its second funiculus- 
joint is but very little longer than the minute third one. 

137. Nesiotes fimhriatus, n. sp. 

N. praecedenti similis, sed multo angustior, oblongior (sc. subovato- 
oblongus, nee rotundato-ovatus), elytris longioribus, multo magia 
parallelis, minus convexis, et distinctius seriatim asperato-punc- 
tatis, tibiis paulo minus abbreviatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. If-lj. 

Habitat in intermediis insulie ; inter ramulos quisquiliasque juxta 
arbores antiquas Commidendri rohusti, DC, humi jacentes, ad 
Thompson's Wood, deprehensus. 

Thompson's Wood is the only spot in which I observed this well- 
marked Nesiotes ; and although the whole of my examples (22 in 
number) were obtained by shaking and sifting broken- up sticks and 
rubbish which were lying on the ground, nevertheless, since the 
majority of the trees in that particular locality are gumwoods, I 
have little doubt that the N. firnhriatus belongs in reality to the 
gum wood fauna. I have already stated that, in conjunction with 
the N. harhatus, it makes a nearer approach to the Ecldnosoma por- 



TANYRHVNCHID^. 163 

cellus of Madeira than the other members of the genus. However, 
it is not quite so much on the ^c7«nosom «-contour as that species 
(even while possessing the same development of thick incrassated 
setae on the inner edge of its scape, and the same anteriorly-con- 
stricted pro thorax) ; for it is considerably narrower and more oblong, 
— its elytra especially (which are more conspicuously marked with 
longitudinally-disposed asperated punctures) being very much more 
parallel and less convex (i. e. much less rounded and less ovate) ; and 
its tibiae, although short, are not quite so abnormally abbreviated. 



138. Nesiotes breviusculus, n. sp. 

N. elongato-ovatus, piceo-niger (interdum obsoletissime subaeneo tinc- 
tus), nitidulus, grosse sculpturatus squamisque crassis suberectis 
griseo-ciuereis plus minus dense vestitus ; rostro liueari, dense et 
rugose punctato ; oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace postice 
conspicue angustiore, antice latiusculo et vix constricto, profunde, 
grosse, densissime, et confuse punctato ; elytris ovatis basi trun- 
catis, nitidiusculis, profunde striate- punctatis; antennis tarsisque 
piceo-ferrugineis ; femoribus tibiisque piceis ac breviter, parcius, 
et minus conspicue squamosis ; scapo fere calvo (sc. Lntus versus 
apicem pilis perpaucis gracillimis indistinctis solum obsito) ; funi- 
culi art" 2'*'' distincte (tamen baud multo) longiore quam tertio. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-i— 1-|. 

Habitat in locis elevatis, late sed parcissime diffiisus. 

The present Nesiotes belongs neither to the Jimbriatus and bar- 
batus type, nor yet to that of the squamosus (in both of which the 
femora and tibiae are very densely squamose), — but emphatically to 
that which embraces the horndus and gracilis. It is a scarce species, 
so far as my own observations are concerned, but one which is 
nevertheless widely distributed along the whole central ridge, — my 
examples being from the vicinity of Diana's Peak, as well as from 
High Peak and above West Lodge ; and, unless it be in any way 
connected with the Aster gummiferus (or " Little Bastard Gum- 
wood "'), which is far from impossible, I think that we must regard 
it as a member of the great cabbage-tree fauna. 

Although much clothed, except on the limbs, with thick, erect, 
squamiform, griseous setae (which are very liable, however, to become 
a good deal abraded or destroyed), the N. breviusculus, like the 
horrichts and gracilis, has its surface bright instead of opake, and 
coarsely sculptured, — its rostrum (which is linear) being densely 

m2 



164 TANYRHVNCHIDili;. 

punctured, its prothorax most roughly and deeply so, and even its 
elytra being conspicuously striate-punctate. It has often an ex- 
tremely faint aenescent tinge ; its outline is relatively shorter and 
more ovate than that of the hon-idus ; its prothorax is widened in 
front and narrowed behind ; its eyes are large and rather prominent ; 
and the second joint of its funiculus, although unmistakably longer 
than the minute third one, is nevertheless but very slightly 
lengthened. Although its scape is free from the robust squamiform 
bristles which are so conspicuous in the N. fimhriatus and harhatus, 
the latter are nevertheless just represented by a few fine elongated 
hairs, which, although indistinct except when viewed in certain 
lights, are generally to be traced. 



139. Nesiotes horridus. 

N. elongato-ovatus, niger aut piceo-niger, nitidulus (saltern in 
elytris), grosse sculpturatus squamisque crassis suberectis griseo- 
oinereis et cinereis plus minus dense vestitus ; rostro lineari, 
dense et rugose punctato ; oculis magnis, prominentibus ; pro- 
thorace postice angustiore, antice vix constricto, profunde, grosse, 
et densissime punctato ; elytris elongato-ovatis basi truncatis, 
nitidioribus, profunde striato-punctatis ; antennis tarsisque piceo- 
i'errugiueis ; femoribus tibiisque longe oinereo-pilosis ; scapo fere 
calvo (sc. intus versus apicem pilis perpaucis gracillimis solum 
obsito) ; funiculi art" 2^° multo longiore quam tertio. 

Long. corp. lin. 2-3. 

Nesiotes horridus, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 40-i (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 154 (1875). 

Hahilat sub cortice Compositarum arborescent ium arido fibroso laxo, 
in locis valde elevatis praedominans. 

Obs. — Species prsecedenti affinis, sed multo major, omnino 
longior, antennis pedibusque longioribus, funiculi art° 2^" con- 
spicue longiore, femoribus tibiisque multo densius longiusque 
cinereo pilosis. 

Although extremely variable in stature, this is (on the average) 
the largest member of the present genus which has hitherto been 
detected; and it is one which occurs almost exclusively in the 
highest altitudes, — where it congregates beneath the dead fibrous 
bark of the old cabbage-trees in the most exposed and windy spots. 
I have taken it in profusion in the direction of Diana's Peak and 
Actaeon, as well as on Stitch's Ridge and at Cason's, and more 
sparingly at High Peak. 



* TANYRHYNCHlD.r.. 165 

The N. horridus has a good deal the outline and general aspect of 
the bi-eviuscidus, though it is very much larger and relatively more 
elongated ; its limbs (and second funiculus-joiut) are conspicuously 
longer, aud its femora and tibite are densely clothed with long, 
whitish or cinereous hairs. The tenchncy of the majority of the 
species of this genus is to have the squamiform pubescence of their 
elytra condensed into fasciculi, or elongated spaces : but the latter 
are so easily destroyed, and the surface is so apt to be corroded with 
a viscous kind of dirt (perhaps due to the exudation of the cabbage- 
trees), that it is only in very fresh and perfect examples that this is 
ever practically observable. When, however, it is to be traced, I 
think perhaps that it is more conspicuous in the N. horridus than in 
the allied forms, — occasional individuals having (so far as their 
elytra are concerned) quite a tessellated appearance, 

140. Nesiotes gracilis, n. sp. 

N. praecedenti similis, sed multo minor et omnino angustior, graciiior, 
prothorace conspicue angustiore, elytris antice gradatim magis 
attenuatis (quare omnino magis elongato-ovatis, sc. ultra medium 
magis rotundato-ampliatis), femoribus tibiisque multo minus 
pubescentibus, funiculique art" 2*^° sensim minus conspicue 
elongate. 

Long. Corp. Un, lf-2. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prajcedens, inter Compositas vulgaris. 

Like the last one, this is a species of the highest elevations, being 
attached essentially to the cabbage- trees. About Diana's Peak and 
Actseon I have taken it in profusion, as well as along Stitch's Eidge, 
and in one instance even so low down as Yine-Tree Gut, — a small 
ravine which issues out of Halley's Mount. 

Although in a general sense abundantly different, an occasional 
large example of the N. gracilis and a small one of the horridus are 
not quite easy at first sight to separate ; nevertheless I am satisfied 
that the two species (which occur in the same localities, and are 
exposed to precisely the same influences) are truly and properly 
distinct. The N. gracilis (which is as variable in size as its ally) 
may be defined to be (on the average) both much smaller and consi- 
derably slenderer than the horridus, — its prothorax being conspi- 
cuously narrower, and its elytra gradually much more drawn-in, or 
attenuated, anteriorly. This form of the elytra causes them to be 
proportionately more elongate- of^/f in outline (or more rounded 



166 TANYRHYNCHIDiE. 

outwards beyond the middle). Its femora and tibiae, also, are very 
much less pubescent ; and its second fuuiculus-joint is not quite so 
decidedly lengthened. 

141. Nesiotes minor, n. sp. 

N. piJBcedenti affinis, sed vix ejus varietas depauperata. Differt 
statura minore, prothorace couspicue minore et antice profundius 
constricto ; elytris minus nitidis, densius sed miuutius punctato- 
striatis, interstitiis angustioribus et sensim convexioribus ; antennis 
subgracilioribus, nigricantibus, scapo calvo, funiculi art" 2^° dis- 
tincte longiore quam tertio. 

Long. corp. lin. circa Ig. 

Habitat inter ramulos humi jacentes, in regionibus valde elevatis, 
rarissimus. 

Whether the two examples from which the above diagnosis has 
been drawn out, and which were taken by myself in the vicinity of 
Diana's Peak on the high central ridge, represent more than an ex- 
tremely depauperated state of the N. gracilis, I have scarcely mate- 
rial enough to decide ; but if they may be regarded as typical of 
their kind, the N. minor may be said to be smaller than the 
gracilis (its prothorax especially being smaller, or less developed, as 
well as more powerfully constricted in front), and to have its elytra 
less shining and more rugulose — though, at the same time, more 
closely and finehj punctate-striated, with the interstices narrower 
and more convex. Its antennae, too, are a little slenderer and more 
blacl'ened ; and the scape (as in the iV. simplex) seems to be totally 
bald. 

142. Nesiotes simplex, n. sp. 

N. anguste ovato-oblongus, niger, vix nitidulus, dense sculpturatus 
sed sqv;amis erectis fere carens (setulis solum brevissimis demissis 
cinereis parce irroratus) ; rostro longiusculo, lineari, minute 
punctulato ; oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace antice 
constricto, minute, leviter, dense, et confuse punctate ; elytris 
subparallelis, punctate- aut crenulato-striatis, interstitiis rugu- 
losis ; antennis tarsisque ferrugineis ; femoribus tibiisque fere 
calvis ; scapo calvo ; funiculi art° 2^° vix longiore quam tertio. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix 1|. 

Habitat regiones editiores ; in truncis Dicksonice arboresccntis, I'Her., 
antiquis emortuis marcidis parcissime deprehensus. 

Obs. — N. gracili affinis, sed minor et minutius pubescens 
(setulis erectis fere carens), elytris magis paraUelis (sc. antice 



TANYRHYNCHID.E. 167 

minus attenuatis et ultra medium vix ampliatis) ; rostro sensim 
longiore et, una cum prothorace, multo minutius leviusque 
puuctato ; elytris minus nitidis, magis rugulosis, et minutius 
punctato-striatis ; scapo omnino calvo ; funiculi (minus gracilis) 
art° 2''° vix longiore quam tertio. 

I have seen but two examples of this small and obscure Nesiotes, 
which were taken by myself from the interior of the fibrous stem 
of a decayed tree fern (near the summit of Actaeon) on one of the 
highest points of the central ridge. If it is a normal representative 
of its kind, the species is very much smaller than the gracilis ; and 
it seems to want the erect squamiforra bristles which are more or 
less present in that species, — it being merely clothed with a compa- 
ratively minute cinereous pubescence. Its elytra are m\ich more 
oblong, or parallel, than in the gracilis (being less attenuated in 
front, and less rounded behind the middle) ; and they are also less 
shining, more rugulose, and very much less coarsely punctate- 
striate. Its rostrum is a trifle longer, and, together with the pro- 
thorax, much more finely and minutely punctured ; its scape is 
altogether bald ; and its funiculus is a little less slender, and has the 
second joint but very little longer than the third one. 



143. Nesiotes asperatus. 

N. anguste ovato-oblongus, niger aut piceo-niger, vel opacus vel 
subopacus, tuberculato-asperatus squamisque crassis suberectis 
fulvo-cinereis plus minus dense vestitus ; rostro lineari, dense et 
rugose punctato ; oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace 
ovali, antice profunde constricto, (subter squamis) longitudinaliter 
tuberculato-asperatis ; antennis tarsisque piceo-ferrugineis ; scapo 
fere calvo ; funiculi art° 2*^° paululum longiore quam tertio. 

Long, corp, lin. 1-1|. 

Nesiotes asperatus, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 413 (1869). 
, 3Iemss, St. Hel. 154 (187o). 

Habitat in intermediis insula), vulgaris ; in locos valde elevatos multo 
rarius ascendens. 

Ohs. — Species sculptura inconstans ; corpore interdum omnino 
opaco, sed interdum fere nitidiusculo ; elytris interdum rugose sed 
interdum multo levius granulatis. 

Of all the members of the present genus which have hitherto been 
brought to light, this is the most abundant : and it is also, with the 
exception perhaps of the N. ascendens, the smallest of them, and 



168 TANYRHYNCHID^. 

likewise the most variable. Its variability, however, does not con- 
Bist so much in stature as in the exact sculpture of its elytra, — 
which, when denuded of their setae and mud-like deposit, will be 
seen to be sometimes perfectly opake, and at others appreciably 
shining (though never so much so as in the N. ascendens) : whilst in 
certain examples the granuliform tubercles of the elytra (which are 
always more or less traceable in partial longitudinal rows) are 
thickly-set and coarse, and in others wider apart and comparatively 
indistinct. In no instance, however, do they merge into absolute 
punctures, such as are conspicuous in the nearly-allied N. ascendens. 
The specimens from Flagstaff Hill are peculiarly opake ; and I 
might have been inclined to treat them as distinct from the ordinary 
form (which must be regarded as the type) did not intermediate 
links occur in many widely-separated localities. The species, how- 
ever, may be defined, generally, as rather narrow and elongate (in 
proportion to its small size), and as densely beset with brown mud- 
like scales which are intermingled with erect squamiform fulvo- 
cinereous setse ; and when the clothing has been removed, the pro- 
thorax will be seen to be thickly studded with robust granuliform 
tubercles, whilst the elytra have the same kind of tubercles longitu- 
dinally disposed (except towards the shoulders, where they are often 
denser) — sometimes in double rows, and at others in anteriorly- 
confluent spaces. 

The JW asperatus is more particularly a species of intermediate 
altitudes, — swarming at Plantation, Oakbank, Thompson's Wood, 
West Lodge, Yine-Tree Gut, &c., — but seldom ascending into the 
loftier districts ; though I met with a very few examples of it on 
the central ridge, both towards Actseon and High Peak. I cannot 
help suspecting, therefore, that it may have been originally attached 
to the gumwoods, and perhaps also to the arborescent asters and even 
to the scrubwood ; but I have no evidence that it is in any way con- 
nected with the cabbage-trees. In the Aster-gro\e beyond West 
Lodge, overlooking Lufkins, it swarms ; and, as just mentioned, it is 
equally common beneath the old gumwoods at Thompson's Wood ; 
and since it is highly probable that the Plantation and Oakbank 
district was formerly a district of gumwoods, its excessive abundance 
in that particular region may possibly be accounted for. The examples 
from Flagstaff, which differ a little from most of the others, may 
perhaps represent a race which was dependent once upon the scrub- 
wood. 



TANYRHYNCHID.E. TRACHYPHLCEID.B. 169 

144. Nesiotes ascendens, n. sp. 

N. asperato valde affinis, sed elytris paululum minus elongatis ac 
magis ovatis, siibter squamis nitidioribus (nee alutaceo-ojDacis), 
necnon distincte, regulariter, et parum grosse striato-puuctatis 
(nee seriatim tnberoulatis). 

Long. corp. lin. circa I5. 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis ; inter ramulos antiques fractos Com- 
positarum arboreseentium, rarissimus. 

At first sight the present Nesiotes is barely distinguishable from 
the asperatus ; and yet I do not believe that it can in reality be 
referred to that species. Moreover its habits appear to be different ; 
for while the 2f. asperatus is strictly a native of intermediate, or at 
all events not very lofty, altitudes, the ascendens occurs on the highest, 
portions of the central ridge, — the whole of my examples having 
been obtained below Actason, along what is called the " Cabbage- 
Tree road." I cannot help thinking, therefore, that they represent a 
species which is truly distinct from, although closely allied to, the 
asperatus^ and one moreover which is attached to the cabbage-trees, 
rather than to the asters and gumwoods. 

The N. ascendens differs from the asperatus in its elytra being a 
trifle less elongated and just appreciably more ovate, as well as (when 
denuded of their setae and mud-like scales) more shining (their surface 
being in no respect alutaceous or opake), and rather coarsely, regu- 
larly, and conspicuously sivi^ie-pimctate ^ — instead of being studded 
with small, longitudinally disposed tubercles. Owing, however, to 
the dense manner in which the surface is coated, this peculiarity of 
the elytral sculpture is not easy to be observed. 



Fam. 28. TRACHYPHLCEID^. 

Genus 63. TRACHYPHLCEOSOMA. 
Wollaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 414 (1869). 

Corpus parvum, breviter ovale, apterum, dense lutoso-squamosum, 
et parce setosum ; rostro brevissimo, triangulari aut potius conico, 
ad apicem recte truncate ; ocidis minutis, demissis ; scrobe pro- 
funda, versus oeulum ducta, dein subito mox ante oculum angu- 
latim deflexa ; scutello obsoleto ; eli/tris ovalibus basi truncatis ; 
' mctasterno brevissimo ; abdominis segm'" 1"° et 2''" linea profunda 
argute divisis. Antenncp fere ad apicem rostri insertaj ; scaj)o 



170 trachyphloeid.t:. 

robusto, ciirvato, intus paroe setoso ; faniciilo 7-articulato, com- 
pacto ; capitulo magno, abnipto, ovali. Pedes longiusculi, cras- 
siusculi, antici coutigui, iiitennedii paulidum separati, postici 
paruni distantcs ; tcusis crassis, art" 3"" iatiusculo ct distiucte 
bilobo, unguiculis sat magnis. 

Obs. — Genus Trachi/pJiheo simillimum, sed difFert corpore mi- 
nore ; rostro multo breviore et magis conico, ad apicem recte 
tmncato (nee triangulariter exciso) ; oculis minutissimis ; scrobe 
ante oculos snbito angulatim detlexji ; antennis magis versus 
apicem rostri iusertis, tarsorum art" 3*'" paulum minus late bilobo, 
uuguiculisque submajoribus. 

It is not altogether impossible that the small and obscure Curcu- 
lionid for which, in 1869, 1 proposed the present genus, may have to 
be acknowledged eventually as a minute Tracliijpldce.us ; nevertheless, 
since the genus has already been established, and it certainly pos- 
sesses a few structural peculiarities which I do not perceive in 
Tracliijpliloeas proper, I can see no particular advantage in suppressing 
TrachijphJoeosoma as, at any rate, a subsidiary group. The only 
member of it which has hitherto been brought to light, and which 
abounds in the intermediate districts of St. Helena, is not only 
smaller than any of the true TraclujiMoei with which I am ac- 
quainted, but it has its rostrum much shorter and more regularly 
conical^ straightly truncated at the tip (instead of being triangularly 
scooped out), and with the eyes considerably more minute, and the 
scrobs (instead of being abbreviated, straight, and auriform) suddenly 
deflected, just before reaching the eye, so as to shape out a sharply- 
defined right angle. Its antennae, also, are implanted rather nearer 
to the apex of the rostrum, the third joint of its feet is not quite so 
broadly bilobed ; and its claws (in proportion to the comparatively 
minute size of the insect) are somewhat more largely developed. 

145. TrachypUceosoma setosum. 

T. breviter ovale, squamis bruuueis quasi lutoso-vestitum, sed subter 
squamis plus minus brunneo-pioeum : rostro brevi, conico, in 
medio indistincte canaliculato, et una cum prothorace plus minus 
parce at minute setoso, hoc subter squamis grossissime punctato 
(punctis maximis, inter se subconfluentibus) ; elytris setis sub- 
erectis cinereis longitiidiualiter parce obsitis, subter squamis valde 
profunde striato-punctatis, punctis magnis ct argute determinatis ; 
antennis podibusque laete rufo-ferrugiueis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1^. 



TRACHYPHLCElDiE. OTIORHYNCHID^. 171 

Trachyphlceosoma setosum, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 415 (1869). 
^^ , 3Ielliss, St. Hel. 154 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque, praesertim illis ; vulgaris. 

The small size and shortly-oval outline of this insignificant little 
brown Trachyphlceid, which is more or less densely coated with 
mud-like scales, and which is sparingly studded with suberect cine- 
reous setae (which on the elytra are somewhat longitudinally 
disposed), will sufficiently distinguish it. I believe it to be a tridy 
aboriginal form ; and yet it is one of the most widely distributed over 
the island of all the Coleoptera which have hitherto been detected. 

It is more in the intermediate districts than the higher ones that 
the T. setosum abounds. Thus, about Plantation and Oakbank it 
swarms, — particularly beneath cut grass, and crawling sluggishly on 
the hot dry ground amongst loose stones and earth (to the colour of 
which it so completely assimilates that it is very easily overlooked). 
I have taken it also in profusion at West Lodge and in Thompson's 
Wood, as also at Rock Rose— and more sparingly (at a higher alti- 
tude) at Cason's, on High Peak, and even on the loftier portion of 
the central ridge. 



Fam. 29. OTIORHYNCHID^. 

Genus 64. SCIOBIUS. 

Schouherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 197 (1826). 

146. Sciobius subnodosus. 

S. ovatus, piceus, squamulisque cinereis minutis depressis (interdum 
obscure etiam submetallico-tinctis) plus minus nebuloso-vestitus, 
setulisque brevibus suberectis cinereis in elytris longitudinaliter 
obsitus ; rostro breviter subcylindrico, apice triangulariter excise, 
in medio argute carinulato ; scrobe profimda, ante oculos (valde 
prominentes) evanescente ; prothorace (subter squamis) confuse 
subtuberculato-ruguloso, in disco leviter carinulato ; elytris (pro- 
thorace latioribus) ovalibus, late punctato-sulcatis, interstitiis 
convexis et postice plus minus evidenter subnoduloso-elevatis ; 
antennis pedibusque elongatis, iUis gracilibus, funiculi (7-articu- 
lati, laxi) art° 2^" elongato. 

Long. corp. lin. 2h-i^- 

Sciobius subnodosus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 416 (1869). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 155, pi. 23. f. 4 (1875). 



172 OTIORHYNCHID.f:. 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque insulae, ad plantas varias, 

passim. 

Whether this rather large and light-brown Curculionid is truly 
indigenous at St. Helena, I can scarcely venture to pronounce. 
Certain it is that it occurs now almost everywhere, and that it is 
extremely destructive to vegetation ; but since it belongs to a genus 
which is essentially South -African, it is far from unlikely that it 
may have been introduced originally from the Cape of Good Hope 
(from whence I have examined specimens which were captured lately 
by Mr. Gray), and have since completely established itself. Still there 
is no reason why it should not have been aboriginally St.-Helenian ; 
though I am more inclined to suspect that it is in reality a naturalized 
species. Mr. Melliss mentions that it is more particularly common in 
gardens and cultivated grounds, — Ipng concealed b}^ day, but feeding 
voraciously at night on the young shoots of plants, which it com- 
pletely destroys. I believe that the whole of these OtiorhjTichideous 
types are nocturnal in their habits : but my own experience of the S. 
suhnodosus would imply its occurrence indiscriminately in nearly all 
parts of the island, at intermediate and lofty altitudes. I met with 
it commonly at Plantation and West Lodge, as well as at High 
Peak, Cason's, in the vicinity of Actaeon and Diana's Peak, in Vine- 
tree Gut, between Peak Dale and Lufkins, in Thompson's Wood, on 
the slopes of Flagstaff Hill, and, indeed, almost everywhere ; and it 
has been taken by Mr. P. Whitehead about Woodcot. 

There is no other Curculionid, which concerns us here, with 
which the S. suhnodosus could be confounded, — its rather large size 
and light-brown surface, which is densely clothed with minute 
depressed subcinereous scales (which in highly coloured examples 
have often a very faint metallic tinge), the elytra being additionally 
studded with short longitudinally-disposed cinereous suberect seta?, 
as well as furnished posteriorly with a few (sometimes indistinct) 
slightly raised humps or nodules, formed by the breaking-up of the 
somewhat elevated interstitial spaces, being more than sufficient to 
characterize it. Its paler scales are sometimes condensed into an 
obscure line on either side of the prothorax : and there are occa- 
sional traces of a few scattered irregular darker specks behind the 
middle of the elytra, which in very perfect and highly coloured 
examples take almost the form of an obsolete ill-defined fascia. 



OTIORHYNCHID^. BRACHYDEKIDiE. 173 

Genus 65. OTIORHYNCHUS. 
Gemiar, Ins. Spec. 34:> (1824). 

147. Otiorhynclius sulcatus. 

0. magnus, ovato-oblongus, opacus, niger, pilisqiie demissis fulvo- 
cinereis (in elytris in fasciciilos aut maculas parvas collectis) parce 
vestitus ; rostro antice dilatato et triangnlariter excise, in medio 
late profuudeque canaliculate : prothorace parvo, ovali-cylindrico, 
grossissime, dense, et regulariter tuberculato ; elytris grosse et 
late sulcatis (sulcis in fundo tuberculis remotis obsitis), interstitiis 
convexis et rugose transversim subimbricato-tuberculatis ; antennis 
pedibusque elongatis, subconcoloribus, femoribus subtus denticulo 
arraatis. 

Long. coi"p- lin. 4-1—5. 

Curculio sulcatus, Fab., Mant. Ins. 122 (1787). 
Otiorliynchus sulcatus, Stierl., Eev. der Otiorh. 22o (1861). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 416 (1869). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azor. 81 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 155 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque, passim ; ex Europa carte 
introductus. 

This common European Otiorhi/nchus (so weU distinguished 
amongst the St.-Helena CurcuHonids by its large size, and its black, 
opake, coarsely sculptured surface), although nowhere abundant, is 
widely spread over the intermediate and lofty districts of the 
island, — where doubtless it must have been accidentally introduced, 
originally, from Europe. It lias become naturalized in a similar 
manner in the Azorean archipelago ; but it has not yet been detected 
in any of the more southern groups. I have met with it at Plan- 
tation and West Lodge, as weU. as at High Peak, Cason's, and even 
on the most elevated portion of the ridge towards Diana's Peak and 
Actaeon. 



Fam. 30. BRACHYDERID^. 

Genus 66. SITONA. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 414 (1824). 

148. Sitona lineatus. 

S. longiusculus, parallelus, squamulis subfuscis dense irroratus et 
lineis paululum magis cinereis (sc. 3 in capite et prothorace, 



174 BRACHYDERIDiB. ANTHRIBID^. 

aliisquo in interstitiis clytrorum alternis positis), interdura incon- 
spicuis, oruatis ; capite in medio ( pra?sertim antice) argute canali- 
culato, prothoraceque creberrime punctulatis, hoc ad latera pone 
medium leviter rotundato ; elytris punctato-striatis ; antennis 
versus basin, tibiis, tarsisque piceo-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Curculio liiieatus, Linn., Fna Suec. 183 (1761). 

Sitona lineatus, Schiin., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 109 (1834). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 336 (1865). 

, Crotch, in Godtn. Azor. 81 (1870). 

Habitat in cultis intermediis, rarissimus ; ad Plantation exemplar 
unicum (emortuum) collegit Dom. Gray. 

The only evidence that I possess for the admission of this common 
and widely-spread European Sitona into the 8t. -Helena catalogue is 
embodied in a single example which was found (dead) by Mr. Gray 
in the groimds at Plantation ; and, inasmuch as I did not myself 
meet with the species during our six months' residence in the 
island, and, indeed, in that actual part of it, it must, if truly natura- 
lized (which perhaps, under the circumstances, we can scarcely 
doubt), be of extreme rarity. At any rate, its presence in the fauna 
is almost without significance, — seeing that the utmost that can be 
said of it is, that it may have been imported accidentally from 
England, at some not very remote period, along with consignments 
of plants. In the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian archipelagos it 
has not only completely established itself, but has become abundant. 



Fam. 31. ANTHRIBID^. 

(Subfam. 1. AR^OCERIDES.) 

(^Linea transversa prothoracica basilaris, marginem hasalem elevatum 
efflciens ; utrinqiie per marginem lateralem Ksque ad medium 
ducta.) 

Genus 67. AR^OCERUS. 

Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 40 [script. Amccrus] (1826). 

149. Araeocerus fasciculatus. 

A. breviter ovalis, crassus, brunneo-piceus, pube brevi demissa 
cinerea et grisea nebulosus necnon in elytris plus minus (in inter- 
stitiis alternis) longitudinaliter tessellatus ; capite prothoraceque 
(subter pube) opacis, densissime et rugose punctatis, oeulis maxi- 



ANTHRIBID^. 175 

mis, prominentibus, hoe subconico, postice lato et trisinuato, costa 
transversa iu margiuem basalem coeuute necnon utrinqiie mar- 
ginem lateralem (usqiie ad mediiim lateris ductum) efficiente, 
angulis posticis argute determiuatis ; elytris apice truncato-rotun- 
datis, (subter pube) subopacis, densissime et rugose granulatis ac 
leviter crenulato-striatis ; antennis pedibusque elongatis, infuscate 
testaceis, illis gracilibus, clava (elongata, laxa, 3-articulata) 
obscuriore ; tarsorum art" 1™" longissimo, anticis in cJ paulum 
dilatatis. 

Variat interdum (prascipue in sexu fcemineo) elytris fere concoloribus 
(sc. interstitiis alternis vix tessellatis). 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2|. 

Ourculio fasciculatiis, De Geer, Ins. v. 276, t. 16. f. 2 (1775). 
Anthribus cofteaj, Fah., Si/st. Eleu. ii. 411 (1801). 
Araeocerus fasciculatus, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. (18G9). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 155 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus repositoriisque, rarior ; ad Jamestown ex alienis 
invectus. 

I did not myself meet with this introduced insect at St. Helena ; 
but a specimen was found by Mrs. Wollaston crawling on the outer 
wall of a house in Jamestown, and two more had been obtained 
previously by Mr. Melliss. Of course it has no connexion whatever 
with the real fauna of the island ; though its liability to transmission 
along with various articles of commerce (particularly seeds and 
berries) amongst most of the warmer countries of the civilized world 
has resulted in its naturalization at St. Helena, as it has done in so 
many other places ; so that we cannot omit it from the present 
catalogue. 

As compared with the truly indigenous Anthribids of St. Helena, 
which play so significant a part in the Coleopterous fauna as to be 
second only in importance to the Cossonida?, the present insect 
belongs to a totally different type,— in which the first joint of the 
feet is greatly elongated, and the transverse prothoracic keel is 
removed to the extreme base of the pronotum (so as to form a mere 
elevated marginal line), and is then produced at right angles to 
about midway along the lateral edge. But, apart from these cha- 
racters, which are more strictly generic ones, the A. fasciculatus may 
be known by its compact thickened body and short-oval outline, 
and by its brownish-piceous surface being clouded with an abbre- 
viated decumbent cinereous and griseous pubescence, the alternate 
elytral interstices having (additionally) indications of being longitu- 
dinally tessellated, — which in some examples is extremely conspi- 



17G ANTHRIBID.E. 

cuous, but in others (particularly the females) very indistinct. Its 
eyes are exceedingly large and prominent ; its antennae (which are 
remarkably slender) are of a dull testaceous hue, but have their lax 
and elongate 3-jointed club darker ; and its surface, when the 
pubescence is removed, will be seen to be opake and closely and 
coarsely sculptured. Its male sex has the two front feet a trifle 
dilated. 



(Subfam. 2. NOTIOXENIDES.) 

(Liiiea transversa protlioraclca conspicue ante basin sita ; utrinque 
plus minus arcuata sed rarlus per marginem laterahm etiam paa- 
lulum dacta.) 

Genus 68. NOTIOXENUS. 
Wollaston, Journ. of Eat. i. 212 (1861). 

Corpus vel oblongum vel ovato-oblongum, aut pubescenti-variegatum 
aut (rarius) subglabrum, plus minus pictum ; rostro brevi, trian- 
gulari, apice rotundato-truncato ; ocidis rotundatis, iutcgris ; 
prothorace ante basin vel lineii impressa vel (ssepins) carinula 
elevata (utrinque plus minus arcuata, sed rarius per marginem 
later alem etiam paululum ducta) trans versim instructo ; scutello 
vel obsoleto, vel minutissimo, vel sat distincto ; elytris postice 
subabbreviatis, pygidiumvix tegentibus. Antennce 11-articulatse, 
graciles, rectae, laxae, in paginii superiore rostri (mox intra oculos 
in fovea) insertse ; art" 1™° curvato, sequentibus paululum cras- 
siore, 2*^° usque ad 8™™ elongate obconicis, reliquis clavam elon- 
gatam laxam 3-articulatam efficientibus. Mandihulo' triangulares, 
crasste, validse, cornese, ad apicem obtuse bidentatas, dein intus 
emarginatae. Max'dlm bilobae : Joho externo angusto, arcuato, 
glabro sed ad apicem ipsum pubescente ; interno paululum bre- 
viore, intus dense piloso. Palpi maxillares 4-articulati, art" 1"° 
parvo, 2^° majore crassiore, 3"" huic xmulo breviore ac j)aulo 
angustiore, breviter subcylindrico, ulf"" elongato, sensim graci- 
liore, fusiform! ; lahiales 3-articulati, art" 1™° et 2^° subaequalibus, 
ult"" paulo longiore, graciliore, fusiformi. Mentum corneimi, 
antice curvato -emarginatum, angulis anticis rotundatis. Ligida 
brevis, basi cornea, antice in medio cordata et longe pilosa. 
Pedes longiusculi ; tihiis ad apicem muticis ; tarsis pseudotetra- 
meris, art° 1""" in posticis multo longiore quam secundo, 3"° late 
bilobo, 4*° minutissimo recepto, ult""" clavato unguiculis appen- 
diculatis muni to. 

Next to the Cossonids, there can be no question that the Anthri- 
bidce play the most important part in the Coleojiterous fauna of 
St. Helena ; and although I have admitted the whole of them, with 



ANTHRIBID.B. 177 

the exception of the Acarodes gutta, into the iwo genera Notioxenus 
and Homoeodera (characterized, respectively, by the presence and 
absence of a basal prothoracic line), it is not unlikely that future 
researches will add so many species to the number that it may 
become desirable eventually to split them up, like the Cossonidce, 
into several distinct groups. This indeed might be done even now, 
were it not that the widely-differing forms which each genus has 
been made to embrace are in reality more suggestive, to at any rate 
my mind, of intermediate links yet to be detected than of an inde- 
pendent series of isolated generic types. This, indeed, I strongly 
insisted upon even in 1869, when commenting on the few Notioxeni 
which had then been met with, — adding that " the great specific dis- 
similarity of the four representatives enumerated below induces me 
to suspect (as I did in 1861, when only two of them had been 
brought to light) that there are many Notioxeni, of a more or less 
intermediate fades, yet to be discovered, and for which therefore we 
may confidently look." Two years later an additional Notioxenus 
was contributed by Mr. Melliss, and likewise a new Homoeodera ; but 
how far my original conjecture has been verified may be gathered 
from the fact that, during our late sojourn in the island, the 5 Noti- 
oxeni were increased to 12, and the 4 Homceoderce to 18 ; and I am 
satisfied that we have not yet by any means exhausted their 
numbers. 

The Notioxeni are, on the average, larger insects than the Homoe- 
oderas, and also a little more variegated in hue ; but their main 
distinctive feature consists in their prothoracic line being in all 
instances conspicuously developed, and removed from the extreme 
base by a more or less appreciable interval. In most cases it takes 
the form of a sinuated, or arcuate, transverse keel, though in the 
N. Bewickii it appears to be impressed rather than raised ; and 
although it is a little curved anteriorly at either extremity, it is 
never produced at right angles along the lateral edge (as in the 
Aroiocerides) so as to constitute a thread-like margin to the posterior 
half of the pronotum. Indeed in the majority of the species it is 
but very slightly cui"ved forwards at aU ; but in two of them (the 
N. Janischi and Dalei) there is a somewhat greater tendency to this 
lateral prolongation of the basal keel. 

Before I had become acquainted with the Notioxeni in a living 
state, I felt it just possible that perhaps some of them might prove 
to be saltatorial (remembering that several of the smaller Anthri- 



178 ANTHRIBIDiE. 

bideous types, as for instance Xenorchestes in Madeira and the 
European Choragus, possess the power of jumping) ; but I am now 
enabled to state that neither Notioxenus nor Homceodera show any 
such tendency. 

The 12 Notioxeni which have hitherto been brought to light may 
be thus tabulated : — 

A. elytra distincte et regulariter striata, striis impunctatis. 
a. prothoracis linea basalts imj>ressa, canalieidum efficiens. 
Bewickii, 
aa. 2^rothoracis linea basalis elevafa, carinulam efficiens. 
subfasciatus. 
, AA. elytra strid suturali impunctatd solum impressa. 

alutaceus. 
AAA. elytra seriatim punctata, sed punctis poslice evanescentibus. 
dimidiatus. 
AAAA. elytra plus minus regulariter punctato-striata. 

/3. jjrothoracis linea basalis ad utrumque latus antrorsum distincte 
curvata. Janischi, 

Dalai. 
^/3, prothoracis linea basalis ad utrumque latus atitroi-sum nee aid 
vix curvata. 
y. corpus cenescens. 

Grayii, 
seneus. 
yy. corpus nullo modo (cnescens (nee etiam submetallicmn). 
8. ovale, nitidum, scepius nigro- et rufo-pictum. 
e. elytrorum sifriis laxe et grosse crenulatis. 
congener, 
rufopictus. 
ec. elytroruin striis crehre et minute crenulatis. 
rotundatus. 
8S. angusto-elongattim, subopacum, ferrugineum, sed dense 
cinereo-pttbescens. 

ferruffineus. 



150. Notioxenus Bewickii. (Fig. 8.) 

N. fusco-niger, subopacus, impunctatus sed minutissime obsoleteque 
subrugulosus, pube brevissima demissji, grisea vestitus necnon hinc 
inde cinereo-pictus ; capita minute et dense punctulato, in fronte 
carinula brevi Itevi instructo ; oculis magnis ; prothorace linea 
subbasali impressa utrinque regulariter curvata plagisque 3 Ion-, 
gitudinalibus (plus minus fractis et interdum omnino obsoletis) 
cinereo-squamosis picto ; scutello miuutissimo, punctiformi ; elytris 
argute et regulariter impunctato-striatis, maculis minutis plurimis 
cinereo-squamosis irroratis, interdum ad basin et humeros obsolete 
rufescentioribus ; antennis tarsisque piceo-testaceis, illis gracilibus; 
femoribus tibiisque piceis, his ad basin rufescentibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 3^-4. 



ANTHRIBID.«. 179 

Notioxenus Bewickii, Wu/L, I. c. 213, pi. xiv. f. 1 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hid. v. 20 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. lo6 (1875). 

Habitat in herbidis elevatis, inter plantas DipJazium nigro-palea- 
aceum, Kunze, praecipue degens. 

The large size and griseous-black, densely-clothed surface of this 
Notioxenus, which is obscurely ornamented (especially on the eh-tra) 
with a few minute and irregular patches of cinereous scales (the two 
postmedian ones of which are the most conspicuous), added to its 
prothoracic line being impressed* and its strise (as in the N. sub- 
fasdatus) perfectly simple, will sufficiently distinguish it. With the 
exception of the head, which is minutely punctulated, it wiU be seen 
(when the pubescence has been removed) to be impunctate, but 
somewhat alutaceous and subopake ; in highly-coloured specimens 
there is often a slight rufescent tinge about the base and shoulders 
of the eljira ; its scuteUum is most minute and punctiform ; and its 
eyes, although not particularly prominent, are extremely large. 

Up to the time of our visit to the island I had seen but two 
examples of this Notioxenus, — one of which was taken in 18G0 by 
the late Mr. Bewicke, and the other more recently by Mr. Melliss. 
If searched for, however, in the proper localities, it seems to me to 
be one of the most abundant of the aboriginal Coleoptera of St. 
Helena, — the great central heights being essentially its range. 
Unless I am much mistaken, it is attached to the Diplazium nigro- 
paleaceum, Kunze (next to the Dicksonia arborescens the largest of 
the native ferns) ; at any rate it was nearly always out of the 
thick and partially-blackened masses of that plant that my examples 
were beaten. In the neighbourhood of Actaeon and Diana's Peak, 
as well as along the Cabbage-Tree Eoad and on Stitch's Ridge, I 
have seldom shaken the Diplazium without obtaining it ; and I also 
met with it under precisely similar circumstances at Cason's, and 
even so low down as Vine-Tree Gut — which issues out of Halley's 
Mount. It was found also by Mr. Gray during the first few weeks 
of our sojourn in the island. 

151. Notioxenus suhfasciatus, n. sp. 
If. ferrugineus, subopacus, fere impunctatus sed minutissime obso- 

* Owing to the posterior edge of this impressed Hue, in the N. BewicJcii, being 
a trifle elevated, the whole line seems occasionally to be, after all, more of a 
keel than a channel. But this, I think, is more apparent than real. 

*. N 2 



180 ANTHRIBID^. 

leteque subrugulosus, pube demissd cinereo-fiilvii aut etiam -aurea 
(in elytris in faseiis duabus valde obliquis obsoletissimis, interdum 
segre perspicuis) vestitus ; capite minute puuctulato ; oculis 
magnis, prominentibus ; prothoraee sat magno, linea subbasali 
elevata utrinque regulariter curvata ; scutello minutissimo, punc- 
tiformi ; elytris basi distincte recto-marginatis (margine niinute 
fimbriato), argute et regulariter impunetato-striatis, stria suturali 
valde abbreviata subscutellari ; antenuis pedibusque rufo-ferru- 
gineis ; unguiculorum appendiculis internis nee laciniatis sad 
angustis acutissimis liberis, quasi unguiculos intenios niinorea 
efformantibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2-3, 

Hahitat in locis valde elevatis, inter herbas, rarissimus. 

This is one of the rarest of the Notioxeni, and confined (so far as 
my own experience is concerned) to the highest portions of the 
great central ridge, — the whole of my examples (only 18, however, 
in number) having been taken either on the flanks or summit of 
Diana's Peak and Actseon. It was first detected by Mr. Gray, and 
subsequently met with by Colonel Warren, in the same district. It 
was by general brushing that my specimens were obtained ; so that 
I am unable to say to what particular plant the insect is attached ; 
but, judging from the analogy of the iV. Bcwicl-ii, I should be inclined 
to' suspect that it is the ferns, rather than the cabbage-trees, with 
which it is connected. 

Although extremely variable in stature (for some of the larger 
examples more than double the smaller ones in actual bulk), the 
N. subfasciatus is nevertheless, on the average, one of the largest 
members of the group ; and, although not so large as the li. Bewickii, 
it agrees with that species in having its elytral strife (the first one of 
which, however, is abbreviated and merely subscutellary) perfectly 
simple. But its prothorax and the basal joint of its club are relatively 
a little more developed than in the BeivicMi, its antennae are less 
slender, its eyes are more prominent, and its elytra are coarsely and 
straightly margined at their base. Apart, however, from this, it is at 
once distinguished by its ferruginous surface, which is covered with 
a longer and somewhat golden decumbent pubescence, which is so 
disposed on the elytra as to shape out (in highly coloured examples) 
two very oblique and obscure fasciae, — which are never conspicuous, 
and sometimes barely traceable. Its antennae and legs are rufo- 
ferruginous ; its antebasal prothoracic line is sharply elevated ; and 
he appendages of its claws are less broad and lacinia-like than in 



ANTIIRIBIDiE. 181 

the N. Beivickii, — being in fact narrow, acute, and corneous, forming 
in every respect an independent but smaller pair of inner ungues. 



152. Notioxenus alutaceus. 

N. seneo-piceus (interdum ajneo-niger) et obsoletissime subviridi 
tinetus, ssepius subopacus sed sajpe subnitidulus, fere impuuctatus 
sed sensim alutaceus, pube demissa cinereo-fulvescente (in elytris 
plagas irregnlares longitudinales plerumque efformante) vestitus ; 
oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace linea subbasali elevata 
utrinque paululum curvata ; scutello minuto, punctiformi ; elytris 
basi distiucte recto-margiuatis (margins minute fimbriate), striis 
(suturali profunda impunctata, antice evauescente, excepta) obso- 
letis ; antennis nigrescentibus, ad basin, tibiis in toto tarsisque ad 
basin piceo-testacois ; femoribus tarsisque versus apiccm picescen- 
tioribus. 

Variat elytris concoloribus, nullo modo longitudinaliter fasciato- 
tessellatis sed evideutius subviridi tinctis, pedibus nigrescentio- 
ribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-vix 2. 

Notioxenus alutaceus, Wull.^ Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 22 (1870). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 1-57 (1376). 

Habitat regiones editiores, foliis Compositarum arborescentium 
gaudens ; vulgatissimus. 

The unique example from which I had to enunciate this Notioxenus 
in 1869, and which was taken by Mr. Melliss, chanced to belong to 
the variety, or state, in which the fulvous pubescence does not 
appear in any degree to tessellate the elytra ; but now that I have . 
had an opportunity of observing thousands of them, I am enabled to 
correct the diagnosis so as to lay proper stress on that particular 
point. In by far the majority of the specimens the elytra are very 
conspicuously dappled or subfasciated ; but when they become at all 
worn, and abraded, this character is less conspicuous. Although, 
Hke the rest of the species, variable in stature, the N. alutaceus is 
one of the smaller members of the group ; and its surface has usually 
a slight senescent tinge, mingled often with a faint shade of metallic 
green. It is but obscurely shining, indeed more frequently sub- 
opake, almost (or even entirely) free from punctures, but somewhat 
alutaceous all over ; and (which is its main distinctive feature) its 
striae are completely obsolete, with the exception of a deep impunc- 
tate sutural one (on each elytron) which is suddenly abbreviated 
anteriorly. Its antenna? are blackish, except the first and second 



182 ANTHRIBIDiE. 

joints — which, like the tibioo and the base of the tarsi, are either 
rufo- or piceo-testaceous. 

Although confined to the higher districts of the island (where it 
ascends to the very summits of the peaks), the iV". alutaceus is never- 
theless, within its own proper range, one of the most abundant of 
the St.-Helena Colcoptera. Indeed I doubt if there is any one 
which is more universally spread over the regions occupied by the 
cabbage-trees, — to the foliage of wliich (XDarticularly that of the Pla- 
daroxylon leucodendron, Hk. f.) it seems to be attached. It was first 
secured, in profusion, by Mr. Gray, at Cason's, during the com- 
mencement of our visit and before I had been able to reach the 
central heights ; but subsequently along the whole length of Stitch's 
Ridge, and towards Diana's Peak and Actaeon, we met with it in 
indefinite numbers, — it being scarcely possible to beat a single 
cabbage-tree without obtaining specimens. 



153. Notioxenus dimidiatus. 

N. ovatus, convexus, aut piceus aut ferrugineus et plus minus evi- 
denter subaeneo tinctus, nitidus, pube grossa demissa vel cinerea 
vel' fulvescente (in elytris fasciara postmediam dentatam inter- 
ruptam sajpius efiormante) vestitus ; capite ruguloso-punctato; 
oculis magnis, prominentibus ; prothorace sat profunde et confuse 
(sed in disco antico levins parciusque) punctate, linea subbasali 
valde elevata utrinque sinuata ; scutello miuutissimo, punctif ormi ; 
elytris basi conjunctim arcuato-marginatis (margine minute fim- 
briate), autice grossissime seriatim puuctatis, punctis in dimidia 
parte posticil cvanescentibus, sed striil suturali profunda impunc- 
tata antice evanescente impressis, pone medium spatio transverso 
necnon ad utrumquc latus ante apicem altero irregulari minore 
nigrescentibus nitidioribus ac magis glabris ; antennis gracilibus, 
nigrescentibus, art'^ 1™° et 2*^° (curvatis) pedibusque plus minus 
piceo- aut rufo-testaceis. 

Variat (rarius) colore nigro-seneo, viridi tincto, immaculato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1|. 

Notioxenus dimidiatus, WoU., Afin. Nat. Hist. v. 22 (1870 j. 
, Melliss, St. mi. lo6 (1875). 

Habitat regiones intermedias, ramulis emortuis fractis humi jacen- 
tibus prsecipue adherens. 

As in the case of the last species, the two examples from 
which I was compelled in 1869 to define this Notioxenus left me in 
ignorance of its true character of coloration ; for since one of them 



ANTHRIBlDiB. 183 

happened to be (what I now perceive is) the normal state, and the 
other the darker varietj-, in which the elytra are wholly immacu- 
late, I unfortunately regarded the latter as the tj-pe, and treated 
the ornamented form (which is truly typical) as immature and 
aberrant. In real fact the obscurer and unspotted phasis, although 
clearly a mere variety of the other, is extremely scarce, — only two 
or three individuals being indicated out of many hundreds of the 
maculated one which I have examined with considerable care ; and 
there can be no question therefore that it represents the aberration, 
and not the type. 

When unrubbed and richly-coloured, the N, dimidiatus (although 
rather small and ovate) is one of the most lively-tinted of all the 
Notloxeni,- — its more or less piceous or piceo-ferriiginous hue and 
shining surface, which is dappled with a coarse decumbent pubes- 
cence (either cinereous or fulvescent), which is concentrated on 
the elytra into an ill-defined dentate postmedian fascia (bounded 
anteriorly by a blacker, highly-polished, more glabrous transverse 
space), giving it a character which is quite its own. This trans- 
verse glabrous space is also supplemented by a smaller and more 
irregular one, of the same blackish hue, towards either lateral edge, 
halfway between the middle and apex ; "which tends still further to 
variegate the surface. But the main character of the species con- 
sists in its sculpture, — the elytra! punctures being enormous, closely 
set, and longitudinally disposed, but suddenly evanescent about the 
middle of each elytron, while the presence of an unpunctured sutural 
line, which (as in the N. alataceus) is continued to the apex, but is 
abbreviated anteriorly, is another feature which should be noted. 
Its antebasal prothoracic keel (which is considerably removed from 
the hinder margin) is much elevated and sinuate ; and its head and 
prothorax are distinctly but confusedly punctured, the punctures, 
however, on the anterior disk of the latter being both lighter and 
fewer. 

The N. dimidiatiLS appears to be an insect of strictly intermediate 
altitudes ; for I have never obtained a single example of it at so 
high an elevation as even the lowest portion of the central ridge. It 
is far from unlikely, therefore, that it may have belonged originally to 
the gumwood fauna. It is usually to be met with, in company with 
the Homceodera pumilio and alutaceicollis, adhering to old sticks 
which are lying on the ground ; under which circumstances I 
captured it in absolute profusion at Plantation, as well as in Vine- 



181' ANTIIRIBID.E. 

Tree Gut, — a small ravine, between Oakbank and Hutt's-Gate, 
which issues out of Halley's Mount. 

154. Notioxenus Janischi, n. sp. 

A', oblongus, niger, nitidus, pube grossa demissa fulva et albida 
nebulosus ; capita prothoraccque dense, rugose, et profunde 
punctatis, oculis maguis et valde prominentibus, hoc triangulari 
aut conico, subineequali, linea subbasali paulura elevata utrinque 
per partem posticam marginis lateralis curvate ducta ; scutello 
distincto, albido, subtransverso ; elytris basi marginatis (margine 
minute fimbriato), profunde punctato-striatis, distinctius albido - 
marmoratis (macula utriu(]ue ad humeros, altera in disco antico, 
fasciaque obsoletissima autcapicali I'racta, sJBpius praecipue discer- 
nendis) ; antennis nigrescentibus, art'' f"" et 2^° piceo-ferrugineis ; 
pedibus elougatis, crassis, nigrescentibus, tarsis late dilatatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-vis 4. 

Habitat ad folia Commiclendri robasti, DC. (anglice " Gumwood "), 
rarissimus ; inter arbores antiquas in Thompson's Wood parce 
repertus. 

The present species and the following one may be distinguished 
from the other members of the genus hy (inte?' alia) their prothoracic 
keel being conspicuously curved forwards at either extremity for 
about a quarter of the distance along the lateral edge of the pro- 
notum, — but not to so great an extent, or so much at right angles to 
the base, as in the subfamily Aroiocerides. They are both of them 
peculiar, apparently, to the foliage of the gumwood (Commidendron 
robustum, DC), and occur therefore at intermediate altitudes. In- 
deed the only spot in which I observed the iV. Janischi, which is 
very much the rarer of the two, was at Thompson's Wood, — where 
I obtained five examples of it by beating the old trees for which that 
remote locality is so famovis. 

The iV. Janischi is one of the largest and most conspicuous expo- 
nents of the group which have hitherto been brought to light ; and 
it gives me much pleasure to connect its name with that of His 
Excellency the Governor, — from whom we received so much 
kindness and consideration during • our six month's residence at 
St. Helena, and whose well-known scientific acquirements predisposed 
him to render us every assistance in his power towards investigating 
the fauna of the island. 

Apart from its large size, oblong outline, and thickened legs, the 
N. Janischi may be recognized by its black and rather coarsely 



anthribidjE. 185 

punctured surface being densely clouded, or variegated, with a robust 
decumbent pubescence, — which is partly of a brownish-fulvescent 
hue, and partly white. The whiter scales preponderate on the 
elytra, — where (although appreciable almost everywhere) they are 
most decidedly condensed about the shoulders as well as into a patch 
on either side of the fore disk, and into a very obsolete and often 
fragmentary subapical fascia. Its scutellum is white, and rather 
evident ; its limbs are a good deal blackened, except the first two 
joints of the antennae, which are piceo-ferruginous ; and its feet are 
broadly dilated. 

155. Notioxenus Dalei, n. sp. 

N. prsecedenti proximus, sed minor minusque oblongus (elytris 
sc. paululum magis ovatis), subnitidior et (subter pube, minus 
fulvescente) multo minus niger, — sc. prothorace sajpius piceo ely- 
trisque piceis sed ubique et suffuse rufulo-pictis ; capite protho- 
raceque minus profunde punctatis, hoc sensim minore, breviore ; 
scutello subminore et hand albido ; elytris fascia albida ante- 
apicali plerumque distinctius ornatis, sed macula in disco antico 
carentibus ; autennis pedibusque gracilioribus minusque nigre- 
sceutibus, illarum art'^ l""" et 2^° sensim gracilioribus, tarsisque 
minus dilatatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. Ig-vix 2|. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens, in Thompson's Wood 
et Peak Gut ad folia Commidendri robusti, DC, copiosius 
lectus. 

Like the last species, this is peculiar to the gumwood, from the 
foliage of which I obtained it both at Thompson's Wood and in Peak 
Gut, as well as between Peak Dale and Lufkins. It is a most 
distinct and beautiful Notioxenus, and one which belongs to exactly 
the same general type as the M. Jaiiischi,— its anteric "ly produced 
prothoracic line, and prima facie aspect, associating it unmistakably 
with that insect. Specifically, however, there can be no doubt that 
it is quite distinct, — its much smaller size and less oblong outline 
(the elytra beiug relatively more ovate in contour), added to its 
somewhat more shining and less blackened surface (the pubescence 
of which is whitish and cinereous, without any admixture of a 
brownish-fulvous hue), in conjunction with its darkened and less 
thickened limbs (of which the antennae have their first and second 
joints appreciably slenderer), being more than sufficient to separate 
it. Apart from these points, however, its prothorax is proportionally 



186 ANTHRIBID^. 

smaller and shorter, and (together with the head) less deeply 
punctured ; its scutellum is more minute, and not whitened ; its 
feet are less broadly expanded ; and its elytra will be seen, when the 
pubescence has been removed, to be not only less black, but blotched 
or suffused all over with ill-defined rufescent patches, — a fact which 
gives a reddish tinge, even when the scales are thickly present, to 
the entire surface. 

I have dedicated this interesting Notioxenus to my friend C. W. 
Dale, Esq., of Glanvilles Wootton, — whose extreme devotion to 
entomology, inherited from the worthiest of prototypes, is well 
known to all who have paid any attention to our favourite science. 



156. Notioxenus Grayii, n. sp. 

N. oblongus, angustulus, seneus, nitidus, pube demissa aureo-fulva, 
rarius cinerea (in elytris minus dense in fascia angusta dentata 
valde obliqua postmedia, necnon in linea longitudinali dentato- 
curvata subhumerali, et in spatio parvo subapicali, omnibus inter- 
dum obsoletis) vestitus ; capite prothoraceque dense et minute 
punctuiatis, oculis valde prominentibus, hoc triangulari, linea 
subbasali elevata sinuata sed vix antrorsum curvata ; scutello 
minuto, punctiformi ; elytris Icviter et minute substriato-punctatis ; 
antennis nigrescentibus, art'^ 1"'° et 2"*° Isete rufo-testaceis ; pedibus 
piceo-testaceis, scepe testaceo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-1 §• 

Habitat in editioribus locisque paululum minus elevatis, passim ; 
foliis Compositarum arborescentium adhserens. 

It Avas by Mr. Gray that this very distinct Not'wwemis was first 
captured, — who met with it, in tolerable profusion, at Cason's, by 
beating the foliage of the cabbage trees, during the early part of our 
sojourn at St. Helena ; and I am glad to name it after its discoverer, 
whose indefatigable researches added so many species to the list, — 
some few of which it proved extremely difficult (indeed in one or two 
instances impossible) afterwards to obtain. The N. Grayii is 
attached essentially to the cabbage-trees, but does not seem to be 
very common. I subsequently procured it, likewise, at Cason's, as 
well as on Stitch's llidge and towards Diana's Peak, and even so low 
down as Vine-Tree Gut, — a small ravine between Oakbank and 
Hutt's Gate. 

The oblong, straightened, rather narrow, and not very convex 
contour of this species, added to its brassy and finely sculptured 



ANTHRIBIDiE. 187 

surface, which is densely clothed with a golden-fulvous (rarely 
cinereous) pubescence, will readily distinguish it. In fresh and 
unrubbed examples its elytra have a tendency to be obscurely 
marked with a thread-like and extremely oblique zigzag postmedian 
fascia, an irregular and curved subhumeral longitudinal line, and a 
small space near the apex, formed by a mere disappearance of the 
pile ; but which in the majority of the specimens are so faint as to 
be barely traceable. 



157. Notioxenus aeneus, n. sp. 

N. ovatus, crassiusculus, seneus, nitidus, pube grossa demissa einerea 
(in prothorace prope augulos posticos et in lineis 3 obsoletis valde 
abbreviatis posticis, scd in elytris in fasciis duabus obsoletis fractis, 
prsecipue disposita) vestitus ; capite prothoraceque minute, Icviter, 
et confuse puuctulatis, oculis valde prominentibiis, hoc conico, 
linea subbasali valde elevata siuuata et utrinque paulo autrorsum 
curvata ; scutello sat distincto ; elytris basi marginatis (margine 
minute fimbriato), grosse striato-punctatis (striis punctisque 
postice levioribus) ; autennis gracilibus, piceis, art'' 1"'° et 2'^° 
laete rufo-testaceis ; pedibus rufo-piceis, tibiis basi clarioribus. 

Long. corp. liu. 2-3. 

Habitat ad truncos antiques emortuos' Comjyositarum arborescentium 
in regionibus valde elevatis; rarior. 

The rather large, thick, and ovate body of this shining and brassy 
Notioxenus, the surface of which is a good deal variegated with coarse 
decumbent cinereous pubescence (which on the prothorax is princi- 
pally concentrated into a patch towards the hinder angles, and into 
three extremely short and very obscure, often altogether obsolete, basal 
lines, whilst on the elytra, which are more or less tessellated with it 
all over, it is mainly apparent in two ill-defined and broken-up 
transverse fasciae), will readily distinguish it. Its subbasal protho- 
racic keel is considerably elevated, and a little curved forwards at 
either extremity ; its prothorax is conical ; its scutellum, although 
small, is quite appreciable ; and its elji^ral punctures are (at any rate 
anteriorly) large and coarse. 

The N. ceneus is decidedly scarce, though by constant visits to the 
central heights I succeeded in obtaining a tolerable number of it. It 
is essentially a cabbage-tree species, and one which occurs in the 
loftiest altitudes. It was met with both by Mrs. Wollaston and 
myself below Acta;on and on Stitch's Ridge,— particularly crawling 



188 ANTHRIBID^. 

ou the old and dead stumps of the cabbage-trees, as well as on 
decayed posts which had been made out of the trunks of the same ; 
but we seldom, if ever, procured it from the living plants and 
foliage. 

158. Notioxenus congener, n, sp. 

N. angustulo-ovalis, niger, nitidissimus, in elj'tris calvus sed in pro- 
thorace minutissime et parcissime cinereo-pubescens ; capita dense 
et rugulose punctato ; oculis baud valde prominentibus ; protho- 
race (saltern in disco) levius parciusque punctato, linea subbasali 
elevata sinuata vix antrorsum curvata ; scutello obsolete ; elytris 
angustule ovalibus basi truncatis, apice acutiusculis, grosse et 
profunde crenato-sulcatis, interstitiis paulo convexia, fere conco- 
loribus (sc. ad apicem ipsissimum, necnon rarius obsoletissime ad 
basin, paululum rufescentioribus) ; anteunis piceo-testaceis ; pedi- 
bus testaceo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. Ij-lg. 

Habitat in editioribus insulaj ; una cum N. rufopicto degens, sed 
multo rarior. 

Ohs. — Species N. rafojjicto affinis, sed differt corpore minore, 
angustiore, sensim minus ovato, prothorace vix minus profunde 
punctato minusque pubescente, elytris omnino calvis, sensim minus 
convexis, postice paululum acutioribus, et fere in toto concolori- 
bus, — sc. ad apicem ipsum (et multo rarius versus humeros et 
basin) solum rufescentioribus. 

Whether this is more than a permanent variety, or state, of the 
N. rufopictus I have hardly material enough to decide; I think, 
however, that it is more probably a distinct but cognate species. It 
differs from that insect in being on the average rather smaller, and 
in its outline being narrower and less ovate, in its prothorax being 
a trifle less coarsely punctured and still more minutely and sparingly 
cinereo-pubescent, and in its elytra (which are rather straighter at 
the humeral angles, loss convex, and more pointed posteriorly) being 
altogether bald, and very nearhj hlacl; — the extreme apex only, and 
occasionally a suftused blotch about the shoulders and base, being 
appreciably more rufescent. As in the N. rafopictus, its surface is 
highly polished, its scutellum is obsolete, and its elytra are deeply 
and coarsely crenate-sulcate. 

My examples (about a dozen in number) of this Notioxenus were 
taken, in company with the N. nifopictKS, on the higli central 
ridge, — in the vicinity of Actacon and Diana's Peak. 



anthribiDjE. 189 

159. Notioxenus rufopictus. (Fig. 9.) 

N. ovalis aut ovatus, niger, nitidissimus, minute et parce cinereo- 
pubescens ; capite prothoraceque dense et rugulose punctatis, 
oculis hand valde promineutibus, hoe linea subbasali elevata 
sinuatil vix autrorsum curvata ; scntello obsolete ; elytris convexis, 
grosse et profimde crenato-sulcatis, interstitiis latis, ubique 
maculis suflFusis (prsesertim pone medium et versus marginem) 
plus minus rufulo pictis ; antennis piceo-testaceis ; pedibus 
testaceo piceis. 

Variat elytrorum maculis plus minus suffusis et confluentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-vix 2\. 

Notioxenus rufopictus, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i, 213, pi. 14. f. 1 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 21 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 156 (1875). 

Habitat in regionibus valde elevatis, vulgaris ; nisi fallor ad Dick- 
soniam arborescentem proprius. 

The only example which I had seen of this Notioxenus up to the 
date of o\ir arrival in the island is one which was captured by the 
late Mr. Bewicke on the 21st of July, 1860 : and yet in the loftiest 
parts of the central heights there is hardly a coleopterous insect 
which is much more general or abundant. About Diana's Peak and 
Actaeon, as well as on Stitch's E-idge, it is universal ; and I also met 
with it towards the summit of High Peak. Although most of my 
examples were obtained by general blushing, I am inclined to 
suspect that the species may in reality be attached to the tree ferns ; 
for I never procured it except in the regions occupied by those 
plants, and it is certain that I occasionally took it out of the 
interior of the dead and moist Lichsonia-stexa^. In all probability, 
therefore, it was from the fronds of the D. arborescens that my 
specimens were principally beaten. It was found also by Mr. Gray 
during the commencement of our visit. 

There is certainly no member of the present genus, hitherto 
detected, which is more beautiful than the present one, — the nume- 
rous, but more or less suffused, bright-red spots with which its 
elytra are adorned (and which are occasionally subconfluent and very 
conspicuous), in conjunction with its otherwise black and highly 
polished surface, and its wide and deep crenulated strise, giving it a 
character which it is impossible to mistake. At first sight it appears 
to be perfectly glabrous ; but when examined beneath a high mag- 
nifying-power it will be seen to be sparingly and minutely cinereo- 



190 ANTHRIBID^. 

pubescent ; its head and prothoras are rather coarsely punctured ; 
and its scutellum is obsolete. 



160. Notioxenus rotundatus, n. sp. 

iV. rufopicto affiuisj sed multo minor et globosior, vix minus nitidus, 
et sensim densius (tamen miuutissime) ciuereo-pubescens, protho- 
race subminore, paulo densius ac paulo minus grosse punctate, 
elytris fere obovatis, striis multo crebrius ac multo minutius cre- 
nulatis, antennisque subloDgioribus ac subgracilioribus. 

Long, corp, lin. circa 1. 

Habitat in herbidis valde elevatis, rarissimus ; hactenus bis captus. 

The only two examples of this most interesting little Notioxemis 
which I have yet seen are from the high central ridge, in the immediate 
vicinity of Actseon and Diana's Peak, — the first of them having been 
captured by Mr. Gray, and the other by myself. It is evidently, there- 
fore, one of the rarest of the St. -Helena Coleoptera. In its brightly 
maculated elytra and general sculpture it belongs to exactly the same 
type as the N. rufojnctus ; nevertheless it is considerably smaller and 
more globose than that species, as also a trifle less shining and more 
densely (although most minutely) cinereo-pubescent. Its prothorax 
is relatively a little less developed, as well as more thickly and not 
quite so coarsely punctured ; its antennae are proportionally some- 
what longer and slenderer ; and its elytra, which are slightly obovate 
in outline, have their striae very much more closely and finely crenu- 
lated. This last character, although not the most evident at first 
sight, is perhaps its most important one. 

161. Notioxenus ferrugineus. 

If. oblongus, angustulus, elongatus, ferrugineus, subopacus, grosse et 
dense cinereo- aut fulvo-cinereo-pubescens ; capite prothoraceque 
densissime et minute punctulatis, ocuKs magnis et valde promi- 
nentibus, hoc linea subbasali elevata sinuata vix antrorsum curvata; 
scutello obsolete; elytris elongato-ovalibus, (subter pube) sat pro- 
funde punctato-striatis, per suturam necnon ijiterdum in lineis 
duabus fractis antice evanescentibus plus minus nigrescentibus ; 
antennis pedibusque iufuscate testaceis, illarum clava (prassertim 
art" ult™°) paululum obscuriore. 

Variat elytrorum partibus nigrescentibus majoribus subconfluentibus. 

Long. corp. lin. |-1|. 

Notioxenus ferrugineus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 405 (1871). 
, Meiliss, St. Hel. 157 (1875). 



ANTHKIBIDjE. 191 

Habitat in gramiiiosis (prsecipue apertis) in intermediis editioribusque 
insulae : vulgaris. 

This is a most abundant insect in the intermediate and lofty 
districts of the island, — ranging from about the altitude of Plantation 
te the extreme summits of the peaks. It is found nearly always in 
grassy places, particularly on the open slopes, where it may often be 
brushed into the sweeping-net in great numbers. Under such cir- 
cumstances it swarms at Plantation, as well as about West Lodge, 
High Peak, Cason's, Stitch's Eidge, and on the flanks of Diana's 
Peak and Actseon ; and I also met with it at Thompson's Wood and 
in Peak Gut ; but it is so extremely variable in stature (and to a 
certain extent also in the greater or less development of the darker 
streaks, or longitudinal dashes, of its elytra) that it was difficult to 
believe, untU I had accurately examined them, that two species were 
not concealed amongst the mass of examples which are now before 
me. However, after a careful comparison of them, I can detect 
nothing whatever to enable me to recognize more than a single, 
somewhat variable form ; though I think that the individuals which 
occur in the highest regions are, on the average, smaller and darker 
than those from the more strictly " intermediate " ones. 

There is no fear of confounding the N. ferrugineus with any of the 
preceding members of the genus,— its comparatively narrow, elon- 
gate, Sitona-like outHne, added to its nearly opake and more or less 
ferruginous surface, which, however, is densely clothed with either 
a whitish or yellowish-cinereous pubescence, being of themselves 
sufficient to distinguish it. Its head and prothorax are very densely 
but minutely punetulated; and its elytra, when the scales have 
been removed, will be seen to be rather coarsely punctate-striate, 
and more or less ornamented with sufi'used blackish longitudinal 
streaks or dashes, — which, although sometimes (except along the 
suture) nearly obsolete, are occasionally enlarged and subconfluent, 
so as to cover the greater portion of the surface. 

(Subfam. 3. HOMCEODERIDES.) 

(ProtJiorax simplex, sc. lined transversa nuUd instructus.) 

Genus 69. HOMffiODEEA. 
WoUaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 23 (1870). 

Corpus et instricmenta cibai-ia fere ut in Notioxeno, sed illud pie- 



192 ANTHRIBID^. 

rumque minoris niagnitudinis et minus ornatum, semper plus minus 
pubescens, 23>'othoraci'quG simplici, nee linea subbasali instructo. 

The members of the present group are, on the average, smaller 
and less variegated than the Notioxeni, — the greater proportion of 
them being, although minutely pubescent, very obscure is colouring. 
The JI. elateroides, however, which perhaps should be regarded as 
generically distinct, offers a slight exception to this rule ; and the 
comparatively brassy surface of the JI. minor and 2J]/gina'a separates 
them also, somewhat, from their congeners. But the main feature 
in which they all of them recede from Notioocenus consists in their 
prothorax having no appearance whatsoever of a subbasal pro- 
thoracic line, — a fact of considerable importance in the Anthribids. 
Although from their rather diminutive l)ulk and their want of lively 
tints the Homoeoderas are insignificant insects on the whole, they 
nevertheless include amongst them a greater variety of form than 
even the Notioxeni — so much so indeed that, although I have failed 
to discover structural characters of sufficient value to enable me to 
break up the group, I cannot but think that the time may perhaps 
arrive when it will be found desirable to do so on the evidence 
afforded by mere external configuration alone. And yet I must 
emphatically repeat that this great outward dissimilarity is, to my 
mind, far more suggestive of missing links even yet to be detected, 
than of an aboriginal series of independent generic centres. And if 
this opinion should prove to be correct, in all probability Homoeodera 
will be acknowledged eventually as by far the most extensive 
generic assemblage in the Coleopterous fauna of St. Helena. 

The 13 Homoeoderas which have hitherto been brought to light 
may be thus tabulated : — 

A. elytra stria mturali (antice evanescente) solum impressa. 
elateroides. 
AA. eli/tra plus minus evidenter ptmctato-striata. 
a. elytra postice excavata, et ibidem grossissime nodoso-producta. 
noduUpennis. 
aa. elytra incpqualia, sed vix nodulosa. 

Edithia. 
aaa. elytra simplicia (i. e. nulla modo nodulosa). 
j3. prothorax jihis minus distincte pundatus. 
y. elytra rotundato-ellijjtica. 

major, 
■yy. elytra hreviter snhohlonga. 

compositarum, 

pygmsea, 

pumilio. 



ANTHRIBID^. ' 193 

/3/j. prothorax vel omnino vel fere impunctatus. 
rotundipeuuis, 
alutaceicollis, 
asteris, 
Paivse. 
AAA. elytra esciilpturata {striis punctisqtie ohsoletis). 
b. corjms grosse albido-pubescens. 
coriacea. 
SS. corpus cahnim. 
o:lobulosa. 



162. Homceodera elateroides. 

H. angustulo-subelliptica, elongata, plus minus aeneo-picea, nitida, fere 
impunctata, pube demissa fulvo-cinerea nebuloso-sericata ; capito 
confuse punctulato ; prothorace magno, convexo, elongato-globoso, 
postice angustiore ; scutello obsolete ; elytris convexis, elongato- 
ellipticis basi grosse marginato-truncatis, postice subattenuatis, 
ad apicem ipsum minute siugulatim subnoduloso-gibbosis et ab- 
breviatis (pygidium profuude longitudinaliter foveolatum baud 
tegentibus), bine inde (prsesertim versus latera in medio, in disco, 
necnon ante apicem) obsolete et suffuse subglabro-variegatis, stria 
suturali impunctata (antice evanescente) solum impressis ; an- 
tennis pedibusque infuscate testaceis, illis versus apicem vix 
obscurioribus, bis elongatis crassis. 

Long. Corp. lin. Ik -2^. 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis, inter herbas (praecipue filices) ; rarior. 

The comparatively large and elongate, or Elater-Vike^ form of this 
Homceodera, in conjunction with its aeneo-piceous hue, and its shining 
almost unsculptured surface (the elytra alone being impressed with a 
single, unpunctured, anteriorly-evanescent sutural line), which 
however, is densely sericated with a short silken fulvo-cinereous 
pubescence, will at once characterize it. Its outline, too, is very 
peculiar, — the prothorax being large, convex, and elongate-globose, 
but narrowed behind, whilst the elytra are elliptical but gradually a 
trifle attenuated posteriorly ; and the latter, although not exactly 
variegated, are by no means uniform in tint, there being more or 
less evident indications of obsolete subglabrous spaces (having a 
just appreciably darker appearance) in various parts, — particularly 
about the middle of the lateral margin, down the disk, and towards 
the apex (which, however, itself is often slightly paler or rufescent). 

The H. elateroides is confined to the loftier portions of the central 
ridge, and is decidedly scarce — though, by repeated visits to its 
proper habitat, I secured a tolerable supply of examples. Tbcy 



194 ANTHRIBID/E. 

were nearly all of them taken about Diana's Peak and Actaeon, 
though I met with a few towards the summit of High Peak, 
Although it was by general brushing that they were obtained, I 
believe it was out of the masses of the ferns (either Diclcsonia 
arborescens or Dlplazhun nigro-paleacenm) that my specimens were 
usually beaten. The species was found also by Mr. Gray. 

163. Homceodera nodulipennis, n. sp. 

H. breviter et crasse ovalis aut elliptica, nigro-picea, opaca, pube 
grossa brevi demisssi cinereo-fulva dense sericata ; oculis minoribus 
et baud prominentibus ; prothorace breviter subconico, vix punc- 
tate sed minutissime subgranuloso : scutello obsolete ; elytris 
ovalibus basi late truncatis, grosse punctato-striatis, interstitiis 
inaequaliter elevatis interruptis, nodes efficientibus, — nodulo costi- 
formi ad humeros, altero majore elevatiore in disco postico, et 
tertio maximo distorto sinuato postice obtuse producto, ante 
apicem coneavo-excavatum in elytris singulis positis, prsecipue dis- 
cernendis : antennis pedibusque gracilibus, illis picescentibus, 
art'' 1""* et 2**° pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|, 

Habitat in editioribus insul^e, rarissima ; in praeruptis mox supra 
West Lodge parcissime deprehensa. 

This is perhaps the most extraordinary member of the Coleoptera 
which has hitherto been detected at St. Helena, — the enormous, 
wonderfully produced and apparently mishapen, obtuse nodule with 
which the apex of each of its elytra is furnished being quite unpre- 
cedented in any insect with which I am acquainted. The narrow 
space between these two subapical protuberances, i. e. the apex 
itself, is anomalously scooped out or excavated ; and since the pro- 
tuberances are rather sinuate and curved inwards, at first sight they 
seem almost to meet, and give a most singular and somewhat gro- 
tesque appearance to the whole posterior region, — savouring more 
of an accidental monstrous development than of any thing else. But 
that the structure in question is not indicative of a " monstrosity " 
becomes perfectly clear when the creature is accurately examined, 
to say nothing of its being precisely similar in both of the examples 
which are now before me. In other respects the H. nodulipennis is 
remarkable for its thick, obtuse, shortly oval, or elliptical form,^ 
the widest part being at the junction of the prothorax and elytra, 
which are broadly truncated at their respective bases ; its eyes are 



ANTHRIBID^E. 195 

not quite so large, or so prominent, as in most of the Homoeoderas ; 
its surface is opake and of a piceous black, but densely scricated 
with a short decumbent fulvescent pile ; its limbs are abbreviated 
and slender, the legs and the two basal joints of the antennas being 
testaceous ; and, although its prothorax is well-nigh uuscvilptured, 
its elytra are coarsely and deeply punctate-striate, with the inter- 
stices raised and interrupted so as to shape out a few ill-defined and 
subsidiarj' nodules in addition to the two monstrously developed 
apical ones, — of which the most apparent is one on either posterior 
disk, and a less elevated costiform one at the shoulders. 

The only two exam])les of this marvellous little insect which I 
have yet seen were captured by myself, early in February, at the 
extreme edge of the tremendous precipice, or crater-wall (consti- 
tuting the south-western portion of the great central ridge), imme- 
diately above West Lodge, — in one of the most exposed and windy 
spots it is possible to imagine. So difficult indeed was it, on account 
of the violence of the gale, to examine, even in the most imperfect 
manner, any thing that presented itself, that I feel almost satisfied 
that I inadvertently threw several specimens away, mistaking them 
for the seeds of plants. Nor, indeed, is their prima facie resem- 
blance to seeds, when the limbs are contracted, altogether fanciful ; 
for they at least have as much the appearance, at first sight, of a 
vegetable substance as of an animal one ; and it was more by acci- 
dent than any thing else that the symmetry of their outline induced 
me to put a couple of them into my coUecting-bottle. They were 
obtained amongst small and broken-up sticks, / tJiinJc of the common 
Gorse ; though their close proximity to the shrubs of the Astei- 
gummiferus (or " Little Bastard Gum wood "), which stud the inac- 
cessible rocks and ledges below, incline me to suspect that the 
■species may in reality belong to the fauna of that interesting but 
now rapidl}' disappearing arborescent Composite. 

164. Homceodera EditMa, n. sp. 

H. breviter subrotundato-ovata, arcuato-convexa, atra, nitida, fere 
calva (pube minutissima fulvo-cinerea pareissime irrorata) ; capite 
confuse et parce punctulato, in fronte foveolato, oculis magnis sed 
baud valde prominentibus ; prothorace conico, ad latera profunde 
sed parce punctato, sed in disco autico fere impunctato ; scutello 
minutissimo, pimctiformi ; elytris convexis, basi late truneatis, 
grossissime substriato-punctatis (punctis maximis), ubique mai- 

o2 



196 ANTHRIBID^. 

leato-incB(iualibus et hinc inde obsolete subnodulosis, — apatio sub- 
nodiformi in diseo autico, aliisque minoribns indistiiictis in disco 
postico vei'sus apicem, pnt^cipue discernendis ; antennis pedibnsque 
elongatis, crassis, illis piceis clava (elongata) dilutiore articulisque 
1"° et 2'^° rufescentioribus, his nigris, tarsis (elongatis, crassis) 
piceo-tcstaceis, etiam art" basilari latin scailo. 
Long. Corp. lin. vix 1|. 

Habitat regioncs valde excelsas, in ligno emortno marcido Bnddltice 
lyiadagascariensis, Vahl, juxta Diana's Peak semel tantum 
reperta. 

The only example of this most remarkable Homceodera which I 
have yet seen was captured by Mrs. Wollaston (after whom I have 
named the species) in the rotten trunk of a dead Buddlnn madagas- 
carietisis, Vahl, immediately below the Actseon and Diana's-Peak 
ridge, close to a spot called Newfoundland. It is evidently one of 
the rarest of the 8t. -Helena Coleoptera ; for, in spite of constant 
researches at the very same tree, we were quite unable to procure a 
second specimen. 

The II , Edithia is one of the most anomalous of the Homoeoderas ; 
and yet (as in the case of the H. nodidipcmiis^ which is even more 
anomalous still) I cannot detect a single structural character about 
it of sufficient importance to enable me to separate it generically 
from the remainder ; and we can only conclude, therefore, that 
forms of a more or less intermediate aspect may even yet be brought 
to light to articulate it on (as it were) to the more typical members 
of the group. The main features which at once separate the H. 
Edithia from the other Homoeoderas which have hitherto been 
detected, consists in its short, thick, convex, and rounded ovate 
body, its subconical, posteriorly widened prothorax, its deep black 
hue, and its shining and almost bald surface, — the elytra, however 
(the punctures of which are enormously developed), being uneven 
and malleated, with a faint trace of ill-defined obtuse prominences, 
or obsolete nodules. These latter are discernible in various parts, 
though more particularly on the fore disk and between the hinder 
disk and the apex. Its limbs are elongated and thick, — the antennae 
being dark in the centre, with their club (which is much lengthened) 
more diluted, or browner, and with their first and second joints 
rufo-piccous ; whilst the femora and tibia) are black, and the feet 
(which are considerably elongate, and have even their basal articu- 
lation somewhat incrassated) piceo-testaceous. 



ANTHRIBID.B. 197 

165. Homceodera major, u. sp. 

//. ovata, convexa, aenea (rariiis nigrescens), nitida, pube grossa 
demissa fulvo-cinerea parce nebulosa ; capite prothoraceque di- 
etiucte et suboequaliter punctatis, oculis maguis et valde promi- 
nentibus ; hoc subconvexo, postice angustiore ; scutello obsolete ; 
elytris convexis, rotundato-ellipticis, striato-i)unctatis, interstitiis 
latis depressis antice transyersim subrugulosis, in medio fascia 
magna deutatci transversa valde indistinctu subglabra (tamcn con- 
colori) obscure instructis ; antennis pedibusque elongatis, illis 
nigrescentibus (clava elongata), art'' 1"° et 2*^" piceo-testaceis, 
his fusco-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. I5-2. 

Habitat in regionibus valde elevatis insulae ; rarissima. 

A rather large and apparently scarce species, the only three 
examples which I have seen having been captured on the high 
central ridge,— two of them by myself, and the other by Mr, P. 
Whitehead. My own specimens were beaten off the blossoms 
of the Melanodendron integ rlfoliimi, DC, or " black cabbage-tree," 
on nearly the extreme summit of Actseon. Apart from its some- 
what large size (for a Homoeodera), the H. major may be known by 
its convex, rounded elliptical elytra, and its shining, brassy surface, 
which is sparingly clothed with a coarse cinereous pubescence, — 
which latter, however, is absent from an obscure, transverse, dentate, 
fascia-like, but concolorous space across the central region of the 
elytra. Its limbs are elongate, — the antennae (which have their club 
a good deal lengthened) being blackish, with the first and second 
joints piceo-testaceous, and the legs being brownish-piceous. 



166. Homceodera compositarum, n. sp. 

H. ovato-oblonga, nigra (saepius obsoletissime subviridi aut sub- 
ffineo-viridi tincta), nitida, pube grossa demissa cinerea (rariua 
fulvo-cinerea) parce nebulosa ; capite (saltern in fronte) fere 
impunctato ; prothorace profunde et dense punctate, in disco 
antico saepe laeviore ; scutello obsoleto ; elytris breviter sub- 
oblongis, grosse striato-punctatis, pone medium fascia dentata 
transversa plerumque valde indistincta subglabra (tamen con- 
colori) obscure instructis ; antennis pedibusque nigrescentibus, 
illarum art'* 1""° et 2'^" piceo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-lf . 

Hahitat inter Compositas arborescentes, vulgaris ; ia elevatis et eub- 
elevatis degena. 



198 ANTHRIBIDii:. 

Variable in stature as the nomceoderas are, this one is perhaps the 
most variable of them all, — the largest specimens trebling, in actual 
bulk, the smaller ones. In its main features, however, it is not so 
very inconstant, — its rather oblong outline and dark surface (which 
is sparingly clouded with a coarse cinereous pubescence, and has 
usually a very obsolete greenish or brassy-greenish tinge), in con- 
junction with its distinctly punctiired prothorax, the large and deep 
punctures of its elytral striae, and its hlachish limbs (the first and 
second joints of the antennae being alone piceo -testaceous), being 
sufficient to characterize it. 

The present Homceodera seems to be attached to the various arbo- 
rescent Composite^, — though more, I think, to the asters and gum- 
woods than to the cabbage-trees. Still I have beaten it frequently 
from the foliage of the latter in the very loftiest parts of the central 
ridge, about Actaeon and Diana's Peak, as well as on High Peak ; 
though it is infinitely more abundant amongst the Aster (jummiferus 
(on the inner slopes of ihe great Sandy-Bay crater) beyond West 
Lodge, as well as amongst the gumwoods at Thompson's Wood, in 
Peak Gut, and towards Lufkins. 

167. Homceodera pygmaea. 

II. subovata, senea, nitida, pube grossa subdcmissa fulvo-cinerea 
parce nebulosa ; capite prothoraeeque minutissime alutaceis punc- 
tisque parvis leviter notatis, hoc ovali ; scutello obsolete ; elytris 
subovatis, punctato-striatis, interstitiis subconvexis et paululum 
rugulosis, pone medium fascia dcntata transversa valde indistinct* 
subglabra (tamen concolori) obsolete instructis ; autennis nigres- 
centibus, art''^ 1™° et 2^° rufo-testaceis ; fcmoribus tarsisque piceis, 
tibiis i)iceo-testaceis. 

Variat (rarius) colore nigrescentiore, tibiisque concoloribus (nee 
piceo-testaccis), — H. compositarmn fere simulans. 

Long. Corp. lin. f-l|. 

Homceodera pygmaea, Wall., Atin. Nat. Hist. v. 24 (1870). 
, Melliss, St. Eel. lo7 (1875). 

Habitat inter Compositas arborescentes, in locis elevatis, passim. 

This is a rather small and insignificant species, though at tho 
same time distinguishable amongst its allies by its somewhat more 
ovate outline and its conspicuously brassy hue, and by its tibiae being 
nearly always diluted in colouring, or piceo-testaceous. Its head 
and prothorax will be seen under a powerful lens to be very 
minutely alutaceous, but nevertheless rather thickly studded with 



AXTHRIBID^. 199 

small and lightl)^- impressed punctures ; and its elytra (which are 
deeply and closely punctate-striate, with the interstices slightly 
convex) have traces (in unrubbed examples) of a very obscure post- 
median transverse fascia, — not differently coloured from the rest of 
the surface, but formed by the mere partial absence of the fulvo- 
cinereous pubescence. This last-mentioned character, however, as 
in the other species in which it obtains, is often altogether 
inappreciable, 

I have taken this Homoeodera sparingly on the central ridge about 
Diana's Peak and Actseon, as well as at Cason's (where it was like- 
wise found by Mr. Gray) and at High Peak, — in which latter locality 
it was extremely abundant beneath the dead and loosened bark of a 
Petrobixm arhoreum^ R. Br., or " whitewood cabbage tree." I also 
met with it at Thompson's Wood. 

168. Homoeodera pumilio, n. sp. 

H. prsecedenti similis, sed minor ac sensim minus senea (sc. aeneo- 
picea, interdum etiam picea), capite prothoraceque saepius minus 
alutaceis sed densius punctulatis, clytris vix minus convexis 
minusque rotundatis (sc. paululum magis paraUelis aut breviter 
oblongis), pedibus omnino rufo-testaceis (sc. nullo modo in femo- 
ribus et tarsis picescentibus). 

Long. Corp. lin. ^-1. 

Habitat in intermediis editioribusque (prsesertim illis), vulgaris. 

Although the largest examples are perhaps larger than the most 
dwarfed ones of these immediately allied forms, the H. pumilio is 
nevertheless, on the average, the smallest of the Homoeoderas (not 
excepting even the H, globalosa) which have hitherto been brought 
to light ; and although it has a good deal in common with the 
pyrfincea, I am satisfied that it is quite distinct from that insect speci- 
, fically. Moreover its habits, and range, are altogether different ; 
for whilst the jiyi/mcea is emphatically a native of the high central 
ridge, where it occurs amongst the arborescent Compositce, it is only 
sometimes that the pumilio ascends into those altitudes, its proper 
area being strictly within the " intermediate " districts, — where it 
attaches itself in great numbers to the small and broken-up sticks of 
various trees and shrubs. Under such circumstances it absolutely 
swarms at Plantation (where it may be found, likewise, adhering to 
the fallen cones of fir-trees), in company with the //. alutctcncoUis 
and the Notioxeuus (limidiatus ; but, from its minute size and the 



200 ANTHRIBID^. 

close resemblance of its colour to the brown surfaces to which it is 
usually attached, it is not always easy to be recognized. It may 
often be seen crawling sluggishly (especially after showers) on old 
posts, within the cracks and crevices of which it is apt to conceal 
itself. At West Lodge, Thompson's Wood, and in Peak Gut the 
H. pumilio is extremely common ; but it is comparatively seldom 
that I met with it on High Peak and the still loftier parts of the 
great central ridge. 

Apart from its much smaller size (on the average), the H. pumilio 
differs from the pijgmcea in being less decidedly brassy (though it 
has usually more or less of an appreciable senescent tinge) — its 
colour being sdneo -pi ceous, and sometimes even piceous only, — in its 
head and prothorax being generally less alutaceous but rather more 
closely punctulated, in its elytra being a little less convex and also 
a trifle less rounded at the sides, and in its legs, instead of having 
the femora and tarsi picescent, being wholly testaceous. 



169. Homceodera rotimdipennis. 

H. crasse ovata, nigra, pube grossji demissa cinereo-fulva laete (in- 
terdum etiam ornate) marmorata ; capite prothoraceque opacis, 
alutaceis (sed baud punctatis), illo magno mandibulis magnis, 
oculis hand valde prominentibus, hoc magno, postice paululum 
angustato, adlateraplus minus fulvo-pubescenti maculato; scutello 
minutissimo, punctiformi ; elytris subquadrato-ovatis basi late 
truncatis, vix minus opacis (interdum obsoletissime subseneo 
tinctis), grosse et profunde striato-punctatis (punctis magnis), 
interstitiis rugulosis et subcostatis, in disco antico saepe subconcavo- 
foveolatis, ad basin in medio, necnon iu fascia postmedia trans- 
versa, plus minus evidenter fulvo-cinereo-pubescentibus ; antennis 
gracilibus, nigrescentibus, art'^ 1"° et 2''° laete rufo-testaeeis ; 
pedibus elongatis, crassis, inasqualiter rufo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ^-1|. 

Homceodera rotundipennis, Woll. Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 23 (1870). 
— , Melliss, St. Hel. 157 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis (et, rarius, subeditioribus) insulae : ad trimcos 
antiques emortuos Asteris girmmiferi, Hk. f., et Commidendri 
robusti, DC, necnon sub cortice arido laxo, prsecipue adhgerens. 

The thick and squarish-ovate outline of this Homceodera, in con- 
junction with its comparatively large head and mandibles, its opake 
but unpunctured head and prothorax (the latter of which is rather 
elongate, and somewhat narrowed behind), and its rounded-quadrate. 



ANTHRIBID.'E. 201 

roughly sculptured elytra, will serve to distinguish it from its 
immediate allies. Its surface (which is black, and only rarely with 
a verj' faint subaeneseent tiuge on the elj-tra) is, in fresh and 
unrubbed examples, beautifully dappled with a coarse, decumbent, 
fulvo-cinereous pubescence, — which in most instances completely 
covers the head, but is concentrated on the prothorax into a few 
elongated subconfluent patches toivards either side ; whilst on the 
elytra, although present in various parts, it is more particularly 
traceable in a small central patch at the extreme base and in a post- 
median transverse fascia. However, when the specimens are in the 
least degree worn and abraded, this ornamentation is quite absent. 
Its legs are long and thick, and of an unequal rufo-piceous hue. 

Unless I am much mistaken, the B. rotundipennis is more 
attached to the arborescent asters and gumwoods than to any thing 
else ; for, although I have taken it sparingly at Plantation, that 
district in all probability abounded once with gumwoods, and it is 
certainly quite at home amongst the gumwoods at Thompson's Wood, 
as well as amongst those in Peak Gut and between Peak Dale and 
Lufkins. At West Lodge, however, and more particularly in the 
Aster-^OYe beyond it (overlooking Lufkins), it is more common 
than in any spot which I observed, though it is evident that the 
species must, on the whole, be regarded as a scarce one. It is 
usually to be met with beneath the dead and loosened bark of the 
old trees, and even (in the very eye of the wind) on the trmils 
themselves, to which it woTild seem to have the power of adhering 
with wonderful tenacity. By Mr. P. Whitehead it has been obtained 
sparingly at Arno's Yale. 

170. Homceodera alutaceicoUis. 

H. oblonga, nigra aut fusco-nigra, stepius obsoletissime subseneo 
tincta, pube grossa demissji cinerco-fulva et albida nebulosa ; 
capite prothoraceque alutaceis, subopacis (sed hand puuctiilatis), 
hoc longiusculo, postice paulum angustiore ; scutello obsoleto aut 
vix discernendo ; elytris suboblongis, paulum magis submicantibus, 
striate -pun ctatis, in medio obsoletissime albido- et pone medium 
subglabro-fasciatis ; antennis rufo-testaceis, clava obscuriore ; 
pedibus crassis, femoribus piceis, tibiis tarsisque (pragsertim illis) 
magis testaceis. 

Loug. Corp. lin. I-I5. 

Homceodera alutaceicoUis, Tfo//., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 24 (1870). 
, 3Ielliss, St. Ilel. 157 (1875). 

Habitat intermedias insulae (in regiones valde elevatas multo rarius 



202 anthrtbid.t;. 

ascendcns) ; truncis ramulisque emortuis, hurai jacentibus, 
copiosissime adhcercns. 

This is one of the most common and widelj'-spread of the Horaoeo- 
deras in the intermediate districts of St. Helena, though ascending 
likewise more sparingly into the highest ones. I met with only a 
very few specimens of it on the lofty central ridge ; but at Planta- 
tion it absolutely swarms, — occurring principally, along with the H. 
pamilio and the Notioxenus dimidiatus, on dead sticks lying on the 
ground. It frequently attaches itself to old posts and gates, out 
of the crevices of which it may be seen to crawl sluggishly. I 
likewise met with it in Vine-Tree Gut (below Halley's Mount), as 
well as at West Lodge, and amongst the gumwoods in Thompson's 
Wood, Peak Gut, and towards Lufkins ; and I am inclined to 
suspect that, in all probability, it is a remnant of the aboriginal 
gumwood fauna. 

The H. alutaceicoUis is a rather small and inconspicuous species ; 
but it is one which may easily be recognized by its outline beiug 
somewhat more straightened, or oblong, than is the case in the 
immediately allied forms, whilst its head and prothorax (the latter 
of which is narrowed behind, and elongate) are opake and finely 
alutaceous, but not appreciably punctured. Its pubescence is coarse, 
and consists partly of fulvo-cinereous and partly of whitish scales ; 
its elytra, which are not quite so opake as the rest of the surface, are 
distinctly striate-punctate ; its antenna?, with the exception of the 
club (which is darker), are generally altogether rufo-testaceous ; and 
its legs, which are much thickened, have their femora piceous, but 
their tibiae and tarsi (especially the former) paler or more testaceous. 

171. Homceodera asteris, n. sp. 

H. alutaceicolli valde affinis, et forsan ejus varietas Asteri glutinoso, 
Roxb., propria. DitFert prtecipue statura minus oblonga aut 
magis abbreviata, elytris sensim breviorihus, latioribus, ac magis 
rotundatis, antennisque vix sublongioribus. 

Long. corp. lin. |-1. 

Habitat inter arbusculas Asteris glutinosi, Roxb. (anglice "Scrub- 
wood"). Duo exemplaria collegit Dom. P. Whitehead. 

It is not impossible that this obscure little Homoeodera may prove 
eventually to be but a local state, or phasis, of the alutaceicoUis 
peculiar to the Aster r/lutinosus, Iloxb., or " Scrubwood ;" but since 
there is a decided difference in the outline of its elytra, and its habits 



ANTHRIBIDili. 203 

do not appear to be the same, I am inclined to suspect that the two 
examples which are now before me may represent perhaps a separate 
but closely- allied form. Almost the only point, however, in which 
it recedes from the alutaceicollis, so far at least as I can detect, con- 
sists in its shorter, or less oblong, contour (the elytra being rounder 
and more abbreviated, and therefore relatively a little broader) ; and 
its antennse are perhaps just perceptibly longer ; but the scrubwood 
fauna embraces so many species which do not pertain to that of the 
other arborescent Compositce, that I think it is safer to treat this 
Homceodcra as distinct from the alutaceicolUs and to wait for further 
evidence to enable us to decide the question positively. 

It is to Mr. P. Whitehead that we are indebted for this addition 
to the St.-Hclena fauna, — the only two examples which I have seen 
having been captured by him from some bushes of the scrubwood 
between Sugarloaf and Flagstaff Hill, in the extreme north of the 
island. 

172. Hoinceodera PaivsB, u, sp. 

H. ovata, nigra, obsoletissime subviridi-tincta, pube grossa demissa 
fulvo-cinerea parce vestita ; capite prothoraceque subopacis, 
grosse alutaceis (sed baud punctotis), hoc ovali ; scutello obsolete, 
aut vix discernendo ; elytris ovatis, paulo magis micautibus, pro- 
funde striato-punctatis, pone medium obsolete fasciatis ; antennis 
breviusculis, nigrescentibus, art'^ 1™° et 2^^° (praesertim illo) rufo- 
testaceis ; pedibus longiusculis, crassiusculis, nigrescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Habitat (nisi fallor) in cditioribus insulae, a meipso semel tantum 
lecta. 

The single example from which I am compelled to describe this 
minute Homceodera, and which was taken by myself (I believe, on the 
central ridge), has more the appearance at first sight, in its greenish- 
black hue and dark legs, of a very diminutive specimen of the H. 
com'positariiin, did not its opake, alutaccous, and totally unpxmctured 
head and prothorax refer it to the present division of the genus. 
Moreover even its elytra are less shining than in the H. compositarum, 
as well as less coarsely striate-punctate and very much more rounded 
(or ovate) in outline. From the M. alutaceicollis, on the other hand, 
it is abundantly distinct, not only in its smaller size and in its much 
more ovate (or less straightened) contour, but likewise in its f/reenish- 
black hue, in the darkened intermediate joints of its antennae, and in 
its blackened leijs. 



204 A.VTHUI151D.E. 

I have had great pleasure in dedicating thia little IJomoeodera to 
my excellent friend the Barao do Castello de Paiva, of Lisbon, whose 
former researches at Madeira and in the Canaries have thrown bo 
much light on the natural history of those particular archipelagos. 



173. Homceodera coriacea. 

//. ovata (rarius oblongo-ovata), nigra, opaca, coriacea, esculpturata 
(nee punctata, ncc striata), pube grossa demissa fulvo-ciuerea et 
albida parce nebulosa ; scutello obsoleto, aut vix observando ; 
elytris ad basin versus humeros, necnon in fascia medicl obsoletis- 
sima fracta, interdum albido-pubescentibus ; aiitennis rufo-testa- 
ceis, clavji obscuriore ; pedibus crassiusculis, nigrescentibus. 

Variat corpore obsoletissime subaeneo tincto, tibiis sensim dilu- 
tioribus. 

Long. corp. lin. f-vix 1. 

Honioeodera coriacea. Wall., A^in. Nat. Hist. viii. 406 (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Hel 157 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis insulJB, nisi fallor Commidendro rohusto, DC. 
(anglice " Gumwood ") propria. 

Judging from the five examples only which are now before me, 
this obscure little Homceodera would appear to be one of the rarer 
members of the group ; though, if I a,m right in concluding that it is 
attached normally to the gumwoods, it is far from unlikely that 
when those trees have been more completely searched it will be 
found to occur commonly enough in some locality which has 
hitherto been but imperfectly investigated. My own specimens 
were captured at Plantation and in Peak Gut, in the latter from 
the foliage of the gumwood ; but where Mr. Melliss's unique example 
was met with, I have not the means of ascertaining. At any rate I 
have no evidence hitherto that the species ascends above the inter- 
mediate districts. 

Apart from its diminutive size, the present Homceodera may 
immediately be recognized by ita nearly opake, coriaceous, but totally 
uasculptured surface, — which, however, in fresh and unrubbed ex- 
amples, is more or less sparingly clouded with coarse, decumbent, 
•whitish scales. Its colour (beneath the scales) is normally of a deep 
black with a just appreciable subcyaneous tinge, and its legs are 
likewise dark ; but there seems to be a state, or variety, in which a 
very faint (enesccnt lustre is traceable, and in which the tibife (as in 
the H. alutaceicoUis) are perceptibly diluted in hue. Still its total 



ANTHRIBIDiE. 



205 



vrsint of sculpture (even ou the elytra) will at once distinguish the 
species. 

17-i. Homoeodera globulosa, n. sp. 

E. rotundato-ovata, convexa, piceo-nigra (iramatura picea), sub- 
opaca, fere calva et fere esculpturata (sc. pube, punctis, et striis 
omnino obsoletis) ; prothorace breviter subcylindrico-ovali ; scu- 
tello obsoleto ; elytris globoso-ovalibus ; antennis pedibnsque piceo- 
testacei.s, illarum clava picescentiore, his crassis. 

Long. Corp. lin. f-f. 

Habitat in herbidis valde elevatis, minus frequeus. 

The convex, rounded, subglobose contour of this singular little 
species, added to its practically bald, unsculptured, subopake surface, 
and its piceous-black concolorous hue (the limbs alone being paler), 
give it an appearance, at first sight, so diiferent from the whole of 
the preceding members of the group that it might almost seem to 
merit generic separation. Yet, after a careful overhauling of its 
various details, I cannot detect any thing about it sufficient for that 
purpose ; and I can, therefore, only conclude (as I did in the some- 
what analogous cases of the //. nodaUpennis and Ediihia) that 
future observations will in all probability bring to light intermediate 
forms (if indeed they have not already become extinct) wbich will 
justify the propriety of retaining it even now amongst the true 
Homoeoderas. 

The //. globidosa is confined to the high central ridge : indeed, 
with the exception of a single individual which I met with above 
West Lodge, the wbole of my specimens (about 50 in number) were 
captured on the very loftiest portion of it, — in the neighbourhood of 
Actseon and Diana's Peak. They were all of them obtained by 
general brushing ; so that I am unable to decide as to the particular 
plant to which the species is attached ; but I think it most likely 
that it belongs to the cabbage-tree fauna. It was found also below 
the Cabbage-tree Road by Mr, P. Whitehead. 

Genus 70. ACARODES (nov. gen.). 

Corpus et caet. fere ut in Homoeodera, sed illnd breviter ovatum, 
valde arcuato-convexum, globuli- aut potius guttiforme, politissi- 
mum, glaberrimum, calvum, subtranslucidum ; oml'is parvis ; pro- 
thorace breviter conico ; acntcJIo nullo ; tarsisqne magis simplicibus 
(sc. minus lato bilobis). — N.B. Genus Xenorchestes, insularum 



206 ANTHRIBID/E. 

Maderensium, simulans, et ei certe proximuin. DifFert, tamea, 
inter alia, corpore hand saltatorio, aiatennis pedibustjue gracilio- 
ribus ac minus elongatis, tarsorum. art° 1'"° multo breviorc, 3"°quo 
minus evidcnter bilobo. 
Ab AcarKS, et eloos, aspectus. 

Without any very decided structural peculiarities to separate it 
from the members of that assemblage, it is almost impossible to 
admit the singular little Anthribid from which the above diagnosis 
has been compiled amongst the Homoeoderas, — its extremely convex, 
shortly ovate, r^rop-shaped contour, in conjunction with its toUdhj 
unsculpturcd^ highly polished, bald, and subtranslucid surface (which 
is either black or piceous black), giving it a character which is 
essentially its own. In point of fact, it so closely resembles at first 
sight the curious Xenorchestes saltitans of Madeira that, before I had 
examined it accurately, I felt disposed to refer it to the same actual 
genus ; nevertheless its complete want of the capacity for hopping^ 
added to its shorter and slenderer limbs (the first joint of the feet 
being very conspicuously less elongate, and the third one less evi- 
dently bilobed), incline me to think that it should be treated as the 
exponent of a distinct but intimately connected group. Its manifest 
relationship, however, with one of the rarest and most remarkable of 
the Madeiran types gives it an interest, geographically, which it is 
difficult to overrate. 

175. Acarodes gutta, n. sp. 

A. breviter ovata, arcuato-convexissima, nitidissima, glaberrima, 
calva, nigra aut piceo-nigra, subtranslucida, omnino esculpturata : 
oculis parvis sed prominulis ; prothorace breviter conico ; elytris 
versus basin interdum obsolete et suffuse subtranslucido-dilutio- 
ribus, sed saepius omnino concoloribus ; autennis pedibusque graci- 
libus, piceo-testaceis, illarum clava tarsisque paulo picesceutioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa |. 

Habitat inter folia putrida marcida, humi jacentia, in regionibus 
valde elevatis ; sat vulgaris. 

This anomalous little Anthribid was first detected by Mrs. "Wol- 
laston, — who secured several examples of it (on two or three different 
occasions, and before I was able to meet with a single one) at a 
very high altitude on the central ridge, immediately below the 
extreme summit of Action, They were all of them obtained on the 
wet ground amongst sodden leaves, — hettveen which they woul-d 



BllUCHID^. 207 

secrete themselves, in much the same manner as many of the Ph'd- 
Ju/drida do in other countries : and it was only afterwards, by 
sifting, that I succeeded myself in securing additional individuals. 
Having once, however, found out their exact modus vlvendi, I soon 
ascertained that any number of specimens could be procured by 
either shaking or sifting the damp rotting leaves which strewed the 
ground beneath the cabbage-trees ; and by this process we accumu- 
lated ultimately a considerable series. From its small size, unsculp- 
tured brilliantly-polished surface, inflated outline, and dark hue, the 
insect is so suggestive at first sight of a large Acarus that when 
found in company with the latter it was not always easy without 
the aid of a lens to distinguish immediately between the two. 



Fam. 32. BRUCHID^. 

Genus 71. BRUCHUS. 
GeoiFroy, Ins. de Paris, i. 1G3 (1672). 

176. Bruchus rufohrunneus. 

B. quadrato-subovatus, rufo-brunneus in elytris clarior, subtus dense 
ciaereo sed supra iuEequaliter fulvescenti ct cinereo piloso-varie- 
gatus ; capite prothoraceque dense ruguloso-punctatis, illo argute 
carinato, oculis magnis, luniformibus, hoc conico, in parte media 
basali macula quadrat;! subbipartita cinerea ornato ; scutello 
rotundato, cinereo : elytris quadratis, profunde striatis, interstitiis 
convexis ac rugulosis, fasciis 3 obsoletissimis (iuterdum suffusis et 
vix disccrnendis) intus plus minus abbreviatis obscure nebulosis ; 
antennis pedibusque piceo-testaceis, illis versus apicem (saltem in 
c?) pedibusque posticis paulo obscurioribus, femoribus posticis 
denticulis duobus contiguis (e marginibus externo et interne sur- 
gentibus) subtus armatis, tibiis posticis ad angulos apicales internes 
spinis duabus inaiqualibus (una sc, prassertira in d", elongata, 
robusta) tenninatis. 

Mas antennis multo longioribus, paulo crassioribus, intus longe 
pectinatis ; pedibus anterioribus etiam subgracilioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 1^. 

Bruchus rufobruuueus, JVolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 25 (1870). 
, Melliss, St. Hvl. 157 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus, mercatorumque repositoriis ; in insulam iuvcctus. 

I did not meet with either the present Brxchus or the following 
one during our sojourn at St. Helena, — haviug had but liitle 



208 BRUCHJD.E. 

leisure to devote to the mere introduced species which occur about 
the warehouses aud stores, and which in ever}' country constitute a 
section of the fauna which is of all others the least important. 
Several examples, however, of the B. rufobrunnens, and one of the 
advena, were found by Mr. MeUiss amongst rice ; and it was with 
considerable reluctance, knowing how extremely liable to accidental 
dissemination the Brachi are throughout the civilized world, that I 
felt compelled (in 1869) to describe them as new. Yet having been 
unable, both then and since, to affiliate them with any species which 
had already been characterized, I have no option but to cite them 
afresh under the titles which I ventured to propose, — leaving the 
question of their identity, or otherwise, with previously-defined 
forms still open for future consideration. 

In my remarks on the B. rufohrumuus, in 1870, I stated that its 
main features appeared to consist in its reddish-brown hue, — the 
elytra, however, being more pale and rufescent than the head and 
prothorax; in the latter being dappled with cinereous scales, which are 
concentrated into a squarish central bipartite patch in the middle (be- 
hind the scuteUum), and sometimes apparently into two obsolete and 
fragmentary oblique bands ; in its head being powerfully keeled ; 
in its elytra being deeply striate (with the interstices convex), and 
likewise ornamented (in unrubbed specimens) with rudimentaiy 
bands or fascise on either side, — composed, in examples which are 
hi"-hly coloured, of darkish cloudy patches, with a few ashy scales 
between ; in the antennae of the male being very much longer than 
those of the female, and deeply pectinated internally ; and in its 
two posterior femora being armed beneath with two small denticles, 
alongside each other and arising out of the inner and outer edges 
respectively, — whilst the two inner angles of its two hinder tibiae 
are each terminated by a spine, one of which (particularly in the 
male sex) is robust and elongated. 

177. Bruchus advena. 

B. prsecedenti similis, sed paulum angustior ac sensim magis ellip- 
ticus (sc. elytris sublongioribus pygidioque minus perpendiculari), 
capite minus evidenter carinato, prothorace subprofundius punc- 
tate et postice in medio hand cinereo- (tantum fulvescenti-) 
pubescente, elytris minus depressis, clarius rufescentibus, Itetiusque 
pictis, multo magis tenuiter leviusque subcrenulato-striatis, inter- 
stitiis valde depressis (nee convexis), anteunis brevioribus ac 



CERAMBICID^. 209 

magis compaetis, femoribus posticis omnino simplicibus (nee subtus 
denticulatis), spinisque tibiarum terminalibus minus robustis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Bruchus advena, WolL, Ami. Nat. Hist. v. 26 (1870). 
; — , MelUss, St. Hel. 157 (1875). 

Habitat in locis similibus ac praecedens ; mihi non obvius. 

The single individual (a female) from which I was compelled in 
1870 to enunciate this Bruchns still embodies aU that I have seen 
of the species which it represents. There can be no doubt that, like 
the preceding one, it is a mere accidental importation into St. He- 
lena, perhaps along with either fruits or seeds ; but whether it has 
become thoroughly established in the stores and warehouses of the 
island I am scarcely in a position to decide. 

The B. advena has much the same general colouring as the rufo- 
hrunneus, and in all probability it must have been introduced origi- 
nally from the same country (wheresoever that may be) ; neverthe- 
less, judging from the single example which is now before me, it is 
a little narrower and more elliptical than that species (its elytra 
being rather longer, or less quadrate, and its pygidiiim less perpen- 
dicularly decurved, and therefore more visible from above), its head 
is less evidently keeled, its prothorax is free from the square patch 
of wliitish scales in the centre of the base, its elytra (which are less 
depressed) are of a redder tint and apparently more highly decorated 
with fascia-like markings, as well as very much more finely and 
lightly striated and with the interstices considerably flatter; its 
antennse are shorter and more compact ; and its two hind legs have 
their femora entirely free from the small denticles which characterize 
its ally, and the terminal spines of their tibiae less developed. 



Sectio 9. EUCERATA. 

Fam. 33. CERAMBICIDiE. 

Genus 72. CURTOMERUS. 
Stephens, Man. Brit. Col. 269 (1839). 

178. Curtomerus pilicornis. 
C. angustus, cylindricus, subnitidus, rufo-ferrugineus, pilis fulves- 



210 LAMIIDiE. 

centibus suberectis ubique (etiam in antennis pedibusque) parce 
vestitus ; capite deflexo, oculis magnis, valde prominentibus, sub- 
limato-reniformibus ; prothorace ovali cylindrico, postice angus- 
tiore, antice constricto, punctis perpaucis asperatis aut tuberculi- 
formibus adsperso ; elytris cylindricis, basi recte truncatis, parce 
subseriatim (antice subasperato-) pnnctatis ; antennis pedibusque 
elongatis, vix clarioribus, femoribus basi pedunculatis, apicem 
versus valde clavatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. vix 4. 

Callidium pilicorne, Fab., Ent. Syst. ii. 327 (1792). 

luteum {Mshn), StepL, III. Brit. Ent. iv. 249 (1831). 

Curtomerus luteus, Id., Man. Brit. Col. 275 (1839). 

pilicornis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. \'iii. 407 (1871). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 158 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus hortisque ad Jamestown, ex alienis introductus ; 
rarior. 

I did not obtain this Longicorn at St. Helena ; but three examples 
of it were captured by Mr. MeUiss at Maldivia, above Jamestown, — 
" flying into the house at night ;" and there can be no question that 
the species is merely a naturalized one. Indeed the "West-Indian 
Islands would appear to be its proper country ; and so liable is it to 
accidental transmission (along, probably, with timber), through 
indirect human agencies, that it has on one or two occasions been 
found alive even in England. 

The narrow and cylindrical outline of the C. pilicornis, added to 
its pale reddish-brown concolorous surface and the long and suberect 
hairs with which it is everywhere studded (even upon its limbs), 
will at once distinguish it from every thing else with which we are 
here concerned. Its antennae and legs are considerably lengthened ; 
and the latter have their femora slender and pedunculated at the 
base, but much clavate towards the apex. 



Fam. 34. LAMIID^. 

Genus 73. GOPTOPS. 

Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. cle France, 64 (1835). 

179. Coptops bidens. 

C. late subcylindricus sed postice gradatim attenuatus, pilis griseis 
cinereisque demissis densissime tectus ; capite deflexo, oculis 
magnis sed baud prominentibus, profunde excavato-luniformibus ; 
prothorace brevi, transverso, tamen subcylindrico, grosse noduloso- 



HALTICID^. 211 

insequali, ad latera ante medium spina brevi obtusa nigrescentiore 
armato ; elytris autice prothorace multo latioribus, dense griseo- 
nebulosis at parce ciuereo irroratis, maeulisque perpaucis rotun- 
datis punctiformibus nigrescentibus (antice tubercula amplecten- 
tibus) adspersis, et utrinqiie in disco postico plaga longiore sub- 
curvata lineiformi longitudinali oniatis ; antennis pedibusquo 
elongatis, crassis, dense griseo- et cinereo-pubesceutibus, tarsis 
latis et laete nigro variegatis. 
Long. corp. lin. 8-9. 

Habitat in hortis insulae, praecipue in apricis inferioribus juxta 
Jamestown, Ficos et caet. destruens ; ex alienis certe introductus. 

This large, thick, robust. Lamia-like Longicorn has become 
naturalized accidentally in the gardens of St. Helena, in low and 
hot localities about Jamestown,^ — where it appears more particularly 
to attack the fig-trees, to which it is becoming extremely destructive. 
I am indebted to the Rev. H. Whitehead for obtaining examples for 
me iu both the pupa and imago states, the former of which I reared 
after a very brief interval. In addition to its large stature (as 
compared with the St.-Helena Coleoptera generally), it may be 
known by the short and obtuse spine with which the edges of its 
very uneven and transverse prothorax are furnished before the 
middle, and for the dense manner in which its entire surface is 
clothed or mottled with a griseous and whitish pubescence. Its 
elj^tra (which are much broader anteriorly than the prothorax) taper 
gradually and slightly towards their apex ; and, apart from the few 
small, rounded, blackish specks with which they are besprinkled 
(and which near to the base pass into elevated tubercles), there is a 
short curved longitudinal dark line, or dash, on either disk behind 
the middle ; and the feet, which are considerably expanded, are 
beautifully variegated with black. 



Sectio 10. PHYTOPHAGA. 

Fam. 35. HALTICID.®. 

Genus 74. LONGITARSUS. 
LatreiUe, Fam. Nat. 405 (1825). 

The Lotigitarsi of St. Helena belong to a rather singular type, 

p2 



212 HALTICID^. 

and are unquestionably aboriginal members of the fauna, — being 
peculiar to the foliage of the various cabbage -trees at a high eleva- 
tion. They are of a more or less brassy green tint, with their limbs 
extremely elongated, and with the basal joint of their four front feet 
in the males much expanded or enlarged. But their most remarkable 
feature consists in the superficial dissimilarity of the sexes; for 
while the males are free from inequalities, except in the case of the 
prothorax of the L. MeUissii, which has its sides impressed with two 
transverse grooves, the females, on the other hand, have their elytra 
not only more conspicuously margined at the base and sides, but 
likewise more or less malleated, or irregularly impressed, on either 
outer disk, — forming in the L. Janulus inequalities of a most extra- 
ordinary and anomalous kind. Some of the main characters of the 
three species which have hitherto been brought to light may be thus 
briefly formulated : — 

a. elytris in $ pone htimeros panlum malleato-iiuBqualibus. J onmino 

simplex. helenae. 

aa. elytris in 5 in medio valde et proftmde malleato-incequalibus. S om- 
nino simplex. janulus. 

aaa. elytris in 5 pone humeros pauliim concavis. S <^t 2 ^^^ latera pro- 
thoracis transversim hiimpressi. 

Mellissii. 



180. Longitarsus helenae. 

L. subellipticus, seneo-viridis, subnitidus, subalutaceus ; capite im- 
punctato ; prothorace punctulis levibus minutissimis parce irrorato ; 
elytris profundius pimctatis, plerumque distinctius subsenescenti- 
bus ; antennis pedibusque longissimis, rufo-testaceis, illis versus 
apicem femoribusque posticis paulum obscurioribus. 

Mas tarsis anterioribus art" 1"" magno, valde dilatato. 

Fcem. tarsis anterioribus simplicibus ; elytris sublongioribus ac 
magis obovatis (postice paululum magis attenuatis), ad basin et 
latera distinctius marginatis, necnon pone humeros malleato- 
insequalibus, tamen costulis valde abbreviatis subbasalibus circa 2 
vel 3 in parte malleata discernendis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-vix l^. 

Longitarsus Helense, WoU., Joum. of Ent. i. 214 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 27 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 158 (1875). 

Habitat ad folia Compositarum arborescentium in editioribus insulae, 
usque ad summos montes copiosissime ascendens. 

This is the universal Longitarsus of the higher elevations of St. 



HALTICID^. 213 

Helena, — occurring on the foliage of the various cabbage-trees, and 
ascending to the very summits of the peaks. Indeed so abundant 
is it that it is almost impossible to find a single cabbage-tree from 
which it may not be beaten in actual profusion. Yet up to the date 
of our arrival in the island I had seen but three examples of it, — 
one of vehieh was taken by the late Mr. Bewicke in 1860, and the 
other two more recently by Mr. Melliss. As they happened more- 
over to be all of them males, I was unable to pronounce for certain 
on the characteristics of both sexes ; but I now perceive that while 
the male is perfectly free from inequalities, the female has a portion 
of its elytra uneven, or malleated (enclosing two or three very 
abbreviated longitudinal costae), behind either shoulder. The 
females also have their elytra proportionally a trifle more elongated 
than the males, as well as a little more obovate in outline ; and the 
males descend to a much smaller stature than either of the other 
species which have as yet been detected. 

181. Longitarsiis janulus, n. sp. 

L. prsecedenti similis, sed submajor et paulo minus metaUicus, pro- 
thorace distinctius punctate, elytris in $ multo minus nitidis ac 
multo magis ina^qualibus, — sc. utrinque in medio valde et profunde 
maUeato-excavatis (tamen costis minus abbreviatis circa 4 in 
excavatione discernendis), antennis in S multo magis incrassatis, 
necnon art" 1™" tarsorum anteriorum in 6 etiam magis dilatato 
(sc. maximo). 

Long. corp. lin. Ig-lj. 

Habitat ad folia Laclianodes prenanthijJorrp, Burch. ; in loco quodam 
paidum minus elevate, Yine-Tree Gut di.cto, sat copiose repertus. 

The only spot in which I observed this very distinct Longitarsus 
is a little ravine below Halley's Mount and between Oakbank and 
Hutt's Gate, known as Yine-Tree Gut, — where it was extremely 
abundant on the foliage of the curious Laclianodes prenanthi flora, 
or " she cabbage-tree." It is a rather larger insect than the L. 
helence, and of not quite so lively a metallic green. Indeed its 
female sex is comparatively dull and opake, and has the elytra so 
wonderfully and deeply malleated down either outer disk as to cause 
the whole surface to appear coarsely wrinkled and (as it were) 
imperfectly developed, — leaving, however, three or four abbreviated 
longitudinal ridges (not so short as in the L. helence) conspicuous 
within the excavation. Its inaks moreover differ from those of the 



214 HALTICIDiE. 

L. helence in having their antennae very much thicker or more 
developed, and in the basal joint of their four anterior feet being 
still more broadly expanded. Its prothorax too, in both sexes, is 
much more coarsely punctured than that of the L. helence. 

182. Longitarsus Mellissii. 

Z-. elongato-subellipticus, aeneo -viridis, nitidus ; capite nitidissimo, 
impunctato ; prothorace antice nitidissimo et vix punctato, ad 
latera et postice profundius punctato, necnon ad latera late trans- 
versim biimpresso et grossius marginato, augulis anticis incrassatis, 
subferrugineis ; elytris dense, profunde, et grosse punctatis ; 
autennis pedibusque longissimis, crassis, testaceis, illis versus 
apicem femoribnsque posticis vix obscurioribus. 

3Ias tarsis anterioribus art° 1™" magno, valde dilatato. 

Foem. paulo rugosius punctata ; tarsis anterioribus simplicibus ; 
prothorace utrinque profundius transversim biimpresso ; el}'tris 
sublongioribus, ad basin et latera distinctius margin atis, necnon 
pone humeros late sed vix profunde excavatis, excavatione fere 
simplici (nee intus costulis abbreviatis instructa, sed extus costa 
elongata laterali terminata). 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-^-1^. 

Longitarsus Mellissii, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 407 (1871). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 158 (1875). 

Habitat in locis valde elevatis, inter Compositas arborescentes ; rarior. 

This is the largest and most shining of the three species, it being 
in no part even obsoletely alutaceous ; and it is also the most 
coarsely punctured (particularly in the females), and with the legs a 
trifle thicker. But its main feature consists in the prothorax being 
(in both sexes, though more especially in the female one) impressed 
on either side with two wide transverse grooves. This character is 
extremely important, because in the other two members of the 
genus the prothorax is in both sexes perfectly free from inequalities. 
Its elytra, however, are more even in the female sex than those of 
the L. helence and janulus, — there being merely a wide and simple 
excavation behind the shoulders, bounded externally by a single 
lateral costa which extends nearly the whole length of the eJytra. 
The anterior angles of its prothorax, also, are not only more thick- 
ened than in either of the preceding species, but they are even 
slightly ferruginous ; and the apex of the elytra in the male sex 
seems to be a little diluted in hue, or subflavescent. 

So far as my own experience is concerned, the L. Mellissii is by 



CASSIDID^. 215 

far the rarest of the St.-Helena Longitarsi, the few examples which 
I met with (and one more was found by Mr. Gray) having been 
captured from the foliage of the cabbage-trees, in the vicinity of 
Diana's Peak and Actaeon, on the high central ridge. Mr. Melliss's 
two specimens, from which in 1871 I enunciated the species, appear 
to have been taken likewise in the same district *. 



Fam. 36. CASSIDID^. 

Genus 75. ASPIDOMORPHA. 
Hope, Col. Man. (1840). 

183. Aspidomorpha miliaris. 

A. " flava thorace immaculato, elytris nigro punctatis, margine 
bifasciato. Statura C. marginatce. Antennae flavae, apice nigrae. 
Thoracis clypeus rotundatus, integer, immaculatus. Elytra laevia, 
flava, punctis circiter 10 nigris sparsis. Margo uti in reliquis 
dilatatus fasciis duabus, altera ad basin, altera versus apicem, 
nigris. Sutura apice nigra. Subtus nigra, margine flavescente. 
Pedes flavi." [Ex Fahricio.'] 

Cassida miliaris, Fah., Si/st. Ent. 91 (1775). 

, Id, S>/st. Elm. i. 400 (1801). 

Aspidomoi-pha miliaris, Bohem., Mon. Cass. ii. 261 (1854). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 28 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 158 (1875). 

Habitat " in ins, St. Helenas, Mus. Dom. Banks." [Ex Fabricio.'] 

* As it seems to have been founded upon some strange geographical miscon- 
ception, I need scarcely perhaps allude to the fact that a Cryptocephalus was 
described by Fabricius in 1775, under the title of C. rvficoUis. as coming from 
St. Helena ; nevertheless, as this is the proper place in our catalogue for noticing 
it, it may be desirable just to mention that it was from an example professedly 
St.-Helenian, in the collection of the late Sir Joseph Banks, that Fabricius's 
diagnosis was drawTi out. Fabricius. however, appears to have fallen into some 
unaccountable confusion concerning the habitat of his insect ; for in 1792 ho 
cited it as occurring not only in St. Helena, but likewise (on the authority of 
Prof. Helwig) in Italy ! In 1798 he seems to liave discovered that it was not a 
Cri/ptocephalus at all, but a Clyihra ; whilst in ISOl, whilst quoting it as the Clythra 
ruficoUis, he still refers to his former volumes, but loses sight of the St.-Helena 
habitat altogether, and gives it simply as South-European ! Under these cir- 
cumstances, and as I have no evidence whatsoever that either a Clythra or a 
Cryptocephalus has ever been captured in the island, it is only natural to assume 
that Fabricius fell into an error as regards the country in which his C. ruficoUis 
was taken, and that, as several of the Banksian Coleoptera were unquestionably 
St.-Helenian, he inadvertently assumed this one (which is from Southern 
Europe) to be so likewise ; though if this should be the case, and he subse- 
quently became aware of his blunder, it is simply unpardonable that he should 
have quietly shifted its habitat (in his later publications) without stating plainly 
that he had been originally mistaken in recording an insect from the south of 
Europe as a St.-Helena one. 



21(5 CASSIDIDyE. 

Although I admitted this insect into the St.-Helena catalogue in 
1870, on the evidence of Fabricius, who described it (in 1775) from 
an example in the collection of the late Sir Joseph Banks, yet I 
must confess, after our six months' sojourn in the island, that I am 
far more disposed to strike it out altogether ; for I feel almost 
satisfied that no member of the Cassididce occurs now at St. Helena, 
Indeed Boheman, in his elaborate monograph of the family, does not 
acknowledge Fabricius's Cassida miliaris as a St.-Helena insect at all, 
but cites it from the East Indies, Java, Celebes, the Philippine Islands, 
and China ; and yet the fact remains that the actual type from which it 
was originally enunciated was (whether correctly so or not) professedly 
St.-Helenian. We are therefore at once confronted by a geographical 
difficulty ; for either Fabricius fell into an error regarding the original 
Jiabitat (as indeed I certainly think that he did in the case of the 
Cryptoceplialus rujieollis, and perhaps also in that of the Epilachna 
chrysomelina), or else we have the strange phenomenon of a species 
from Eastern Asia existing likewise in a remote island of the Southern 
Atlantic. In this dilemma some such explanation as the following 
seems to me to be not altogether impossible. It is well known that 
when the island was in the hands of the East-India Company no 
expense was spared in importing trees and shrubs from various parts 
of the world, even birds having been naturalized through their 
instrumentality ; and I can conceive it by no means unlikely that 
a consignment of plants from India may have been the means of 
introducing accidentally a .few stray examples of this conspicuous 
Aspidomorpha, and that the species may thus have been literally 
taken at St. Helena, even though destined otherwise immediately 
to die out. This at all events commends itself to my mind as a not 
unsatisfactory solution of a problem which is at first sight difficult, — 
seeing that the grounds (whether at Plantation or elsewhere) in 
which exotic plants would most probably be experimented upon 
would almost certainly be watched with considerable care, so that a 
brightly coloured insect like the one which we are now considering 
could hardly fail to be noticed and perhaps secured. Nevertheless, 
as I do but offer this as a conjecture, I will include the species in 
our list — qualified thus distinctively, and not without an emphatic 
protest ; for I have a far greater inclination, in reality, to avoid aU 
allusion to it as a member of the present fauna. 



COCCINELLID^. 217 

Sectio 11. PSEUDOTRIMERA. 

Fam. 37. COCCINELLID^. 

Genus 76. CHILOMENES. 

Chevrolat, in Dej. Cat. 459 (1837). 

184. Chilomenes lunata. 

G. subhemisphserica, nitida, minutissime et levissime (vix perspicuo) 
punctulata ; capite albido-testaceo, epistomate late emarginato ; 
prothorace brevi, subluuato, albido-testaceo sed jjer basiu late 
nigro, parte nigra in medio quadrato-ampliato ; scutello elytrisque 
nigris, sed his maculis 5 magnis rufis vel flavo-rufis (so. 1 basali 
et 1 apicali maximis elongatis siiblunato-arcuatis, 1 breviore sub- 
lunata in disco postico, et 2 paulo minoribus subrotundatis in 
disco antico) Isete ornatis, limbo subrecurvo, nigro ; anteunis 
pedibiisque piceo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2|— 3g. 

Coccinella lunata, Fab., Si/at. Ent. 86 (1775). 
Cydonia lunata, Muls., Securip. 4-31 (1851). 

. , Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 214 (1861). 

-, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 29 (1870). 

Chilomenes luuata. Crotch, Revis. CoccincU, 179 (1874). 
Cydonia lunata, MeUiss, Si. Hel. 159 (1875). 

Habitat ubique in insula, ab ora maritima usque ad summos montes 
ascendens. 

There is hardly a Coleopterous insect more common in St. Helena 
than this large and beautifully spotted ladybird, — which, although 
more abundant in the lower and warmer parts of the island than in 
the higher ones, occurs from the sea-level to the summits of the 
peaks. Indeed it was the very fisst beetle that we met with 
on landing, — several examples having been captured by Mrs. 
"VVollaston on our way up from the beach to Jamestown. It swarms 
on the foliage of plants, as well as beneath stones and crawling over 
the hot ground, and, indeed, almost everywhere. It was taken in 
profusion by Mr. Gray, particularly in arid places aroimd High 
Knoll, and likewise by Mr. MeUiss ; and it was found by Colonel 
Warren on the Barn. In fact it has been brought from the island 
by nearly every naturalist who has collected there, including Ihe 
late Mr. Bewicke, who obtained it in I860; and it is worthy of 
remark that the specimens on which the species was originally 



218 COCCINELLIDiB. 

established (in 1775) by Fabriciiis, and which still exist in the 
Banksian cabinet, were from St. Helena, This should be carefully- 
borne in mind ; for since the insect is supposed to possess a wide 
geographical range (it being reported from Senegal, Angola, the 
Cape of Good Hope, Caflfraria, Madagascar, the Mauritius, Java, the 
East Indies, and even Australia), it is far from impossible that 
it may exhibit a certain number of varieties or states ; and if this 
should prove to be the case, it is interesting to know that the parti- 
cular form which must of necessity be looked upon as typical is the 
St.-Helena one. 



185. CMlomenes vicina. 

O. subhemisphserica, nitida, minute et leviter punctulata ; capite 
(labro obscuriore excepto) albido-testaceo, epistomate profunda 
emarginato ; prothorace brevi, sublunato, nigro, per marginem 
anticum anguste sed ad latcra late albido-testaceo (macula laterali 
in lineam, fere ad medium disci extensam, intus producto) ; scu- 
tello nigro ; elytris rufo-aurantiacis, in limbo angustissime, per 
suturam anguste, et in linea arcuata discali (a basi fere ad suturam, 
mox pone apicem, ducta) paulo latiore, nigro-ornatis, antennis 
testaceo-piceis ; pedibus testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2g. 

Cheilomenes vicina, DeJ., Cat. 459 (1837). 

circumflexa (Klug), Id., ibid. (1837). 

Cydonia vicina, Mids., Securij}. 440 (1851). 

^ WolL, Col. Hesp. 155 (1867). 

Chilomeues vicina, Crotch, JRevis. Coccinell, 180 (1874). 
Cydonia vicina, 3IeUiss, St. Hel. 159 (1875). 

Habitat " in St.-Helena " (sec. Dom. G. R. Crotch) ; mihi non 
obvia. 

My only evidence for the occurrence of this Cydonia is the assu- 
rance of the late Mr. G. E. Crotch that he possessed two examples of 
it which are undoubtedly from St. Helena, they having been received 
by him along with the C. Janata, which is so universal in the island ; 
and although it entirely escaped our united observations during our 
late visit, and those indeed of Mr. Melliss and other recent collectors, 
it is nevertheless so likely an insect to be found (ranging as it does 
from Egypt and Nubia to Senegal and Guinea, and abounding in the 
Cape-Yerde archipelago) that I think Mr. Crotch's statement must 
be accepted as sufficiently reliable to enable us to admit the species 
into our catalogue. At the same time, I would wish expressly to 



COCCINELLID^. 219 

add that I do so with a certain amount of reluctance, though we 
had so few opportunities of investigating accurately the hot and 
barren districts above Jamestown and Ladder Hill (amongst the 
Cactus-cohered portions of which the C. vicina might well be sup- 
posed to exist) that there is ample room for suspecting that we by 
no means exhausted the fauna so completely as to exclude the possi- 
bility of a certain number of additions even as conspicuous prima 
facie as the one now under consideration. 

In my remarks on the C. vicina, given in the ' Coleoptera Hespe- 
ridum,' I mentioned that there was but little fear of confounding it 
with any thing else there enumerated, — " its whitish -yellow head 
and prothorax (the latter of which is ornamented with a large, broad, 
and somewhat o6triangular black patch immediately behind its ante- 
rior excavation, connected by a short peduncle with a wide band 
which covers the entire base), its dark scutellum, and its orange- 
coloured, rounded elytra (which have their suture, an arcuate stripe 
down the middle of each, parallel to the outer margin, and usually 
also the extreme outer edge itself, black) being more than enough to 
distinguish it." 



Genus 77. THEA. 
Mulsant, Securip. 206 (1851). 

186. Thea variegata. 

T. hemisphserica, nitida, minute et leviter punctulata, la^te sulphureo- 
flava sed nigro-maculata ; capite antice et jjostice maculis duabus 
parvis obscuris (interdum fere obsolptis) notato ; prothorace bre- 
vissimo, transverse, antice vix excavate, maculis 5 nigris in disco 
ornato ; scutello nigro ; elytris maculis nigris 9, transversim (sc. 
2, 3, 3, et 1) positis, interdum subconfluentibus, ornatis; antennis 
pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-vix 2. 

Coccinella variegata, Fah., Spec. Ins. i. 99 (1781). 

cognata, DeJ., Cat. 4o7 (1837). 

nassata, Erich., iti Wiegm. Archiv, ix. 266 (1843). 

Thea variegata, Muls., Securip. 206 (1851). 

, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 408 (1871). 

, Crotch, Hevis. CoccineU. 134 (1874). 

, 3Ielliss, St. Hel. 159 (1875). 

Habitat regiones intermedias, praecipue in cultis ; hinc inde vulgaris. 
This pretty little yellow Coccinellid, so well distinguished by the 



220 COCCINELLIDiE. 

black spots with which it is ornamented (five of which are situated 
on the pro thoracic disk, and nine on each of the elytra), has probably 
become naturalized at St. Helena ; for since it occurs both at Angola 
and the Cape of Good Hope, it is far from unlikely that it was 
introduced originally from the latter along with consignments of 
plants. At any rate it is abundant now in many cultivated spots of 
intermediate altitude, such as Plantation, — where we met with 
it in great profusion. Mr. Melliss states that he reared it from 
larvae which were obtained from the grape-vine ; and Mr. P. White- 
head has called my attention to the fact that it is more especially 
attached to the various passion-flowers — a conclusion which is quite 
in accordance with my own experience, a hedge of the Passijiora 
cceruha at Plantation having been absolutely infested with it. In 
all probability, however, its presence on any particular plant, or 
shrub, is mainly dependent upon the number of Aphides which may 
happen to have made their appearance. 



Genus 78. EPILACHNA. 
Chevrolat, Diet. Univ. a Hist. Nat. iv. 43 (1844). 

187. Epilaclma chrysomelina. 

E. " coleopteris rufis ; punctis duodecim uigris, thorace immaculato. 
Major. Caput et thorax rubra, immaculata, margine paullo pal- 
lidiora. Elytra rufa, punctis sex nigris per paria distributis. 
Pedes flavicantes." [Ex Fahricio.'] 

Coccinella chrysomelina, Fab., Syst. JEmt. 82 (1775). 

capensis, Tliunb., Nov. Tns. Spec. i. 16, t. 1. f. 21 (1781). 

Epilachna chrysomelina, Mills., Securip. 793 (1851). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 30 (1870). 

, 'Crotch, Revis. Coccinell. 71 (1874). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 159 (1875). 

Huhitat " in ins. St. Helenae. Mus. Dom. Baiils." [Ex Fahricio.} 

I can scarcely believe that this widely-spread insect (which occurs 
not only in Mediterranean latitudes, but also in Persia and Arabia, 
as well as in Upper Egypt, Senegal, and at the Cape of Good Hope) 
has at present any claim to be regarded as St.-Helenian ; never- 
theless, since it was described originally (in 1775) from a professedly 
St.-Helena example in the collection of the late Sir Josejih Banks, 
and since its wide African range renders it at least a not improbable 
member, a priori, of the fauna, perhaps we can hardly refuse to 



CORYLOPHIDiE. 221 

grant it admission into the catalogiie, though I must confess that I 
do 80 with a very great amount of reluctance. Still it is far from 
unlikely that it may at some former period have been introduced 
accidentally into the island, along perhaps with consignments of 
shrubs and plants (much in the same manner as I have assumed in 
the case of the East-Indian Aspidomorpha miliaris), and so may 
really have been captured at St. Helena ; but, be this as it may, I 
must record my conviction that at the present time we have no evi- 
dence for believing that it continues to exist — though of course it is 
open to consideration whether some of the dry and arid tracts 
towards the coast, where the Cactus opiintia reigns supreme, and 
which on account of their extreme sterility have been but imper- 
fectly investigated, may not, sooner or later, be ascertained to 
harbour it. 

Fam. 38. CORYLOPHIDJE. 

Genus 79. SERICODERUS. 
Stephens, III. Brit. Ent. ii. 187 (1829). 

188. Sericoderus lateralis. 

S. minutissimus, quadrato-ovalis, convexus (subtus planatus), infus- 
cate testaceus (rarius obscurior), nitidus sed grosse fulvo-cinereo 
sericatus ; capite parvo, obtecto ; prothorace lunato, sc. postice 
lato angulis acute productis, in disco antico sensim infuscato ; 
elytris antice latis, postice truncatis (pygidium baud tegentibus) ; 
antennis pedibusque testaceis, illarum clava obscuriore. 

Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Cossyphus lateralis (Meg.), Gyll, Ins. Stiec. iv. 516 (1827). 
Sericoderus lateralis, Woll, Col. Atl. 95 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 53 (1867). 

, Crotch, in Godm. Azov. 66 (1870). 

Habitat culta hortosque in intermediis insulse, sub quisquiliis hinc 
inde congregans. 

This minute European species, which through its extreme liability 
to accidental dissemination has acquired a wide geographical range 
(occurring in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape- Verde 
archipelagos, and which was obtained by the late Mr. Bewicke even at 
the Cape of Good Hope), abounds in the intermediate districts of St. 
Helena, — where it is generally to be met with amongst decaying vege- 
table refuse and beneath cut grass. It swarms at Plantation and in 



222 CORYLOPHIDiE. 

Thompson's Wood, and will doubtless be found to be universal in 
most of the cultivated and semicultivated grounds. 

The extremely diminutive size and dusky-testaceous hue of the 
S. lateralis, in conjunction with its obtuse, squarish-oval outline, its 
convex upper portion, which is densely clothed with a fine decum- 
bent silken pubescence, its concealed head, its broad lunate pro- 
thorax (the hinder angles of which are acutely produced), and 
its shortened or truncated elytra, which leave the pygidium 
partially exposed, will sufficiently distinguish it from every thing else 
with which we have here to do. 

Genus 80. ORTHOPERUS. 

Stephens, ///. Brii. Ent. ii. 186 (1829). 

189. Orthoperus atomarius. 

0. minutissimus, breviter rotundato-ovalis, arcuato-convexus, piceo- 
testacens aut testaceo-castaneus, nitidus, calvus, et (oculo fortissimo 
armato) minutissime sed hand dense punctulatus ; capite subtri- 
angulari, oculis magnis ; prothorace (subsemicirculari) postice 
elytrisque antice latitudine aequalibus ; elytris baud striatis ; 
antennis (brevibus) pedibusque pallido-testaceis, illarum clava 
picescentiore. 

Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Pithophilus atomarius, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. 433 (1841). 
Orthoperus atomarius, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 145. f. 3 (1857). 

, Duval, Gen. des Col. d'Eur. ii. 236, t. 57. f. 283 (1859). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 93 (1865). 

Habitat in cultis intermediis ; inter quisquilias rarissimus. 

This extremely minute beetle is, next to the Ptinella Matthewsiana, 
the smallest of the St. -Helena Coleoptera which has hitherto been 
detected ; and there can be little doubt it has become naturalized 
accidentally in the. island, perhaps along with consignments of 
plants, from more northern latitudes. It is, however, so far at least 
as I can judge from my own limited experience, exceedingly rare ; 
though perhaps it might more properly be said that its diminutive 
bulk has, in all probability, caused it to escape observation. At 
any rate I have seen but three examj)les of it, all of which were 
captured by myself, — two by sifting rubbish at Thompson's Wood, 
and one at Plantation. 

Apart from its minute size and shortly-oval (well-nigh hemi- 
spheric) outline, the 0. atomarius (which occurs also in the Madeiran 



EROTYLID^. 223 

group) may be recognized by its shining piceo-testaceous or yellow- 
ish-castaneous surface (the small puuctules of which are scarcely 
distinguishable except beneath a microscope), and by its pallid 
limbs, — the club only of its somewhat abbreviated antennae being 
slightly picescent. As in the Orthoperi generally, its prothorax and 
elytra are of precisely the same breadth at their respective bases, 
and the latter are free from striae. 



Fam, 39. EROTYLID^. 

Genus 81. EUXESTUS. 
Wollaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 411 (1858). 

The present genus possesses a certain geographical interest, from 
its having been detected hitherto only in Madeira, — whence it was 
described by myself, from examples which had been found within 
the nests of ants, in 1858. The St.-Helena representative, more- 
over, becomes still further important from its enabling me to correct 
the diagnosis of the Madeiran one as regards the precise number of 
the antennal joints, — the intermediate ones of which are so ex- 
tremely obscure and so closely compacted together as to have left 
both Professor Westwood and myseK in considerable doubt concern- 
ing them. It was this uncertainty that induced me to record only 
" four " between the elongated third one and the club, instead of 
six ; but the species enunciated below has so unmistakably the 
latter that I have been at some pains to submit the E. Parlii of 
Madeira to a fresh and more rigid examination, and have in conse- 
quence quite satisfied myself, now that additional light has been 
thrown upon it by the E. phalacroides, that the antennae of it also 
are 10-articulate (and not 8-), — the extremely solid club, although 
composed practicaUy of a single joint, having the last (or eleventh) 
one immersed and obsolete. Although in the Madeiran group it is 
by no means peculiarly associated with ants (the E. Parhii being 
often abundant in ordinary garden-refuse), I would nevertheless 
remark not only that the genus as hitherto observed at St. Helena is 
exclusively formicophilous, as regards its modus vivendi, but that it 
lives in the society of the very same species (the (Ecoplithoi-a pusilla, 
Heer) with which, when residing with the ants at all, it occurs at 
Madeira. 



224 EROTYLID^. OPATRIDiB. 

190. Euxestus phalacroides, n. sp. 

E. oblongo-ovalis aiit ellipticus, convexus (subtus planatus), nitidis- 
simus, calviis, ubique minute et leviter pimctulatus ; capite pro- 
thoraceque nigro-eastaneis, hoc transverso, postice lato (elytroriim 
latitudine) et per basin trisinnato ; elytris castancis (immaturia 
fere ferrugineis), in disco transversim subobscurioribus, quare 
versus apicem gradatim clarioribus et interdum quasi subbimacu- 
latis, obsoletissime vix substriatis ; anteuuis brevibus, crassis, 
abrupte clavatis, pedibusque (compressis) piceo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1 1. 

Habitat formicarum nidos ; in horto publico ad Jamestown, in tninco 
quodam Palmae emortuo prolapso, copiosissime captus. 

The only spot in which this most interesting Phalacrus-Vikc insect 
has hitherto been observed (so far at least as I am aware) is the 
Castle-garden at Jamestown, — where it was taken in profusion by 
myself, and subsequently by Mr. Gray, in company with the common 
house-ant {(Ecophthora pusilla), within the dead and fibrous stem of 
an old felled palm. Its convex, elliptical, highly polished, unpubes- 
cent, minutely punctulated surface, added to its rich castaneous hue 
(the elytra being generally a little paler, and with a tendency to be 
so far diluted towards their apex as occasionally to appear well-nigh 
bimaculate), its short, thick, abruptly clavate antennae, and its tes- 
taceous, compressed legs, will sufficiently characterize it. 

Prom the Madeiran E. Parlii the present Euxestus differs in being 
a little larger and more oblong, in its antennae (particularly as regards 
the third joint) being appreciably longer, and in its surface being 
not only more densely and distinctly punctulated, but also (especially 
the head and prothorax, the central region of the elytra, and some- 
times the club of the antennae) darker or more infuscate. 



Sectio 12. HETEROMERA. 

Fam. 40. OPATRID^. 

Genus 82. OPATRUM. 
Fabricius, S;/sf. Ent. 70 (1775). 

191. Opatrum hadroides. 
0. parallelo-oblongum, latiusculum, valde alatum, nigrum, opacum. 



OPATRID.E. 225 

ubique gramJato-rugulosum et setulis brevibus demissis fulves- 
centibus vestitum ; capite lato, ad latera ante oculos subangulatim 
exstante ; protborace brevi, ad latera subaequaliter leviter rotun- 
dato, antice late emarginato, postice trisinuato, angulis posticis 
acutiusculis ac leviter productis ; sciitello subdeclivi, nitidiusculo ; 
elytris parallelis (ad humeros incrassatos rectangulis), subpunctato- 
striatis, interstitiis convexiusculis ; antennis pedibusqiie (setosis) 
coBcoloribus, unguiculis solum piceo-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4-4|. 

Opatrum liadroides, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 215 (1861). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hid. v. 30 (1870). 

Hopatrum badroides, 31elliss, St. Hel. 160 (187o). 

Habitat ab era maritinia fere ad cacumina montium ; sub lapidibus, 
praecipue in aridis cultisque apricis, viilgaris. 

The present Opatrum., whicb belongs to the ivinged section of the 
genus (or GonocepJuilum, Solier), is a most imiversal insect at St. 
Helena, — occurring beneath stones, more or less abundantly, from 
the sea-level to the central ridge ; nevertheless it is decidedly more 
common in hot and arid spots of a rather low altitude than else- 
where. About Jamestown it often swarms ; and I have seen it in 
considerable profusion at Plantation and West Lodge, as well as on 
the slopes of Flagstaff Hill : and it was brought by Colonel "Warren 
from the Barn, where it attains a slightly larger size than in most 
other districts. Mr. Melliss mentions that he has frequently observed 
it in great profusion on ploughed fields at Longwood, and in potato- 
grounds ; though I cannot agree with him that it is " of all the 
Coleoptera in the island the most plentiful.'' 

The winged Opatra are generally moulded so much on the same 
pattern that it requires a careful examination to separate the species 
from each other ; nevertheless, after comparing it accurately with 
various closely allied forms from the Cape-Yerde, Canarian, and 
Madeiran archipelagos, I am satisfied that the 0. liadroides is per- 
fectly distinct from all of them. It is perhaps more nearly akin to 
a species which was taken by the late Mr. Bewick e (in 1860) at the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and since it seems to me, unless indeed I am 
much mistaken, to be absolutely identical with another which Avas 
met with by Mr. Graj-, rather abundantly, during his late visit to 
that same locality, I cannot but feel it probable that it will turn out, 
sooner or later, to have been well known and described, previous to 
my publication of it (under the name of 0. hadroides) in 1861, 



220 OPATRID^. 

Genus 83. HADEODES (nov. gen.). 

C'o/yws oblongo-ovale, minute setulosum ; ch/peo antice late emar- 
ginato ; protliorace transverso, ad latera a?qualiter subrotundato et 
explanate subrecurvo, basi profunde trisinuato, angulis anticis ct 
posticis acutiuscule productis ; scuteUo brevissimo, valdo transverso, 
declivi ; eh/tris longitudinaliter tuberculato-inasqualibus ; 2^^^~ 
sterno subcarinato, inter coxas anticas lobo brevissimo obtu- 
sissimo terminate. Antennce longiusculae, apicem versus grada- 
tim leviter incrassatae, art" 3"° paululum elongate. Labrum 
subquadratum, antice fere integrum, angulis anticis obtuse rotun- 
datis ac longe ciliatis. Mandihulce breves, triangulares, incrassatae, 
supra transversim strigosas, apice breviter acutse, intus infra 
apicem denticulo minuto armatse. Maxillce bilobae, lobis apice 
pubescentibus ; externo paulum longiore sed vix latiore, apice 
acutiusculo. Palpi maxiUares 4-articulati, art" 1°"* parvo an- 
gusto flexuoso, 2'^° multo mojore crassiore elongato, 3"° quam hie 
breviore (sed hand crassiore) obtriangulari, ult""* maximo secu- 
riformi ; laliales 3-articulati, art" 1"'° parvo, 2*' paulum majore, 
ult™° magno incrassato ovali apice suboblique truncato. Mentum 
transverso-quadratum, antice latissime sed leviter emarginatum 
(lobo medio brevissimo obtusissimorotundato), angulis anticis acu- 
tissimis. Ligida siibcordato-quadrata, antice fere Integra, angulis 
anticis rotundatis ac longe pilosis. Pedes longiusculi, subgraciles ; 
tibiis anticis paululum latioribus et ad apicem externum in angu- 
lum breviter productis, extus minute spinulosis ; tarsis art° l""" in 
anterioribus nullo modo, et etiam in posticis vix, elongato. 

Ab Hadrus, et ei^os, aspectus. 

Ohs. — Geniis Hadro (insularum Maderensium) affinis ; sed cor- 
liore multo minore, clypeo minus profunde excavato, lahro antice 
integro, scutello multo breviore transverso declivi, elytris tubercu- 
lato-ina^qualibus, prosternali lobo breviore, antennarum artf S''" 
necnon tarsorum posticoru^n art" V"" multo minus elongatis, tibiis- 
- que (prajsertim anticis) ad apicem externum magis angulatis (nee 
oblique truncatis) conspicue difFert. 

With the exception of the Opatrum hadroides, the Mordella 
MeUissiana, and the two species of Anthicodes, the present insect 
and the following one are the only truly indigenous exponents of the 
Heteromera which have hitherto been detected at St. Helena ; and 
there can be no question whatsoever that they are both of them 
aboriginal members of the fauna. They seem to belong to the 
Opatridce, and to occur (though very sparingly) in the elevated parts 
of the island. 

In its general contour and aspect, the genus Hndrodes has a good 



OPATRIDiE. 227 

deal in common with Hadrus of the Madeiran archipelago ; never- 
theless its type is very much smaller, and has the elytra (instead of 
being comparatively unsculptured) coarsely sulcate and tuberculose ; 
its upper lip is entire in front ; its clypeus is less deeply excavated ; 
the last joint of its maxillary palpi is less broadly securiform ; the 
lobe of its prosternum is shorter ; its scutellum is much narrower, 
or more abbreviated, — being extremely thin, transverse, and tilted : 
the third articulation of its antenute and the basal one of its hinder 
feet are conspicuoushj less elongate ; and its tibiae (particularly the 
anterior pair) are more angulated at their outer apex, — not being 
obliquely lopped off as in that group. 

192. Hadrodes helenensis, u. sp. 

H. oblougo-ovalis, convexus, opacus, niger aut piceo-niger setulisque 
brevissimis erectis brunneis obsitus, necnon ssepius quasi luto plus 
minus tectus ; capite minute et parce granulato, genis (ante 
ocidos) rotundate vix exstantibus ; prothorace transverse, ad 
latera aequaliter subrotundato et late explauato-subrecurvo, con- 
fuse punctato ; elytris grosse subcrenato- (aut subpunctato-) sul- 
catis, interstitiis obtuse convoxis, alternis interruptis nodulos 
obtuaos intequales efficientibus, ad humeros noduloso-exstantibus ; 
antennis piceo-ferrugineis ; pedibus piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-3g. 

Habitat in subelevatis insulae, rarissimus sed tamen valde gregarius ; 
sub lapide quodam magno in praeruptis supi'a West Lodge semel 
tantum, tamen copiose (sc. exemplaria 33), collegi. 

Apparently extremely scarce, and occurring at a high altitude. 
Indeed it was onlj' once that I captured it ; and yet, so gregarious 
is it in its mode of life, that I secured no less than 33 examples 
from beneath a single stone. It was at the extreme edge of the 
tremendous precipice immediately above West Lodge, overlooking 
the great Sandy-Bay crater, that I obtained them ; and although we 
frequently revisited the same spot, and searched in the immediate 
vicinity, I was never able to meet with so much as another spe- 
cimen. 

Genus 84. TARPHIOPHASIS (nov. gen.). 

Genus praecedenti subsimilis, sed corpore minore et magis inaequali 
(sc. in elytris multo grossius sculpturato et tuberculato, necnon 
etiam in prothorace conspicue inaequali) ; capite postice tuberculo 
centrali armato, (jenisqvie (ante oculos) magis elevatis necnon 

q2 



228 OPATRID.E. 

magis angulatim exstantibus ; palporum moxiUarium art" itlt""' 
minus late securiformi, lohis maxillarihiis sublatioribus ac valde 
pubescentibus ; mento paulum minus quadrato (sc. postice sensim 
subangustiore) ; j^^'othorace mox intra angulos (anticos et posticos) 
multo profundius excavate ; abdominis segm*'' V"" et 2"'" inter se 
arctissime connatis (nee linea profunda' divisis) ; antennis pedi- 
6i/sque (prffisertim tarsis posticis) miilto brevioribus. 

A Tarphius, et (pdais, facies. 

As already mentioned, the extremely rare Heteromerous insect 
from which the above generic diagnosis has been compiled has some- 
thing in common with Hadrodes, though at the same time manifestly 
distinct from it even structurally. Thus it is not only very much 
smaller and more roughly and coarselj' scidptured, but its head is 
armed with a central tubercle behind and has the gente considerably 
more prominent^ elevated, and angularly developed ; its prothorax 
is grooved and uneven on the disk, and is mncli more deeply scooped 
out within the anterior and posterior angles ; its abdomen has 
the first and second joints completely soldered together (instead 
of being divided by a strongly indented line) ; and its antennae 
and legs, especially the two posterior feet, are conspicuously 
more abbreviated. Its. entire surface is so densely coated with 
brownish scales as completely to conceal the scutellum, and almost 
the sculpture ; its body is less convex and more shortly oblong 
than in the Hadrodes helenensis-, and the tubercles of its elytra 
are greatly enlarged, elevated, and numerous. 

193. Tarphiophasis tuberculatus, n. sp. 

T. breviter et obtuse oblongus, opacus, nigro-fuscus, dense bruhneo- 
squamosus setulisque brevissimis suberectis cinereo-brunueis ves- 
titus ; capite in^quali (sc. utrinque ad genas, mox ante oculos 
subangulatim valde exstantes, subito elevato, necnou postice in 
medio tuberculo miuore instructo) ; prothorace mox intra angulos 
valde profunde excavate (quare, antice et postice, in medio dis- 
tincte lobato), ad latera sequaliter subrotundato et late explanato- 
recurvo, in disco incequali (sc. antice canaliculate, et postice 
eanalicula et costa quasi figuroe V notate) ; scutelb baud visibili 
(squamis ebtecto) ; elytris gressissime et profunde sulcato-punctatis 
(punctis magnis) et ubique tuberculis magnis obtusis valde exstan- 
tibus (prfcbsertim postice et ad humeros) rugatis ; antennis pedi- 
busque breviusculis, illis piceo-ferrugineis, his piceis. 

Long, Corp. liu. 2^. 



VLOMIDJE. 



239 



Habitat in locis subeditioiibus, rarissimus ; juxta West Lodge a 
meipso parcissime repertus. 

The only two examples of this coarsely tuberculated, Tarphius- 
like insect which I have seen were captured by myself beneath pieces 
of rotten wood in the Aster-^voxe beyond West Lodge and over- 
looking Lufkins ; and there can be no doubt that the species is 
amongst the rarest of the St.-Helena Coleoptera. 



Fam. 41. ULOMIDiE. 

Genus 85. ALPHITOBIUS. 

Stephens, III. Brit. JEnt. v. 11 (1832). 

194. Alphitobius diaperinus. 

A. oblougus, latiuscidus, depressiusculus, nitidus, piceo-niger, calvus ; 
capite prothoraceque vix dense punctatis, hoc breviusculo, trans- 
verso, basi profunde trisinuato, ad latera rectiusculo et anguste 
marginato ; scutello parce punctato ; elytris striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis parce punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque piceis, his 
parce spinulosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. circa 3. 

Tenebrio diaperinus, Kiiqel., in Pnz. Fna Ins. Germ. 37. 16 (1797). 
Alphitobius diaperinus, ^Woll, Col. Ail. 419 (1865). 

■ — , Id, Col. Hesp. 208 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 31 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 160 (1875). 

Habitat in domibns repositoriisque insulse ; certe ex alieuis iutro- 
ductus. 

The widely-spread A. diaperinus would seem to have established 
itself at St. Helena as completely as it has done in most other 
countries of the civilized world, — occurring about houses, and amongst 
farinaceous substances, principally in Jamestown. It has in like 
manner become naturalized in the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape-Yerdes, 
and at Ascension ; but I need scarcely add that it is utterly without 
significance as a member of any particular fauna,— its presence 
being merely due to indirect human agencies. 

195. Alphitobius piceus. 

A. oblongus, angustulus, convexiusculus, subopacus, piceo-niger, 
calvus ; capite prothoraceque dense punctatis, hoc brevi, trans- 



230 ULOMIDiE. 

Verso, basi trisinuato ct utrinque evidenter impresso, ad latera 
subrotundato et distinctius marginato ; scutello dense punctulato ; 
elytris leviter striato-punctatis, interstitiis sat dense et subconfuse 
pimctulatis, ad humeros denticulo minutissimo armatis ; antennis 
pedibusque piceis, tibiis subangustioribus ac paululum minus 
spinulosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. circa 3. 

Tenebrio mauritanieus, Fab. [nee i., 1767], Ent. Sijst. i. 113 (1792). 
Helops piceus, Oliv., Ent. iii. 58. 17. 32 (1795). 
Tenebrio fagi, Fanz., Fna Ins. Germ. 61. 3 (1799). 
Alphitobius piceus, Woll, Col. Atl. 419 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 208 (1867). 

, Id, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 32 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 161 (1875). 

Habitat in locis similibus ac praecedens ; sed etiam sub lapidibus in 
bortis interdum occurrit. 

Likewise an imported insect into 8t. Helena, and one wbicb has 
no kind of connexion with the true fauna of the island ; nevertheless 
it appears to be pretty common about bakehouses and stores, and 
indeed in houses generally, — my own examples being principally 
from Jamestown. It differs from the diaperinns in being a little 
smaller, narrower, less shining, and a trifle more convex : in its 
prothorax (which is more distinctly margined at the sides and base) 
being relatively somewhat shorter, more rounded at the lateral edges, 
and more thickly punctured, as well as obsoletely marked on either 
side behind with an obscure fovea ; in its scutellum being more 
densely and finely punctulated ; in its elytra being anned with an 
extremely minute point, or denticle, at the humeral angles, with 
their striae still more lightly impressed, and the punctures of their 
iaterstices both more numerous and more confused ; and in its tibiae 
being conspicuously slenderer and rather less spinulose. 

The A. piceus has established itself equally in the Azores, Ma- 
deiras, Canaries, Cape-Yerdes, and at Ascension, — in which last- 
mentioned island it was found abundantly, in company with the A. 
diaperinus, by the late Mr. Bewicke, not, however, about houses and 
amongst farinaceous substances (as we should have anticipated), but 
" in the dung of sea-birds, miles from liahitable parts ;" a modus 
vivendi which must be admitted to be somewhat singular for these 
common and well-nigh cosmopolitan insects to have assumed. I 
believe, however, that, like many of these allied forms, it will attach 
itself, when pressed for food, to almost any thing. Thus in Madeira 
it often swarms amongst decaying garden-refuse. 



ULOMIDiE. 231 

Genus 86. GNATHOCERUS. 
Thunberg, Act. Holmiens. 47 (1814), 

196. Gnathocerus cornutus. 

0. parallelo-oblongus, subcylindricus, angustulus, siibnitidus, clare 
rufo-ferrugineus, calvus ; capite prothoraceque minute et dense 
punctulatis, clypeo ad latera explanato, subrecurvo, hoc trans- 
verso-subquadrato sed antice couspicue latiore, convexo, basi recte 
truncate et utrinque foveola minuta obscura punctiformi impresso ; 
elytris parallelis, leviter striato-punctatis, interstitiis minutissime 
parceque punctulatis ; antennis pedibusque paulo clarioribus, illis 
(in utroque sexu) a basi usque ad apicem gradatim incrassatis, 
tarsis elongatis. 

Mas fronte breviter bicornuta, clypeo antice profunde trisiuuato 
necnon ad latera latius explanato magisque recurve, mandibulis 
magnis, porrectis, superne curvatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Trogosita cornuta, Fab., Ent. Si/st. (Suppl.) 51 (1798). 
Cerandria cornuta, JVulL, Ins. Had. 490 (18o4). 
Gnathocerus coruutus, Id., Col. All. 420 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Ilesp. 204 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 32 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 161 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus officinisque pistoriis, proecipue inter fariuas et 
panicea ; proculdubio introductus. 

The almost cosmopolitan G. cornutus, so remarkable for the horn- 
like developments of its male sex (which has two small triangular 
processes on the forehead, a more laterally-reciirved and anteriorly - 
sinuated clypeus, and the mandibles not only enlarged and porrecte 
but somewhat upivardly bent), has established itself in the houses 
and bakehouses of St. Helena, as is the case in so many parts of the 
civilized world, — occurring more particularly amongst flour, and 
being often found baked accidentally in loaves of bread. My 
examples are chiefly from Woodcot, where they w.ere taken by Mr. 
P. "Whitehead ; but the species has, of course, no connexion with 
the true fauna of the island. It has become naturalized in like 
manner in the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape-Verdes, and at Ascension. 

Genus 87. TRIBOLIUM. 
MacLeay, Annul. Javan. 47 (1825). 

197. Triboliuin ferrugineum. 
T. parallelo-elongatum, angustum, subopacum (saltern in 5 )i obscure 



23.2 ulomidjE. 

ferrugineum, calvum ; capite prothoraceque dense punctulatis. 
clypeo in $ subsimplici, hoc brevi, transverso-quadrato, basi 
subrecte truncato et utrinque intra angulos posticos obsolete foveo- 
lato ; elytris parallelis, elongatis, tenuiter costulato-striatis (cos- 
tulis versus suturam obsoletis) et nbiqiie minute punctulatis ; 
antcnnis pedibusque piceo-ferrugineis, illis brevibus (art" 3 ulte- 
rioribus in $ clavam ettbrmantibus), tibiis anticis subtriangulariter 
dilatatis. 

Mas sensim clarior, minusque opacus ; clypeo antice evidentius 
emarginato necnon ad latera paulum latius explanato-recurvo, 
mox ante oculos magis angulatim exstante ; prothorace postice 
paululum subangustato ; antennis gradatiru incrassatis (nee cla- 
vatis). 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Tenebrio ferriigineus, Fab., Sjjec. Ins. i. 324 (1781), 
Tribolium ferrugineum, JFoll, Col. Atl. 402 (1865). 

, Id., Col. llesp. 204 (1867). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hid. v. 33 (1870). 

, Alelliss, St. Mel. 161 (1875). 

Hahitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens ; in insulaui certe invectum. 

Found under much the same circumstances as the Gnathocerus 
cornutus and the Alphitohii, and equally an introduced species 
through the medium of commerce. It is perhaj^s the most strictly- 
cosmopolitan of them all, there being scarcely a civilized country in 
which it has not become more or less naturalized. I met with it 
amongst loaves of bread at Plantation : but it doubtless only re- 
quires to be searched for in the proper places to be obtained in 
abundance. It has been introduced equally into the Azorean, 
Madeiran, Cauarian, and Cape -Verde groups. 

Although in size and colour somewhat similar to that species, it 
is impossible to confound the present insect with the Gnathocerus 
cornutus ; for, in addition to the sexes being (externally) compara- 
tivelij alike, or with less conspicuous male developements about the 
head, it is narrower, more opake (particularly the females), and a 
little darker in hue ; its prothorax is shorter, not widened anteriorly 
(though in the male sex just appreciably narrowed behind), and 
more coarsely punctulatcd ; its elytra (instead of being punctate- 
striate) are simply marked (in addition to the interstitial punctures) 
with a few minute thread-like costse, which however are evanescent 
towards the suture ; its antennae are very much more abbreviated, 
and dissimilar in tlie sexes, — the female ones (instead of being gra- 
dually thickened from the base to the apex) having their last three 



TENEBRIONlDiE. 233 

joints formed into a distinct club ; its two front tibiae are more 
triangularly dilated, and its feet are less elongate *, 



^ 



Fam. 42. TENEBRIONID^. 

Genus 88. TENEBRIO. 
Liimgeus, Syst. Nat. edit. vi. (1748). 

198. Tenebrio obscurus. 

T. parallelus, angustus, elougatus, niger, fere opacus, ubique densis- 
sime ruguloso-punctatulus, calvus : genis (ante oculos) rotundatis, 
obtusis, vix exstantibus : prothorace transverso, convexo, angulis 
ipsis posticis acutiusculis, ad latera subaequaliter rotuudato, basi 
in medio liuea elevata subduplicata (utrinque foveola terminata) 
instructo ; scuteUo magno, pentagono ; elytris levissime striatis, 
interstitiis obtuse paiiluli;m elevatis ; autennis pedibusque vix 
picescentioribus, tibiis anticis (pra:sertim in J ) sensim curvatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 7-8|. 

Tenebrio obscurus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. Ill (1792). 

, Woll., Col. Atl. 424 (1865). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 33 (1870). 

, Crutch, in Godm. Azov. 86 (1870). 

, Melliss, St. Hel. 161 (1875). 

Habitat in domibus, stabulis, officinisque pistoriis, passim ; procul- 
dubio introductus. 

The European T. obscurus, which has acquired for itself so wide 
a geographical range through the medium of commerce (and which 
has become completely established in the Azorean, Madeiran, and 
Canarian groups, as well as at Ascension), does not seem to be very 
abundant at St. Helena, — though perhaps sufficiently common if 
searched for in the proper localities. It occurred occasionally at 
Plantation ; and Mr. P. Whitehead obtained it for me at Woodcot, — 

* In iny ' Catalogue of Canarian Coleoptera,' published by the Trustees of the 
British Museum in 1864. 1 drew attention to the fact {vide p. 496) that in every 
diagnosis to which I liad had access the sexes of Tribolimn are regarded as per- 
fftjtly similar (externally) inter se. It appears to me, however, that there is a 
very decided difference between them, — the males being not only less oj)ake (and 
perhaps of a slightly clearer hue), but with their clypeus more evidently 
scooped out in front and more expanded (and recurved) at the sides (the gena, 
immediately in front of either eye, being more angular and prominent) ; added 
to which, their prothorax is just appreciably narrowed behind, and (which is 
the most important of all) their antennte, instead of having a perceptibly 3-arti- 
culated club, are regularly and evenly thickened from the base to the apex. I 
think there can be no question that these discrepancies are sexual ones, and are 
by no means indicative of a separate but closely-allied species. 



234 TENEBRIONIDiE. 

its usual habitat being, as elsewhere, about houses and bakehouses, 
amongst farinaceous substances and in granaries. Mr. Melliss 
mentions that he met with it amongst straw in stables, — a modus 
Vivendi which is in keeping with its frequent presence, in the Cana- 
rian and Madeiran archipelagos, beneath the refuse which has 
accumulated around the base of corn-stacks. ^ 

At Ascension large numbers of this Tenehrio (which are called by 
the inhabitants " hardbacks ") were stated by the late Mr. Bewicke 
to make their appearance annually about the season of the Turtle : 
but it is in the open country, quite as much as about the houses, 
that they were said to swarm. 

Genus 89. ZOPHOBAS. 

(Dejean) Blanch., Hist. Nat. des Ins. ii. 15 (1840). 

199. Zophobas concolor. 

Z. angustulus, elongatus, postice paulum attenuatus, niger, nitidulus 
sed hinc inde quasi nebulose opacior, calyus ; capite antice parce, 
postice parcissime punctate, genis (ante oculos) rotundatis, obtusis, 
hand exstantibus, clypeo mox intra augulos anticos foveola minuta 
impresso ; prothorace (elytris angustiore) transverse, antice rotun- 
dato, postice angustiore, subeonvexo, punctis perpaucis in disco 
irrorato, angulis anticis obtusis, rotundatis, posticis subproducte 
acutiusculis, basi in medio linea crassa elevata obtusa (antice im- 
pressione, et utrinque foveola minuta, terminata) instructo ; scu- 
tello subsemicirculari ; elytris postice gradatim attenuatis, grosse 
punctato-sulcatis, interstitiis obtuse elevatis ; antennis pedibusque 
elongatis, crassis, concoloribus, in utroque sexu similibus. 

Mas clj'peo antice profunde excavato-emarginato, tibiis anticis 
omnino calvis, posterioribus intus versus apicem breviter fulvo- 
pubescentibus. 

Foem. clypeo antice recte truncate, tibiis omnibus intus versus apicem 
breviter fulvo-pubescentibns. 

Long. Corp. lin. 9|-10. 

Zophobas concolor, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 33 (1870). 
, Melliss, St. Hel. 162 (1875). 

Habitat circa domes et in hortis, ad Jamestown ; minus frequens. 

Whether this large and uniformly black Tenebrionid, which I 
have but little doubt has been naturalized at St. Helena, was already 
described, previous to my enunciation of it in 1869, I will not 
undertake to say ; but, as I then mentioned, it might possibly agree 
with Fabricius's Helops morio from the West Indies and Equatorial 



mordelliDjE. 235 

America, — though the sexual peculiarities did not appear to rae to 
tally with what I was able to gather elsewhere coucerning those of 
that insect. Be this, however, as it may, the Z. concolor (which in. 
the male sex has its clypeus deeply scooped out and its front tibife 
perfectly bald ; whilst in the female one the clypeus is straightly 
truncate and all the tibiae are, like the posterior four of the opposite 
sex, minutely fulvo-pubescent . towards their inner apex) may be 
known by its thick and robust elytra (which are wider at the base 
than the prothorax) being gradually attenuated posteriorly and very 
coarsely punctate-sulcate, by its prothorax (which is slightly rounded 
in front and narrowed behind) having only an extremely few large 
and scattered punctures on the disk, and a transverse impression in 
the centre of its base, and by its limbs (which are alike in both 
sexes) being elongate and thickened. Its surface is rather shining, 
but at the same time more or less dulled or beclouded in parts 
(especially towards the sides and behind) with a kind of bloom, — 
much in the same manner as one observes in some of the Hegeters ; 
and its clypeus has a small fovea (strongest in the female sex) on 
either side in front, immediately within the anterior angles. 

It is only in Jamestown (beneath the felled trunk of an old palm 
in the Castle garden) that I observed this large and robust Tenebri- 
onid ; and it was likewise procured for me by the Eev. H. ^"hitehead 
in Jamestown, where it was also taken (though sparingly) by Mr. 
Melliss. 



Fam. 43. MORDELLIDiE. 

Genus 90. MORDELLA. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. i. 420 (1758). 

200. Mordella Mellissiana. 

M. angusto-elliptica, supra arcuata, brunnea (interdum rufo-brunnea), 
subnitida sed pube brevi valde demissa fulvescente dense sericata ; 
capite deflexo, subsemicirculari, oculis magnis sed demissis ; pro- 
thorace basi lato et trisinuato ; elytris postice regulariter attenu- 
atis, sutura postice subcarinvdata, apice singulatim rotundatis, 
pygidium (in mucronem elongatum productum) baud tegentibus, 
nullo modo striatis ; antennis, palpis, pedibusque anterioribus 
(elongatis, gracilibus) plus minus picescenti-testaceis, pedibus 
posticis subtestaceo-piceis. 

Long. corp. liu. 2-vix 3. 



236 ANTHICID^. 

Mordella Mellissiaiia, WoH., Ann. Nttt. Hist. v. u5 (1870). 
, Melliss, St. Hd. 102 (1875). 

Habitat in intermediis, locisqiie subelevatis insulse, rarior ; nisi fallor, 
Commidendro robnsto, DC, (anglice " Gum wood ") praecipue 
propria. 

This large and dark- brown Mordella, which is densely sericated 
with a decumbent fulvescent pubescence (usually of a slight golden 
lustre), is, on the whole, rather scarce, though widely spread over 
the intermediate districts of the island. I strongly suspect that it 
belonged originally to the gumwood fauna, now so rapidly disap- 
pearing, though perhaps attached likewise, less abundantly, to the 
arborescent asters ; at any rate I have taken it amongst the old 
gumwoods in Peak Gut and Thompson's Wood, and about the Aster 
gummiferus above West Lodge ; whilst its occurrence, sparingly, 
at Plantation and Oakbank, which must once have abounded with 
gumwoods, is quite in accordance with this hypothesis, , 

Its convex arcuated upper surface and the powerful spine into 
which the apex of its abdomen is prodiiced, added to its curious 
capacity for shqjping, or somewhat clumsily hopping, although mere 
generic characters of Mordella, wiU at once serve to distinguish the 
M. MeUissiana from every thing else with which we are here con- 
cerned. 



Fam. 44. ANTHICID^. 

Genus 91. ANTHICODES (nov. gen.). 

Genus Anthico, Payk., affinis, sed capite majore, prothorace magno, 
lato, subquadrato (nee postice angustato, constricto), sculello 
absque obsoletis, tarsisque minus graeilibus. 

Ah Anthicus, et elfins, aispectus. 

The members of this curious genus, which I have enunciated 
below, cannot, I think, by any possibility be admitted into Anthicus 
proper ; nor indeed do they appear to be embraced by any of the 
few nearly-allied groups which have hitherto been established. 
They differ from the Anthici mainly in their larger head and in their 
very much larger, broader, more robust, and quadrate prothorax 
(which has no tendency whatever to be constricted posteriorly, but 
is quite as broad behind as it is in front), in their wings and scu- 
tellum being obsolete, and in their feet being less slender. The two 



ANTHICID.E. 237 

species which have hitlierto been brought to light, and which were 
detected by myself, are essentially inhabitants of the loftier regions, 
though not ascending perhaps into the loftiest of all, — the portion 
of the central ridge from High Peak to West Lodge, and the summit 
of Flagstaff Hill being the districts in which I have myself observed 
them. I may just add that I heUeve a third exponent, smaller and 
nearly black, was found by Mrs. AYoUaston at Cason's ; but as I 
unfortunately lost it before I had had time to examine it critically, 
I would desire to speak somewhat cautiously on that particular point. 

201. AntMcodes maculatus, n. sp. 

A. elongato-ovalis, pube grisea omnino demissa vestitiis ; capite pro- 
thoraceque minute et densiissime rugulosis, fere opacis, illo magno 
subquadrato (postice I'ecte truncato), oculis (longissime a basi 
capitis sitis) parvis sed prominulis ; clytris ( ad basin ipsam lati- 
tudine prothoracis) ovalibus, convexis, vix nitidioribus minusque 
rugulosis, baud striatis sed maculis duabus obscuris (una sc. magna 
humerali subobliqua, quasi e 3, et altera minore in disco postico, 
quasi e 2, confluentibus, compositis) utrinque ferrugineo-ornatis ; 
antennis, palpis, pedibusque plus minus piceo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-vix 2, 

Habitat in regionibus insulae parum elevatis, ligno ramulisque fractis 
desiccatis humi jacentibus adhjerens. 

The first spot in which I met with this robust and singular 
Anthicid is the .4.s^t'r-grove beyond West Lodge, on the inner slope 
of the great Sandy-Bay crater and overlooking Lufkuis : and it was 
not until after the earij' summer rains, about the end of January, 
that it began to make its appearance more abundantly. At that 
time, however, it was found by Mrs. Wollaston and myself in com- 
parative profusion, — at the edge of the tremendous precipice imme- 
diately above West Lodge, adhering to small pieces of stick which 
were lying on the exposed rocky soil, as well as on the only avail- 
able portion of the almost inaccessible ground behind High Peak. 

In addition to its generic characters, of enlarged head and 
quadrate prothorax, the^. maculatus may be known by its oval and 
convex elytra (which at their extreme base are of about the same 
breadth as the prothorax) being each of them ornamented with two 
obscure ferruginous patches, — one of which is somewhat oblique 
and humeral, and composed as it were of three which are confluent, 
whilst the other is smaller and on the hinder disk, and appears to 



238 ANTHICID.E. 

be made up of two. Its entire body is clothed with a decumbeut 
griseoiis pubescence ; its surface, at any rate of the head and pro- 
thorax, is nearly opake and minutely and densely rugulose ; and its 
eyes, which are rather small but prominent, are placed at a great 
distance from the base of the head. 

202. Anthicodes fragilis, n. sp. 

A. prtecedenti similis, sed minus niger ct concolor (elytiis sc. nullo 
modo maculatis, solum per suturam interdum anguste dilutioribus), 
paululum minus opacus, et ubique dense cinereo- (nee parcius 
griseo-) sericatus ; capite basi sensim minus recte truncate, oculis 
paulum majoribus ; autennis pedibusque sublongioribus, fragili- 
bus, pallidioribus, illarum art° ult™" sensim minus abbreviate. 

Long. Corp. lin. \^-2^. 

Habitat in intermediis et locis parum elevatis, sub lapidibus in aridis 
ventosis hinc inde congregans. 

This very distinct Anthicodes was detected by myself and Mrs. 
Wollaston, on the 10th of February, 1876, beneath stones on the 
extreme summit of Flagstaff Hill, — one of the most exposed and 
windy spots it is possible to imagine ; and one can but marvel how 
an insect which is so eminently fragile (its limbs being so liable to be 
cast off that if kept for more than a few hours in the laurel-bottle 
it is most difficult to ensure even a single perfect example) should 
be able to exist in a locality so uniformly boisterous. It was, how- 
ever, met with a few months later, and after we had left the island, 
by Mr. P. Whitehead, — who obtained several specimens of it at a 
somewhat lower altitude but in the same direction, namely in Sane 
Valley (at no great distance from J^apoleon's Tomb). 

Although descending to a rather smaller size, the A. fragilis in 
its general outline and structure closely resembles the last species. 
Its elytra, however, are completely without spots (the suture alone 
being occasionally a little diluted in hue) ; and its entire surface is 
less black and more densely sericated with a vjJiiter decumbent 
pubescence, which gives the insect a more cinereous and silken 
appearance. Its head too is not quite so straightly truncated at the 
base ; and its eyes are appreciably larger ; its limbs are a trifle 
longer, paler, and more fragile ; and the terminal joint of its antennae 
is not quite so abbreviated. 



239 



APPENDIX. 



While this volume has been going through the press a most impor- 
tant addition has been made to the Coleoptera of St. Helena by Mr. 
P. Whitehead, who has sent me a single example of the curious 
little Cossyphodes WoUastomi, which he obtained at Woodcot. Con- 
sidering the practically blind condition, and the ant-associating 
habits, of this most remarkable beetle, and the fact that it had 
hitherto been observed nowhere except in the Madeirau, Canarian, 
and Cape- Verde archipelagos, the importance (geographically) of so 
unexpected a capture could scarcely have been overrated did it not 
occur to me as at least possible that the species may originally have 
been imported into the island along with consignments of plants. 
In favour of this supposition is the fact that the self-same kind of 
ant with which it is found in company in the more northern groups, 
namely the CEcojjhihora pusilla, Heer (or tlie common " House- 
Ant" of Madeira), is the particular one which abounds at St. 
Helena from the sea-level to the summit of the central ridge ; and 
(universal as it is now) it is hardly likely that it was ever a truly 
aboriginal member of the fauna ; in which case, if the ant was 
originally introduced, there seems no reason why the Cossyphodes 
should not have come with it. But, on the other hand, if the Cos- 
syphodes is literally confined to our Atlantic-island " province "' (of 
which, however, we possess no proof, beyond the circumstance that 
it does not happen as yet to have been noticed elsewhere), there is 
nothing more improbable than that it should have found its way 
accidentally, along with the (Ecopththora , to St. Helena ; for I am 
not aware that the latter has ever had any intercommunication with 
the three more northern archipelagos, which are entirely in the 
hands of the Spaniards and Portuguese. Yet so plentiful is this 
especial ant at Madeira that, if'xi should so happen that shrubs and 
plants have ever been received from that island, it would be well- 
nigh impossible that they should have been packed for consignment 
without numbers of the (Ecophtliora being intermingled with the 
earth used for that jmrpose ; and, as just urged, if the ant can be 



240 APPENDIX. 

imagined to have been fcnus transmitted, I see no reason wh)' the 
presence of its little Coleopterous associate should not be tested by 
the same hypothesis. At the same time, if the Cossyphodes should 
be ascertained ultimately (as is highly probable) to exist elsewhere 
than in these particular Atlantic groups, the main difficulty which 
suggests itself as regards its introduction will be at once removed. 
And I may just state, in this connexion, that the germs at all events 
is not a purely insular one, but likewise African,— a second exponent 
of it (the C. Bewichii, Woll.) having been discovered by the late 
Mr. Bewicke, in 1860, within an ants' nest (" on the Atlantic side of 
the promontory of the Cape, about three or four hundred feet above 
the sea "), near Capetown ; whUst a third (the C. Raffrayi, Gestro) 
was communicated to me a few years ago as having been obtained 
in Abyssinia ; so that there is no reason why even this actual 
species (namely the C. Wollastonii, Westw.) should not be African 
equally, and have been established at St. Helena from some other 
district than the islands which lie so much further to the north. 

In the general enumeration, the family Endopliloeido', in which I 
would provisionally place this anomalous little form, should be made 
to follow immediately after p. 42 and just before the Trogosltidce ; 
and the species may be thus cited : — 

Fam. 6*. ENDOPHLCEID^. 

Genus 17*. COSSYPHODES. 
Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 168 (1851). 

39*. Cossyphodes Wollastonii. 

C. elliptico-oblongus, valde depressus, in linea dorsali obtuse carina- 
tus sed versus latera valde explanato-subrecurvus, ubique ferru- 
gineus, minutissime subsericato-alutaceus, subopacus ; capitc 
semicirculari, utrinque (inter discum et latus) lineola (oculum 
obsoletum continente) impresso : prothorace transverso, antice et 
postice sinuato, ad latera subrecto, utrinque lineis aut costulis' 
tribus longitudinalibus instructo ; elytris ovalibus basi late trun- 
catis, utrinque costulis quatuor longitudinalibus notatis ; antennis 
pedibusque brevissimis, sub margine corporis explanato absconditis. 

Long. Corp. lin. \\. 

Cossyphodes Wollastonii, Westw., I. c. 170 (1851). 

, WolL, Im. Mad. 146, t. 3. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Col. Atl 130 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 65 (1867). 



APPENDIX. 241 

Habitat in intermediis insulae ; a Dom. P. Whitehead ad Woodcot 
lectus. 

Apart from its minute stature and extremely flattened, Cossyphus- 
like body (the largest examples measuring no more than a line and 
a half in length), the C. WoUastonii may be recognized by its 
elliptical-oblong outline — the head, prothorax, and elytra, all of 
which are much dilated at the sides, being in the same' continuous 
curve, — by its uniformly reddish-ferruginous hue, its only slightly 
shining subalutaceous surface, and by its obtusely keeled dorsal 
region — ^which is supplemented on either side by a few longitudinal 
costse, of which the prothorax has three and the elytra four. 
Although its limbs are so short as to be concealed beneath the 
expanded edges of the body, and although its eyes are strictly obso- 
lete, the 0. WoUastonii is nevertheless able to run with considerable 
velocity. 

The South- African C. Bewickii has its (nevertheless very minute 
and rudimentary) eyes rather more traceable than those of the 0. 
WoUastonii ; it is also a trifle broader, less keeled down the dorsal 
region : and its entire margin (especially behind) is a little more 
recurved. Its prothorax is shorter, and nearly free from longitu- 
dinal costae (there being only the faintest possible indication of an 
obsolete line on either side) ; and its elytra, which are more acute 
posteriorly, have only three (instead of four), and those exceed- 
ingly fine, elevated costre down each. Por a description and 
figure of the C. Bewiclcii^'vide ' Journ. of Ent.' i. 133, pi, xi. f. 2. 



243 



CATALOGUE. 



GEODEPHAGA. 
Carabidae. 

1. Haplothokax, Waterh. 

1. BurclielUi, Waterh. 

2. Calosoma, "Weber. 

2. helence, Hope. 

/3. Iialigena, Woll. 

3. PRISTONrCHTJS, Dcj. 

3. complanatus, Dej. 

4. BEMBrDiTJM, Latr. 
{Notapfius, Dej.) 

4. Mellissii, Woll. 
i^Apteromimus, WoU.) 

5. platyderoides, WoU. 
(PseudophilochtJius, WoU.) 

6^nubigena, Woll. 

7. Grayanum, W^oU. 

8. suhlimbatum, Woll. 

9. trechoides, WoU. 
{Endosomatium, Woll.) 

10. megalops, Woll. 

11 . dicJcsonia', Woll. 

12. rufosuffusum, WoU. 

13. gemmulipenne, WoU. 

14. fossor, WoU. 

15. evanescens, Woll. 

PHYLHYDRIDA. 
SphaBridiidsB. 

5. CircLONOTUM, Erich. 

16. dytiscoides, Fab. 

6. Dactylosteknum, Woll. 

17. abdominale, Fab. 

r2 



244 CATALOGUE, 

TRICHOPTERYGIA. 
Trichopterygidae. 

7. Ptikella, Mots. 

18. Matihewsiana^ WoU. 

BKACHELYTRA. 

Staphylinidae. 

{AleocJuirides. ) 

8, Aleochara, Grav. 

19. pubenila, Klug. 
9.. HoMALOTA, Mann. 

20. coriaria, Kraatz. 

21. helenensis, Woll. 

{Staphylinicles. ) 

10. Ceeophilus, Steph. 

22. maxillosus, Linn. 

11. Philonthtts (Leach), Curt. 

23. flavotermhiatus, Woll. 

24. longicornis, Steph. 

25. discoideus, Grav. 

26. nigritulus, Grav. 

27. turbidus, Erich. 

(Xantholinides. ) 

12. Xantholinus, Dahl. 

28. mono, Woll. 

29. armatus, Woll. 

{Pcederides.) ^ 

13. LiTHOCHAEis, Erich. 

30. ochracea, Grav. 

31. debilicornis, WoU. 

{Oxytelides.) 

14. OxYTELus, Grav. 

32. sculptus, Grav. 

33. alutaceifrons, WoU. 

34. nitidifrons, WoU. 

15. Trogophlceus, Mann. 

35. corticinus, Grav. 

NECROPHAGA. 

Nitidulidae. 

16. Carpophiltjs, Steph. 

36. hcmipterus, Linn. 

37. dimidiatus, Fab. 



CATALOGUE. 245 



Monotomidae. 

17. MoNOTOMA, Hbst. 

38. spinicoUis, Aube. 

39. picipes, Hbst. 

Endophlceidae. 

17*. CossYPHODES, Westw. 

39*. Wollastonii, Westw. 

Trogositidae. 

18. Tkogosixa, Oliv. 

40. mauritanica, Linn. 

Cucujidse. 

19. L.a;M:opHL(Eus, Casteln. 

41. pusillus, Schdn. 

42. carinulatus, Woll. 

20. Crtptamorpha, Woll. 

43. musa3, Woll. 

21. Silvaniis, Latr. 

44. siirinamensis, Linn. 

Cryptophagidse. 

22. Ceyptophagus, Hbst. 

45. badius, St. 

46. affinis, St. 

47. gracilipes, Woll. 

Latridiidae. 

23. Anommattjs, Wesm. 

48. 12-8triatus, Miill. 

24. CoExiCAEiA, Mshm. 

49. elongata, Gyll. 

25. Latriditjs, Hbst. 

50. nodifer, Westw. 

51. approximatus, Woll. 

Mycetophagidae. 

26. Mycet-ea, Steph. 

52. hirta, Gyll. 

27. Typh^a, Stepb. 

53. fumata, Linn. 

Dermestidae. 

28. Dermestes, Linn. 

54. cadaverinus, Fab. 

55. vulpinus, Fab. 

29. Attagenus, Latr. 

56. gloriosae, Fab. 



240 CATALOGUE. 

Histeridae. 

30. Tribalds, Erich. 

57. 4-striatu8, Woll. 

31. Sapeinus, Erich. 

58. bicolor, Fah. 

LAMELLICORNIA. 
Aphodiidae. 

32. Aphodius, lllig. 

59. granarius, Linn, 

60. lividus, Oliv. 

Trogidse. 

33. Teox, Eab. 

61. Whiteheadii, Woll. 

Rutelidae. 

34. Adoretxjs, Castelu. 

62. versutus, Harold. 

Dynastidae. 

35. Heteronychus, Burm. 

63. arator, Pab. 

36. Mellissius (Bates), WoU. 

64. eudoams, WoU. 

65. adumbratus, Woll. 

PRIOCERATA. 
Elateridse. 

37. Anchastus, Lee. 

66. com-positarmn, Woll. 

67. atlanticus, Cand. 

Cleridse. 

38. CoEYNETEs, Hbst. 

68. rufipes, Thunb. 

Ptinidae. 

39. GiBBiuM, Scop. 

69. scotias, Fab. 

Anobiidae. 

40. Anobixjm, Fab. 

70. velatum, Woll. 

71. paniceum, Linn. 

72. domesticum, Fourc. 

73. confertian, Woll. 



CATALOGUE. 247 



BostrichidaB. 

41. Rhizopertha, Steph. 

74. bifoveolata, WoU. 

75. pusilla, Fab. 

RHYNCHOPHORA. 
Tomicidae. 

42. ToMicTjs, Latr. 

76. aemulus, WoU. 

Hylesinidae. 

43. Hylurgtjs, Latr. 

77. ligniperda, Fab. 

Cossonidse. 
(Stenoscelides.) 

44. Stenoscelis, Woll. 

78. hylastoides, Woll. 

45. PSEUDOSTENOSCELIS, Woll. 

79. sculptiirata, Woll. 

80. asteriperda, Woll. 

81. longitarsis, Woll. 

82. cdutaceicoUis, Woll. 

83. eompositarmn, Woll. 

84. minima, Woll. 

46. Pachtmastax, Woll. 

85. crassi(s, Woll. 

(^Cossonides.) 

47. Phkeophagus, Scbon. 

86. seneopiceus, Bohem. 

48. Hexacopxus, Woll. 

87. ferrugineus, WoU. 

(Pentarthrides. ) 

49. Pentarthrodes, WoU. 

88. dicksonice, Woll. 

89. filicum, WoU. 

50. PsEUDOMESOXENUS, WoU. 

90. minutissimus, Woll 

91. subccecus, WoU. 

92. scrobiculatiis, Woll. 

51. ISOTORNTJS, WoU. 

93. retractilis, WoU. 

94. aterrimits, Wol 



MS CATALOGUE. 

52. MiCROXYLOBirs, Chev. 

•95. trititrntiis. Well. 

96. WhitcheaJii, Woll. 

97. ociilatus, Woll. 

98. lucifugiis, Woll. 

99. calcaratKS, Woll. 

100. dimidiatKS, Woll. 

101. bisectHs, WoU. . 

102. sciil2)tHrat(is, WoU. 

103. hieaudattis, AVoU. 

104. granulosus, Woll. 

105. lacertosus, Woll. 

106. oimcus, WoU. 

107. vestitus, WoU. 

108. TT^fwoorf//, Chev. 

53. AcAUTHOMEKirs, Bohem. 

109. armatus, Bohem. 

110. conkolUs, WoU. 

111. ellipticus, WoU. 

112. monilicornis, Woll. 

1 13. similis, Woll. 

114. rfeii/Zs, Woll. 

115. cylindricHS, WoU. 

116. angtishis, WoU. 

117. asj)eratus, WoU. 

118. terebrans, WoU. 

119. obliteratiis, WoU. 

54. ErCOPTODERTJS, Woll. 

120. verinicidntus, WoU. 

121. affinis, WoU. 

55. Chalcotrogtjs, WoU. 

122. apionide^, WoU. 

123. oblongior, Woll. 

124. semipolitits, Woll. 

56. LAaiPRocHRus, WoU. 

12.5. cossonoides, WoU. 

57. Xestophasis, WoU. 

126. nasalis, WoU. 

58. Tapirojiimus, WoU. 

127. gibhirostris, WoU. 

59. Ttchiorhinus, WoU. 

128. variolosits. Woll. 

129. porrectus, Woll. 

130. ina^qualis, WoU. 

131. subochraceas, Woll. 

132. Ihieatus. Woll. 



CATALOGUE. 249 



60. Crtptommata, WoD. 

133. cucullata, Woll. 

Rhynchophoridae. 

61. Caiandra, Clairv. 

134. oryzse, Linn. 

Tanyrhyncliidae. 
{^Synaptony chides.) 

62. Nesiotes, WoU. 

135. squamosus, WoU. 

136. harhatus, Woll. 

137. fimbriatus, Woll. 

138. breviusculus, Woll. 

139. horridus, Woll. 

140. gracilis, Woll. 

141. minor, Woll. 

142. simplex, Woll. 

143. asperatus, Woll. 

144. ascendens, Woll. 

Trachyphlceidae. 

63. Teachtphx(eosoma, Woll. 

145. setosum, Woll. 

Otiorhynchidae. 

64. SciOBiTJs, Schon. 

146. subnodosus, WoU. 

65. Otiorhynchtjs, Germ. 

147. sulcatus, Fab. 

BrachyderidsB. 

66. SiTONA, Germ. 

148. lineatus, Linn. 

Anthribidae. 

(^Arceocerides.) 

67. Arjeoceeus, Schon. 

149. fasciculatus, De Geer. 

(Notioxenides.) 

68. NOTIOXENTJS, WoU. 

150. BewicTcii, Woll. 

151. subfasciatus, Woll. 

152. alutaceus, WoU. 

153. dimidiatus, Woll. 

154. JaniscJd, Woll. 

155. Dcdei, WoU. 

156. Grayii, WoU. 

157. ceneus, Woll. 

158. congener, WoU. 

159. rufopictus, Woll. 



250 CATALOGUE. 

68. NoTioxENus, Woll. {continued). 

160. rotundatus, Woll. 

161. ferrugineus, Woll. 
(Bomoeoderides.) 

69. HOMCEODERA, Woll. 

162. elaferoides, Woll. 

163. nodulipenriis, Woll. 

164. Edithia, WoU. 

165. major, Woll. 

166. compositarum., Woll. 

167. pygrnoia, Woll. 

168. joivmilio, Woll. 

169. rotundipennis, Woll. 

170. cdutaceicolUs, Woll. 

171. asteris, Woll. 

172. Paivce, WoU. 

173. coriacea, WoU. 

174. globulosa, WoU. 

70. ACAKODES, WoU. 

175. gutta, WoU. 

Bruchidae. 

71. Betjchtjs, Geoffr. 

176. rufobrunneus, WoU. 

177. advena, WoU. 

EUCERATA. 

Cerambicidse. 

72. CuRTOMEErs, Steph. 

178. pUicomis, Fab. 

Lamiidae. 

73. CoPTOPs, Serv. 

179. bidens, Fab. 

PHYTOPHAGA. 

HalticidaB. 

74. LoNGiTARstrs, Latr. 

180. helmcB, WoU. 

181. janidns, WoU. 

182. MeJlissii, WoU. 

Cassididae. 

75. AspiDOMORPHA, Hope. 

183. mUiaris, Fab. 

PSEUDOTRIMERA. 
Coccinellidse. 

76. Chilomenes, Chev. 

184. lunata. Fab. 

185. vicina (Dej.), Muls. 



CATALOGUE. 251 



77. Thea, Mills. 

186. variegata, Fab. 

78. Epilachna, Chevr. 

187. chrysomelina, Fab, 

CorylopMdae. 

79. Sericodeetjs, Steph. 

188. lateralis, GyU. 

80. Orthoperus, Steph, 

189. atomarius, Hear, 

ErotylidaB, 

81. EuxESTUs, AVoll. 

190. jyhalacroides, "WoU. 

HETEROMERA. 
OpatridaB, 

82. Opatrtjm, Fab. 

191. hadroides, WoU. 

83. Hadkodes, Woll. 

192. helenensis, WoU. 

84. Takphiophasis, WoU. 

193. tuberculatus, WoU. 

XJlomidaB. 

85. Alphitobiits, Steph. 

194. diaperinus, Kugel. 

195. piceus, OKv. 

86. Gnathocerfs, Thunb. 

196. coruutus, Fab. 

87. Tribolitjm, MacLu 

197. ferrugineum, Fab. 

TenebrionidsB. 

88. Tenebrio, Linn. 

198. obscurus, Fab. 

89. ZoPHOBAS, Blanch. 

199. concolor, Woll. 

Mordellidss. 

90. MoRDELLA, Linn. 

200. MeUissmna, WoU. 

Anthicidae. 

91. Anthicodes, WoU, 

201. macidatus, Woll. 

202. fragilis, WoU. 



253 



INDEX. 



abdominale, Dactyloster- 

num, 20. 
Acanthomerus angustus, 

133. 

armatus, 125. 

asperatus, 134. 

conicoUis, 126. 

cylindricus, 132. 

debilis, 131. 

ellipticus, 127. 

monilicomis, 129. 

obliteratus, 136. 

similis, 130. 

terebrans, 135. 

Acarodes gutta, 206. 
Adoretus versutus, 62. 

vestitus, 62. 

adumbratus, MeUissius, 

67. 
advena, Bruchus, 208. 
semulus, Tomicus, 79. 
seneopiceus, Phloeopha- 

gus, 94. 
reneus, Notioxenus, 187. 
Mthriostoma gloriosa, 56. 
afSnis, Cryptophagus, 47. 

, Eucoptoderus, 139. 

Aleochara Armitagei, 23. 

decorata, 23. 

puberula, 23. 

Alphitobius diaperinus, 

229. 

piceus, 229. 

alutaceicollis, Homoeo- 

dera, 201. 
, Pseudostenoscelis, 

89. 
alutaceifrons,Oxj'telus,35. 
alutaceus, Notioxenus, 

181. 
Anchastus atlanticus, 71. 
— - — corapositarum, 69. 
angustus, Acanthomerus, 

133. 
Anobium confertum, 76. 

domesticuni, 75. 

paniceum, 74. 

rufipcs, 72. 

striatum, 75. 

velatuDi, 73. 



Anommatus 12-striatu3, 
49. 

terricola, 49. 

Anthicodes fragilis, 238. 

maculatus, 237. 

Anthrenus gloriosce, 56. 
Anfhribiis coffea, 175. 
Aphodius carhonarins, 59. 

gvanarius, .59. 

lividus, 60. 

apionides, Chalcotrogus, 

140. 
Aplothorax Burchellii, 1. 
approximatus, Latridius, 

53. 
Araeocerus fasciculatus, 

174. 
arator, Heterbnychus, 63. 
armatus, Acanthomerus, 

125. 

, XanthoHnus, 32. 

ascendens, Nesiotes, 169. 
asperatus, Acanthomerus, 

134. 
— , Nesiotes, 167. 
Aspidomorpha miliaris, 

215. 
asteriperda, Pseudostenos- 
celis, 87. 
asteris, Homoeodera, 202. 
aterrimus, Isotornus, 106. 
atlanticus, Anchastus, 71. 
atomarius, Orthoperus, 

222. 
Attagenus gloriosre, 56. 

badius, Cryptophagus, 47. 
barbatus, Nesiotes, 161. 
Berabidium dicksoni3e,15. 

evanescens, 18. 

fossor, 17. 

gemuiulipenne, 16. 

Gi'ayanum, 11. 

megalops, 14. 

Mellissii, 8. 

nubigena, 10. 

platyderoides, 9. 

• rufosuffusura, 1.5. 

sublimbatum, 12. 

trechoides, 13. 



Bewickii, Notioxenus, 

178. 
bicaudatus, Microxylo- 

bius, 117. 
bicolor, Saprinus, 58. 
bidens, Coptops, 210. 
bifoveolata, Rhizopertha, 

77. 
bisectus, Microxylobius, 

11.5. 
Bostrickus ligniperda, 81. 
breviusculus, Nesiotes, 

163 
Bruchus advena, 208. 

rufobrimneus, 207. 

Burchellii, Haplothorax, 

1. 

cadarerinus, Dermestes, 

54. 
Oalandra oryza;, 158. 
calcaratus, Microxylobius, 

113. 
Callidiiwn luteum, 210. 

pilicorne, 210. 

Calosoma hcdigena, 3. 

helense, 3. 

Carpophilus auropilosus, 

40. 

dimidiatus, 39. 

hemipterus, 38. 

cariuulatus,La3mophloeu8, 

44. 
Cassida miharis, 215. 
Cerandria cornuta, 231. 
Chalcotrogus apionides, 

140. 

oblongior, 142. 

semipolitus, 142. 

Chilomenes circumjlexa, 

218. 

lunata, 217. 

vicina, 218. 

chrysomeliua, Epilachna, 

220. 
Clythra rufieolHs, 215. 
CoccineUa capcnsis, 220. 

chryso7ncHna, 220. 

cognafa, 219. 

hmata, 217- 



254 



INDEX. 



Coccinella nassata, 219. 

variegata, 219. 

complanatns, Pristony- 

chus, 5. 
compositarum,Anchastu3, 

G9. 

, Hoinceodera, 197. 

, Pseudostenoscelis, 

90. 
concolor, Zophobas, 234. 
confertum, Anobium, 7(i. 
congener, Notioxenus, 

188. 
conicollis, Acanthomerus, 

126. 
Coptops bidens, 210. 
coriacea,Homoeodera,204. 
coriaria, Homalota, 24. 
cornutus, Gnathocerus, 

231. 
Corticaria elongata, 50. 
corticinus, Trogophloeus, 

37. 
Corynetes rufipes, 72. 
cossonoides, Lampro- 

chrus, 14.i. 
Cossyphodes WoUastouii, 

240. 
Cossyphiis lateralis, 221. 
crassus, Pachymastax, 93. 
Creophilus maxillosu8,25. 
Cryptamorpha niusffi, 45. 
Crvptommata cucuUata, 

157. 
Cryptophagus aiBnis, 47. 

badiiis, 47. 

- — — gracilipes, 48. 
Cryptocephalus rujicollis, 

215. 
Cucujus minutus, 44. 

pusillus, 44. 

cucullata, Cryptommata, 

157. 
Curculio fasciculatus,Ylb. 

lineatus, 174. 

sulcatus, 173. 

Curtoraerus luteus, 210. 

pilicornis, 209. 

Oyclonotum djitiscoides, 

19. 
Cydonia lunata, 217. 

vicina, 218. 

cylindricus, Acantho- 
merus, 132. 

Daetylosternum abdorai- 

nale, 20. 

Eoussetii, 21. 

Dalei, Notioxenus, 185. 
debilicornis, Lithocharis, 

34. 



debilis, Acaiitlioinerus, 

131. 
Derraestes cadaverinus, 

54. 

domesticus, 54. 

fumatus, 53, 54. 

hemipterus, 39. 

paniceus, 74. 

surinamensis, 4R. 

vulpinus, 55. 

diaperinus, Alphitobius, 

229. 
dicksoniiE, Bembidium, 

15. 

, Pentarthrodes, 97. 

diiuidiatus. Carpophilus, 

39. 

, Microxylobius, 114. 

discoideus, PliiIonthus,28. 
domesticum,Anobium, 75. 
12-striatus, Anommatus, 

49. 
dytiscoides, Cyclonotum, 

19. 

Edithia, Horaoeodera,195. 
elateroides, Homoeodera. 

193. 
ellipticus, Acanthomerus, 

127. 
elongata, Corticaria, 50. 
Bpilachna chrysomelina, 

220. 
Eucoptoderus afBnis, 139. 

vermiculatus, 138. 

eudoxus, Mellissius, 66. 
Euxestus phalacroides, 

224. 
evanescens, Bembidium, 

18. 

fasciculatus, Arseocerus, 

174. 
ferrugineum, Tribolium, 

231. 
ferrugineus, Hexacoptns, 

96. 

, Notioxenus, 190. 

filicum,Pentartlirodes, 98. 
fimbriatus, Nesiotes, 162. 
flavoterminatus, Philon- 

thus, 26. 
fossor, Bembidium, 17. 
fragilis, Antliicodes, 238. 
fumata, Typhrea, 53. 

gemmulipenne, Bembi- 
dium, 16. 

gibbirostris, Tapiromi- 
mus, 1.50. 

G-ibbium scotias, 73. 



globulosa. Homceodera, 

205. 
gloriosre, Attagenus, 56. 
Gnathocerus cornutus, 

231. 
gracilipes, Cryptophagus, 

48. _ 
gracilis, Nesiotes, 165. 
granarius, Aphodius, 59. 
granulosus, Micro.xylo- 

bius, 117. 
Gravanum, Bembidium, 

11. 
Grayil, Notioxenus, 186. 
gutta, Acarodes, 206. 

Hadrodes helenensis, 227. 
hadroides, Opatrum, 224. 
Haplothorax Burchellii, 1 . 
heleuse, Calosoma, 3. 

, Longitarsus, 212. 

helenensis, Hadrodes, 

227. 

, Homalota, 25. 

Helops piceus, 230. 
hemipterus, Carpophilus, 

38. 
Heteroderes puncticollis, 

71. 
Heteronychus arator, 63. 

— Sancta-hcJena, 64. 

Hexacoptus ferrugineus, 

96. 
hirta, MycetiBa, 53. 
Hister bicolor, 58. 
Homalota coriaria, 24. 

helenensis, 25. 

Homceodera alutaceicol- 

lis, 201. 

asteris, 202. 

compositarum, 197. 

coriacea, 204. 

Edithia, 195. 

■ elateroides, 193. 

globulosa, 205. 

major, 197- 

nodulipennis, 194. 

Paiv;^, 203. 

pumilio, 199. 

pygmaa, 198. 

rotundipennis, 200. 

Hojmfrum hadroides, 225. 
horridus, Nesiotes, 164. 
hylastoides, Stenoscelis, 

84. 
Hylurgus ligniperda, 80. 

insequalis, Tychiorhinus, 

1.54. 
Isotornus aterriraus, 106. 
retractilis, 105. 



INDEX. 



255 



Janischi, Notioxenus, 

184. 
janulus, Longitarsus, 

213. 

lacertosus, IMicroxylobius, 

118. 
Lffimophloeus carimdatus, 

44. 

pusillus, 43. 

Lamprochrus cosso- 

noicles, 14.5. 
lateralis, Sericoderus, 

221. 
Latridiiis approximatus, 

52. 

elongatus, .50. 

nodifer, 51. 

Ugniperda, Hylurgus, 80. 
lineatus, Sitona, 173- 

, Tycbiorhinus, 155. 

Lithocliaris agyptiaca, 

34. 

brevicornis, 34. 

debilicomis, 34. 

ocliracea, 33. 

lividus, Aphodius, 60. 
longicornis, Philonthus, 

27. 
longitarsis, Pseudoste- 

noscelis, 88. 
Longitarsus helenae, 212. 
janulus, 213. 

— Mellissii, 214. 
lucifugus, Microxylobius, 

111. 
lunata, Chilomenes, 217. 
Lyctus 12-striatus, 49. 

maculatus, Anthicodes, 

237. 
major, Homceodera, 197. 
Matthewsiana, Ptinella, 

21. 
mauritanica, Trogosita, 

43. 
megalops, Bembidium, 

14. 
Mellissiana, Mordella, 

235. 
Mellissii, Bembidium, 8. 

, Longitarsus, 214. 

Mellissius adumbratus, 

67. 

eudoxus, 66. 

Microxylobius angustus, 

133. 

bicaudatus, 117. 

bisectus, 115. 

calcaratus, 113. 

Chevrolatii, 125. 



Microxylobius conicollis, 

126. 

cossonoides, 145. 

debilis, 131. 

dimidiatus, 114. 

granulosus, 117. 

— — lacertosus, 118. 

lucifugus. 111. 

monilicornis, 129. 

obliteratus, 137. 

oculatus, 110. 

opacus, 119. 

sculpturatus, 116. 

terebrans, 136. 

trituratus, 108. 

vestitus, 120. 

Westwoodii, 121. 

Whiteheadii, 109. 

miliaris, Aspidomorpha, 

215. 
minima, Pseudostenosce- 

lis, 91. 
minor, Nesiotes, 166. 
miuutissimus, Pseudome- 

soxenus, 101. 
monilicornis, Acantho- 

merus, 129. 
Monotonia congener, 42. 

picipes, 42. 

spinicollis, 41. 

siyinifera, 41. 

Mordella Mellissiana,235. 
morio, Xantholinus, 31. 
musfe, Cryptamorpha, 45. 
Mycetffia hirta, 53. 

nasalis, Xestophasis. 149. 

Ne^otes ascendens, 169. 

asperatus, 167. 

barbatus, 161. 

brcTiusculus, 163. 

fimbriatus. 162. 

gracilis, 165. 

horridus, 164. 

minor, 166. 

— — simplex, 166. 

squamosus, 160. 

nigritulus, Philonthus, 
29. 

nitidifrons, Oxytelus, 36. 

iiitidula dimidiata, 40. 

nodiier, Latridius, 51. 

nodulipennis, Homceo- 
dera, 194. 

Notioxenus aeneus, 187- 

alutaceus, 181. 

Bewickii, 178. 

congener. 188. 

Dalci. 185. 

- — — dimidiatus, 182. 

ferrugineus, 190. 



Notioxenus Grayii, 186, 

Janischi, 184. 

rotundatus, 190. 

rufopictus, 189. 

subfasciatus, 179. 

nubigena, Bembidium, 
10. 

obliteratus, Acanthome- 

rus, 136. 
oblougior, Chalcotrogus, 

142. 
obscurus, Tenebrio, 233. 
ochracea, Lithocharis, 

33. 
oculatus, Microxylobius, 

110. ^ : 

ojjacus, Microxylobius, 

119. 
Opatrum hadroides, 224. 
Orthoperus atomarius, 

222. 
oryzse, Calandra, 1.58. 
Otiorhyncbus sulcatus, 

173. 
Oxytelus alutaceifrons, 

35. 

ccrticinus, 38. 

nitidifrons, 36. 

sculptus, 34. 

Pachymastax crassus, 93. 
Paderus ochracetis, 33. 
Paivfe, Homceodera, 203. 
panicemn, Auobiiun, 74. 
Pentarthrodes dicksonije, 

97. 

filicum, 98. 

Pentarthrum subccscum, 

102. 
phalacroides, Euxestus, 

224. 
Philonthus aterrimus, 29. 

discoideus, 28. 

flavoterminatus, 26. 

fuscicornis, 28. 

longicornis, 27. 

nigritulus, 29. 

punctipennis, 30. 

scyhalarius, 28. 

turbidus, 30. 

Phloeophagus ajneopiceus, 

94. 
piceus, Alphitobius, 229. 
picipes. Monotonia, 42. 
pilicornis, Curtomerus, 

209. 
Pifhophilus atomarius, 

222. 
platyderoidcs, Bembi- 
dium, 9. 



256 



INDEX. 



porrectus, Tjchiorhiuus, 

15,3. 
Pristonycbus aJatus. 5. 

couiplaiuitiis, 5. 

Pseucloniesoxenus minu- 

tissiuuis. 101. 

scrobiculatiis, 103. 

subca;cus, 102. 

Pseudostenoscelis aluta- 

ceicollis, 89. 

asteriperda, 87. 

coiupositariiin, 90. 

lougitarsis, 88. 

minima, 91. 

sculpturata, 86. 

Ptinella Mattliewsiana, 

21. 
Piiiius scotias, 73. 
puberula, Aleocbara, 23. 
pumilio, Homoeodera, 

199. 
pusilla, Ehizopertha, 78. 
pusillus, Lajmophloeus, 

43. 
pygmaja, Homoeodera, 

198. 

4-striatus, Tribalus, 57. 

retractilisjsotomus, 105. 

Rhizopertha bifoveolata, 
77. 

pusilla, 78. 

.rotundatus, Notioxenus, 
190. 

rotundipennis, Homoeo- 
dera, 200. 

rufipes, Corynetes, 72. 

rufobrumieus, BruehuB, 
207. 

rufopictus, Notioxenus, 
189. 

rufosufFusum, Bembi- 
dium, 15. 

Saprinus bieolor, 58. 

lautus, 58. 

ScarabcBUs arator, 64. 

eudoxus, 66. 

ffratiarms, 59. 

lii'idus, 60. 

Sciobius subnodosus, 

171. 
Bcotias, Gibbium, 73. 



serobieulatus, Pseudome- 

soxeuiis, 103. 
seiilpturata, Pseudoste- 
noscelis, 86. 
sculpturatus, Microxylo- 

bius, 116. 
sculptus, Oxytelus, 34. 
seinipolitus, Chalcotro- 

gus, 142. 
Sericoderus lateralis, 221. 
setosum, Trachyphloeo- 

soma, 170. 
Silpha hirta, 53. 
SilvanuB sui-inamen8is,46. 
similis, Acauthomerus, 

130. 
simplex. Nesiotes, 166. 
Sitona lineatus, 173. 
Sifophilu.s ori/zfs, 158. 
Spheeridium abdominale, 

21. 

dytiscoidcs, 19. 

spinicollis, Monotoma,41. 
squamosus, Nesiotes, 160. 
Staphylinus aterrimus,29. 

cliscoideus, 28. 

maxilloms, 26. 

nigritidus, 29. 

Stenoscelis hylastoides, 

84. 
subcajcus, Pseudomesoxe- 

nus, 102. 
subfaseiatus, Notioxenus, 

179. 
sublimbatum, Bembi- 

dium, 12. 
subnodosus, Sciobiu8,171. 
subochraceus. Tychio- 

rhinus, 154. 
suleatus, Otiorhynchus, 

173. 
surinamensis, Silvanus, 

46. 
Synodendron pusillu7n,7d. 

Tapiromimus gibbiros- 

tris, 150. 
Tarpbiophasis tubercula- 

tus, 228. 
Tenebrio fagi, 230. 

ferrugincus, 232. 

maiiritanicus, 43, 

230. 
obscurus, 233. 



terebrans, Acantbomerus, 

135. 
Tbea variegata, 219. 
Tomicus semulus, 79. 
Tracbypblceosoma seto- 
sum, 170. 
treeboides, Bembidium, 

13. 
Tribalus 4-striatus, 57. 
Trobolium ferrugineum, 

231. 
trituratus, Microxylobius, 

108. 
Trogopbloeus nanus, 38. 

corticinus, 37. 

Trogosita cornuta, 231. 

mauritanica, 43. 

Trox Wbitebendii, 61. 
tuberculatus, Tarphio- 

pbasis, 228. 
turbid us, Pbilontbus, 30. 
Tychiorbinus ina^qualis, 

154. 

lineatus, 155. 

porrectus, 153. 

subocbraceus, 154. 

variolosus, 152. 

Typbsea fumata, 53. 

variegata, Tbea, 219. 
variolosus, Tycbiorbinus, 

152. 
velatum, Anobium, 73. 
vermiculatus, Eucopto- 

derus, 138. 
versutus, Adoretus, 62. 
vestitus, Microxj-lobius, 

120. 
vicina, Cbilomenes, 218. 
vulpiuus, Dermestes, 55. 

Westwoodii, Microxylo- 
bius, 121. 

Wbitebeadii, Microxylo- 
bius, 109. 

, Trox, 61. 

WoU astonii, Cossy phodes, 
240. 

Xantbolinus armatus, 32. 

morio, 31. 

Xestopbasia nasalis, 149. 

Zopbobas concolor, 234. 



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